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Longman Writer, The: Rhetoric, Reader, Handbook,9780205334643
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Longman Writer, The: Rhetoric, Reader, Handbook

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205334643

ISBN10:
0205334644
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Table of Contents

Preface xxi
PART I THE READING PROCESS
1(12)
Becoming a Strong Reader
3(10)
Get an Overview of the Selection
4(1)
Deepen Your Sense of the Selection
5(1)
Evaluate the Selection
5(8)
``Family Counterculture''
7(6)
Ellen Goodman
PART II THE WRITING PROCESS
13(132)
Getting Started Through Prewriting
15(23)
Observations About the Writing Process
15(2)
Use Prewriting to Get Started
17(18)
Keep a Journal
17(2)
The Pre-Reading Journal Entry
19(1)
Understand the Boundaries of the Assignment
20(1)
Determine Your Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Point of View
21(2)
Analyzing Your Audience: A Checklist
23(2)
Discover Your Essay's Limited Subject
25(3)
Generate Raw Material About Your Limited Subject
28(5)
Organize the Raw Material
33(2)
Activities: Getting Started Through Prewriting
35(3)
Identifying a Thesis
38(8)
What Is a Thesis?
38(1)
Finding a Thesis
38(1)
Writing an Effective Thesis
39(3)
Tone and Point of View
40(1)
Implied Pattern of Development
40(1)
Including a Plan of Development
40(1)
Don't Write a Highly Opinionated Statement
41(1)
Don't Make an Announcement
41(1)
Don't Make a Factual Statement
41(1)
Don't Make a Broad Statement
42(1)
Arriving at an Effective Thesis
42(1)
Placing the Thesis in an Essay
43(1)
Activities: Identifying a Thesis
43(3)
Supporting the Thesis with Evidence
46(8)
What Is Evidence?
46(1)
How Do You Find Evidence?
47(1)
How the Patterns of Development Help Generate Evidence
47(1)
Characteristics of Evidence
48(4)
The Evidence Is Relevant and Unified
48(1)
The Evidence Is Specific
49(1)
The Evidence Is Adequate
50(1)
The Evidence Is Dramatic
51(1)
The Evidence Is Accurate
51(1)
The Evidence Is Representative
51(1)
Borrowed Evidence Is Documented
51(1)
Activities: Supporting the Thesis with Evidence
52(2)
Organizing the Evidence
54(9)
Use the Patterns of Development
54(1)
Select an Organizational Approach
55(2)
Chronological Approach
55(1)
Spatial Approach
56(1)
Emphatic Approach
56(1)
Simple-to-Complex Approach
57(1)
Prepare an Outline
57(4)
Guidelines for Outlining: A Checklist
58(3)
Activities: Organizing the Evidence
61(2)
Writing the Paragraphs in the First Draft
63(29)
How to Move from Outline to First Draft
63(1)
General Suggestions on How to Proceed
64(1)
If You Get Bogged Down
64(1)
A Suggested Sequence for Writing the First Draft
65(17)
Write the Supporting Paragraphs
65(11)
Write Other Paragraphs in the Essay's Body
76(1)
Write the Introduction
76(3)
Write the Conclusion
79(2)
Write the Title
81(1)
Pulling It All Together
82(1)
Sample First Draft
83(2)
Harriet Davids, ``Challenges for Today's Parents''
83(1)
Commentary
84(1)
Activities: Writing the Paragraphs in the First Draft
85(7)
Revising Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development
92(13)
Strategies to Make Revision Easier
93(5)
Set Your First Draft Aside for a While
93(1)
Work from Typed or Printed Text
93(1)
Read the Draft Aloud
94(1)
Participate in Peer Review
94(1)
Evaluate and Respond to Peer Review
95(1)
Evaluate and Respond to Your Instructor's Comments
96(1)
View Revision as a Series of Steps
97(1)
Revising Overall Meaning and Structure
98(1)
Revising Overall Meaning and Structure: A Checklist
98(1)
Revising Paragraph Development
99(2)
Revising Paragraph Development: A Checklist
100(1)
Sample Student Revision of Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development
101(1)
Activities: Revising Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development
102(3)
Revising Sentences and Words
105(28)
Revising Sentences
105(13)
Make Sentences Consistent with Your Tone
105(1)
Make Sentences Economical
106(3)
Vary Sentence Type
109(4)
Vary Sentence Length
113(1)
Make Sentences Emphatic
114(4)
Revising Sentences: A Checklist
118(1)
Revising Words
118(10)
Make Words Consistent with Your Tone
119(1)
Use an Appropriate Level of Diction
119(1)
Avoid Words That Overstate or Understate
120(1)
Select Words with Appropriate Connotations
120(1)
Use Specific Rather Than General Words
121(1)
Use Strong Verbs
122(2)
Delete Unnecessary Adverbs
124(1)
Use Original Figures of Speech
125(1)
Avoid Sexist Language
126(2)
Revising Words: A Checklist
128(1)
Sample Student Revision of Sentences and Words
128(1)
Activities: Revising Sentences and Words
129(4)
Editing and Proofreading
133(12)
Edit Carefully
133(1)
Use the Appropriate Manuscript Format
134(2)
Appropriate Manuscript Format: A Checklist
134(2)
Proofread Closely
136(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Proofreading
137(5)
``Challenges for Today's Parents''
137(2)
Harriet Davids
Commentary
139(3)
Activities: Editing and Proofreading
142(3)
PART III THE PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT
145(233)
An Overview of the Patterns of Development
147(8)
The Patterns in Action: During the Writing Process
147(1)
The Patterns in Action: In an Essay
148(7)
Analyzing How a Writer Combines Patterns: A Checklist
149(1)
Virginia Woolf, ``The Death of the Moth''
149(6)
Description
155(38)
What Is Description?
155(1)
How Description Fits Your Purpose and Audience
156(1)
Prewriting Strategies
157(1)
Description: A Prewriting Checklist
158(1)
Strategies for Using Description in an Essay
158(4)
Revision Strategies
162(1)
Description: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
162(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
163(6)
``Salt Marsh''
164(2)
Marie Martinez
Commentary
166(3)
Activities: Description
169(2)
Prewriting Activities
169(1)
Revising Activities
169(2)
Professional Selections: Description
171(20)
``Once More to the Lake''
171(7)
E. B. White
``Sister Flowers''
178(6)
Maya Angelou
``Flavio's Home''
184(7)
Gordon Parks
Additional Writing Topics: Description
191(2)
Narration
193(35)
What Is Narration?
193(1)
How Narration Fits Your Purpose and Audience
194(1)
Prewriting Strategies
194(1)
Narration: A Prewriting Checklist
194(1)
Strategies for Using Narration in an Essay
195(6)
Revision Strategies
201(2)
Narration: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
201(2)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
203(4)
Paul Monahan, ``If Only''
204(1)
Commentary
205(2)
Activities: Narration
207(2)
Prewriting Activities
207(1)
Revising Activities
208(1)
Professional Selections: Narration
209(16)
``Shooting an Elephant''
209(7)
George Orwell
``The Fourth of July''
216(5)
Audre Lorde
``So Tsi-fai''
221(4)
Sophronia Liu
Additional Writing Topics: Narration
225(3)
Illustration
228(35)
What Is Illustration?
228(1)
How Illustration Fits Your Purpose and Audience
229(2)
Prewriting Strategies
231(1)
Illustration: A Prewriting Checklist
231(1)
Strategies for Using Illustration in an Essay
232(3)
Revision Strategies
235(1)
Illustration: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
235(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
236(7)
Michael Pagano, ``Pursuit of Possessions''
238(2)
Commentary
240(3)
Activities: Illustration
243(2)
Prewriting Activities
243(1)
Revising Activities
244(1)
Professional Selections: Illustration
245(16)
``Bombs Bursting in Air''
245(6)
Beth Johnson
``Managing Mixed Messages''
251(5)
Susan Douglas
``Is Sex All That Matters?''
256(5)
Joyce Garity
Additional Writing Topics: Illustration
261(2)
Division-Classification
263(40)
What Is Division-Classification?
263(2)
How Division-Classification Fits Your Purpose and Audience
265(1)
Prewriting Strategies
266(1)
Division-Classification: A Prewriting Checklist
266(1)
Strategies for Using Division-Classification in an Essay
267(3)
Revision Strategies
270(1)
Division-Classification: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
271(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
271(8)
Gail Oremland, ``The Truth About College Teachers''
273(4)
Commentary
277(2)
Activities: Division-Classification
279(2)
Prewriting Activities
279(1)
Revising Activities
280(1)
Professional Selections: Division-Classification
281(20)
``Propaganda Techniques in Today's Advertising''
282(5)
Ann McClintock
``But What Do You Mean?''
287(8)
Deborah Tannen
``Doublespeak''
295(6)
William Lutz
Additional Writing Topics: Division-Classification
301(2)
Process Analysis
303(41)
What Is Process Analysis?
303(1)
How Process Analysis Fits Your Purpose and Audience
304(1)
Prewriting Strategies
305(1)
Process Analysis: A Prewriting Checklist
305(1)
Strategies for Using Process Analysis in an Essay
306(4)
Revision Strategies
310(1)
Process Analysis: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
310(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
311(8)
Robert Barry, ``Becoming a Videoholic''
313(4)
Commentary
317(2)
Activities: Process Analysis
319(3)
Prewriting Activities
319(1)
Revising Activities
320(2)
Professional Selections: Process Analysis
322(20)
``Don't Just Stand There''
322(6)
Diane Cole
``Your New Computer''
328(6)
Bill Bryson
``Watching the Animals''
334(8)
Richard Rhodes
Additional Writing Topics: Process Analysis
342(2)
Comparison-Contrast
344(34)
What Is Comparison-Contrast?
344(1)
How Comparison-Contrast Fits Your Purpose and Audience
345(1)
Prewriting Strategies
346(1)
Comparison-Contrast: A Prewriting Checklist
346(1)
Strategies for Using Comparison-Contrast in an Essay
347(4)
Revision Strategies
351(1)
Comparison-Contrast: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
351(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
352(7)
Carol Siskin, ``The Virtues of Growing Older''
355(2)
Commentary
357(2)
Activities: Comparison-Contrast
359(2)
Prewriting Activities
359(1)
Revising Activities
360(1)
Professional Selections: Comparison-Contrast
361(15)
``A Slow Walk of Trees''
361(5)
Toni Morrison
``The Ugly Truth About Beauty''
366(4)
Dave Barry
``And Then I Went to School''
370(6)
Joseph H. Suina
Additional Writing Topics: Comparison-Contrast
376(2)
Cause-Effect
378(133)
What Is Cause-Effect?
378(1)
How Cause-Effect Fits Your Purpose and Audience
379(1)
Prewriting Strategies
380(1)
Cause-Effect: A Prewriting Checklist
380(1)
Strategies for Using Cause-Effect in an Essay
381(5)
Revision Strategies
386(1)
Cause-Effect: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
386(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
387(8)
``Americans and Food''
389(3)
Carl Novack
Commentary
392(3)
Activities: Cause-Effect
395(2)
Prewriting Activities
395(1)
Revising Activities
396(1)
Professional Selections: Cause-Effect
397(14)
``Why We Crave Horror Movies''
397(4)
Stephen King
``Why People Don't Help in a Crisis''
401(6)
John M. Darley
Bibb Latane
``Black Men and Public Space''
407(4)
Brent Staples
Additional Writing Topics: Cause-Effect
411(2)
Definition
413(31)
What Is Definition?
413(1)
How Definition Fits Your Purpose and Audience
414(1)
Prewriting Strategies
415(1)
Definition: A Prewriting Checklist
415(1)
Strategies for Using Definition in an Essay
416(3)
Revision Strategies
419(1)
Definition: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
419(1)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
420(7)
``Physics in Everyday Life''
421(3)
Laura Chen
Commentary
424(3)
Activities: Definition
427(1)
Prewriting Activities
427(1)
Revising Activities
427(1)
Professional Selections: Definition
428(14)
``Entropy''
429(4)
K. C. Cole
``Life As Type A''
433(5)
James Gleick
``Absolutophobia''
438(4)
John Leo
Additional Writing Topics: Definition
442(2)
Argumentation-Persuasion
444(67)
What Is Argumentation-Persuasion?
444(1)
How Argumentation-Persuasion Fits Your Purpose and Audience
445(3)
Prewriting Strategies
448(1)
Argumentation-Persuasion: A Prewriting Checklist
448(1)
Strategies for Using Argumentation-Persuasion in an Essay
449(15)
Revision Strategies
464(2)
Argumentation-Persuasion: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist
464(2)
Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision
466(10)
``Compulsory National Service''
469(3)
Mark Simmons
Commentary
472(4)
Activities: Argumentation-Persuasion
476(4)
Prewriting Activities
476(1)
Revising Activities
477(3)
Professional Selections: Argumentation-Persuasion
480(28)
``In Praise of the `F' Word''
480(5)
Mary Sherry
``Why Computers Don't Belong in the Classroom''
485(4)
Clifford Stoll
Debating the Issues: Date Rape
489(1)
``Rape: A Bigger Danger Than Feminists Know''
490(5)
Camille Paglia
``Common Decency''
495(4)
Susan Jacoby
Debating the Issues: Multiculturalism
499(1)
``Let's Tell the Story of All America's Cultures''
500(4)
Yuh Ji-Yeon
Jr., ``The Cult of Ethnicity: Good and Bad''
504(4)
Arthur Schlesinger
Additional Writing Topics: Argumentation-Persuasion
508(3)
PART IV THE RESEARCH PAPER
511(100)
Selecting a Subject, Using the Library and the Internet, and Taking Notes
513(51)
Some General Comments About the Research Paper
513(1)
Plan the Research
514(7)
Understand the Paper's Boundaries
514(1)
Understand Primary Versus Secondary Research
515(3)
Choose a General Subject
518(1)
Selecting an Appropriate Subject to Research: A Checklist
518(1)
Prewrite to Limit the General Subject
519(1)
Conduct Preliminary Research
519(1)
Identify a Working Thesis
520(1)
Make a Schedule
521(1)
Find Sources in the Library
521(13)
The Computerized Catalog
522(1)
The Card Catalog
523(3)
The Reference Section
526(2)
Periodicals
528(6)
Use the Internet
534(10)
The Internet and the World Wide Web
534(1)
What the Web Offers
534(1)
The Advantages and Limitations of the Library and the Web
535(1)
Accessing the Web
535(2)
Using the Net to Find Books on Your Topic
537(1)
Using the Net to Find Articles and Other Materials on Your Topic
538(5)
Evaluating Internet Materials
543(1)
Using Other Internet Tools
543(1)
Prepare a Working Bibliography
544(1)
Take Notes to Support the Thesis with Evidence
545(16)
Why Take Notes?
545(1)
Before Note-Taking: Evaluate Sources
545(1)
Before Note-Taking: Refine Your Working Bibliography
546(2)
Before Note-Taking: Read Your Sources
548(2)
When Note-Taking: What to Select
550(1)
When Note-Taking: How to Record Statistics
551(1)
When Note-Taking: Use Index Cards
551(2)
Two Other Note-Taking Approaches
553(1)
Kinds of Notes
553(8)
Activities: Selecting a Subject, Using the Library and the Internet, and Taking Notes
561(3)
Writing the Research Paper
564(47)
Refine Your Working Thesis
564(1)
Sort the Note Cards
565(1)
Organize the Evidence by Outlining
565(2)
Prepare the Works Cited List: MLA Format
567(9)
Citing Book Sources
568(3)
Citing Periodical Sources
571(2)
Citing Computerized Sources
573(2)
Citing Other Nonprint Sources
575(1)
Write the First Draft
576(1)
Presenting the Results of Primary Research
577(1)
Document Borrowed Material Using MLA Format---How to Avoid Plagiarism
577(9)
Indicate Author and Page
578(3)
Special Cases of Authorship
581(1)
Special Cases of Pagination
582(1)
Blending Quotations into Your Text
583(2)
Presenting Statistics
585(1)
Revise, Edit, and Proofread the First Draft
586(2)
Revising the Research Paper: A Checklist
587(1)
APA Documentation Format
588(4)
Parenthetic Citations
589(1)
References List
590(2)
Computerized Sources
592(1)
A Note About Other Documentation Systems
592(1)
Student Research Paper: MLA-Style Documentation
593(15)
``America's Homeless: How the Government Can Help''
594(14)
Brian Courtney
Commentary
608(1)
Activities: Writing the Research Paper
608(3)
PART V THE LITERARY PAPER AND EXAM ESSAY
611(34)
Writing About Literature
613(21)
Elements of Literary Works
614(2)
How to Read a Literary Work
616(2)
Read to Form a General Impression
616(1)
Ask Questions About the Work
616(1)
Analyzing a Literary Work: A Checklist
616(1)
Reread and Annotate
617(1)
Modify Your Annotations
618(1)
Write the Literary Analysis
618(7)
Prewrite
618(1)
Identify Your Thesis
619(1)
Support the Thesis with Evidence
620(1)
Organize the Evidence
621(1)
Write the First Draft
621(2)
Revise Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development
623(1)
Revising a Literary Analysis: A Checklist
623(1)
Edit and Proofread
624(1)
Pulling It All Together
625(2)
Read to Form a General Impression
625(1)
``Early Autumn''
625(1)
Langston Hughes
Ask Questions About the Work
626(1)
Reread and Annotate
626(1)
Student Essay
627(2)
``Stopping to Talk''
627(1)
Karen Vais
Commentary
628(1)
Additional Selections and Writing Assignments
629(5)
``Out, Out---''
630(1)
Robert Frost
``The Story of an Hour''
631(3)
Kate Chopin
Writing Exam Essays
634(11)
Three Forms of Written Answers
635(1)
Short Answers
635(1)
Paragraph-Length Answers
635(1)
Essay-Length Answers
636(1)
How to Prepare for Exam Essays
636(1)
At the Examination
637(2)
Survey the Entire Test
637(1)
Understand the Essay Question
637(2)
Write the Essay
639(3)
Prewrite
639(1)
Identify Your Thesis
639(1)
Support the Thesis with Evidence
639(1)
Organize the Evidence
640(1)
Write the Draft
640(1)
Revise, Edit, and Proofread
641(1)
Sample Essay Answer
642(2)
Commentary
643(1)
Activity: Writing Exam Essays
644(1)
PART VI A CONCISE HANDBOOK
645(2)
OPENING COMMENTS
647(3)
SENTENCE FAULTS
650(12)
Fragments
650(6)
Phrase Fragments
650(3)
Dependent Clause Fragments
653(3)
Comma Splices and Run-On Sentences
656(4)
Three Common Pitfalls
657(3)
Faulty Parallelism
660(2)
VERBS
662(5)
Problems with Subject-Verb Agreement
662(3)
Problems with Verb Tense
665(2)
PRONOUNS
667(8)
Problems with Pronoun Use
667(8)
Pronoun Case
667(3)
Pronoun Agreement
670(3)
Pronoun Reference
673(2)
MODIFIERS
675(3)
Problems with Modification
675(3)
Misplaced and Ambiguous Modifiers
675(1)
Dangling Modifiers
676(2)
PUNCTUATION
678(22)
Period
678(2)
Question Mark
680(1)
Exclamation Point
680(1)
Comma
680(6)
Semicolon
686(1)
Colon
687(1)
Quotation Marks
688(3)
Ellipsis
691(1)
Apostrophe
692(2)
Parentheses
694(2)
Brackets
696(1)
Hyphen
696(2)
Dash
698(2)
MECHANICS
700(6)
Capitalization
700(1)
Underlining and Italics
701(2)
Numbers
703(1)
Abbreviations
704(2)
SPELLING
706(9)
Index 715


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