9780521785747

Looking into the Earth: An Introduction to Geological Geophysics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521785747

  • ISBN10:

    052178574X

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 10/23/2000
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Summary

Looking Into the Earth comprehensively describes the principles and applications of both 'globalí and 'explorationí geophysics on all scales. It forms an introduction to geophysics suitable for those who do not necessarily intend to become professional geophysicists, including geologists, civil engineers, environmental scientists, and field archaeologists. The book is organised into two parts: Part 1 describes the geophysical methods, while Part 2 illustrates their use in a number of extended case histories. Mathematical and physical principles are introduced at an elementary level, and then developed as necessary. Student questions and exercises are included at the end of each chapter. The book is aimed primarily at introductory and intermediate university students taking courses in geology, earth science, environmental science, and engineering. It will also form an excellent introductory textbook in geophysics departments, and will help practising geologists, archaeologists and engineers understand what geophysics can offer their work.

Table of Contents

Preface: Turning a Magician into an Expert xvii
Acknowledgements xix
Introducing Geophysics and This Book
1(6)
What is geophysics?
1(1)
The Earth through geophysical spectacles: The relation of geophysics to geology
2(1)
What this book covers and how it is structured
2(5)
Summary
3(1)
Further reading
4(3)
Part I GEOPHYSICAL METHODS
Data Acquisition and Processing
7(1)
Data Acquisition and Reduction: Carrying out a Geophysical Survey
7(6)
Data acquisition: Taking measurements
7(1)
Data reduction
8(1)
Signal and noise
8(1)
Modelling
9(1)
Geological interpretation
10(1)
Displaying the results
10(3)
Summary
11(1)
Further reading
12(1)
Problems
12(1)
Data Processing: Getting More Information from the Data
13(11)
Fourier analysis
13(4)
Wavelength
13(1)
Harmonic analysis
14(1)
Fourier analysis of a profile
15(1)
Fourier analysis in 2D: Gridded data
16(1)
Why a harmonic series?
16(1)
Digital filtering
17(4)
Simple filters
17(1)
Aliasing
18(2)
Designing a simple filter
20(1)
Filtering in 2D: Gridded data
20(1)
Using filters to enhance various types of features
21(1)
Summing up: Fourier analysis and filtering
21(3)
Summary
22(1)
Further reading
22(1)
Problems
22(2)
Seismology
24(1)
Global Seismology and Seismic Waves
24(18)
Waves, pulses, and rays
24(2)
Detecting seismic waves: Seismometers and geophones
26(2)
The Earth is concentrically layered
28(1)
Spherical symmetry of the Earth's interior
28(1)
Concentric layering
29(1)
Finding the path of a ray through the Earth
29(3)
Refraction: Snell's law
29(1)
Tracing rays through the Earth: The ray parameter, p
30(1)
Ray tracing and the Earth's velocity-depth structure
31(1)
Seismic features of the Earth
32(7)
Core and mantle
32(1)
Longitudinal and transverse waves
33(3)
The mantle--core difference
36(1)
Other seismological features of the Earth
36(1)
Attenuation
37(1)
Ray paths in the Earth
37(2)
Seismic tomography
39(3)
Summary
39(1)
Further reading
40(1)
Problems
40(2)
Earthquakes and Seismotectonics
42(23)
What is an earthquake?
42(1)
Locating an earthquake
43(1)
Fault-plane solutions and stresses
44(6)
Fault-plane solutions
44(5)
The earthquake stress field and the double-couple mechanism
49(1)
Rupture dimensions and displacements
50(2)
Measures of earthquake size
52(2)
Intensity: Severity of an earthquake at a locality
52(1)
Seismic moment: Size of the earthquake at source
53(1)
Seismotectonics: Deducing tectonic processes
54(2)
Qualitative seismotectonics
54(1)
Quantitative seismotectonics: Seismic and aseismic faulting
55(1)
Surface waves
56(1)
Magnitude: Another measure of earthquake strength
57(3)
Energies of earthquakes
60(1)
Earthquake damage and its mitigation
60(5)
Causes of damage
60(2)
Mitigating the damage caused by earthquakes
62(1)
Summary
62(1)
Further reading
63(1)
Problems
63(2)
Refraction Seismology
65(19)
Critical refraction and head waves
65(2)
Huygens's wavelets
66(1)
Head waves
67(1)
The time--distance (t--x) diagram
67(2)
Multiple layers
69(1)
Dipping interfaces
70(2)
Seismic velocities in rocks
72(1)
Hidden layers
73(1)
Hidden layer proper
73(1)
Low-velocity layer
73(1)
Carrying out a seismic-refraction survey
74(2)
Undulating interfaces and delay times
76(3)
Delay times
76(2)
The plus--minus method
78(1)
Ray tracing and synthetic seismograms
79(1)
Detecting offsets in interfaces
80(1)
Fan shooting: Simple seismic tomography
81(3)
Summary
81(1)
Further reading
82(1)
Problems
82(2)
Reflection Seismology
84(23)
Seismic-reflection sections and their limitations
84(2)
Velocity determination using normal moveout, NMO
86(1)
Stacking
87(1)
Dipping reflectors and migration
88(2)
Faulted reflectors: Diffraction
90(1)
Multiple reflections
90(1)
Carrying out a reflection survey
90(5)
Data acquisition
90(2)
Common-depth-point (CDP) stacking
92(1)
Data display
93(1)
Vibroseis: A nonimpulsive source
94(1)
What is a reflector?
95(4)
Strengths of reflected and transmitted pulses
95(1)
Vertical resolution: The least separation at which interfaces can be distinguished
96(2)
Synthetic reflection seismograms
98(1)
Three-dimensional (3D) surveying
99(1)
Reflection seismology and the search for hydrocarbons
100(2)
The formation of hydrocarbon traps
100(1)
The recognition of hydrocarbon traps
101(1)
Sequence stratigraphy
102(1)
Shallow-reflection seismic surveys
103(4)
Summary
104(1)
Further reading
105(1)
Problems
105(2)
Gravity
107(1)
Gravity on a Small Scale
107(18)
Newton's Law of Gravitation
107(2)
The mass of the Earth
109(1)
Densities of rocks
109(1)
Gravity units
110(1)
Gravity anomalies of some bodies
110(3)
Measuring gravity: Gravimeters
113(1)
Data reduction
114(4)
Instrumental effects and other corrections
114(3)
Residual and regional anomalies
117(1)
Planning and carrying out a gravity survey
118(1)
Modelling and interpretation
119(3)
The inversion problem
119(2)
Depth rules
121(1)
Modelling
122(1)
Total excess mass
122(1)
Microgravity surveys
122(3)
Summary
122(1)
Further reading
123(1)
Problems
123(2)
Large-Scale Gravity and Isostasy
125(14)
Isostasy
125(9)
The concept of isostasy: Floating blocks
125(2)
Gravity and isostatic equilibrium
127(1)
Simple isostatic calculations
127(3)
Airy and Pratt models of isostasy
130(1)
Isostasy with regional compensation
131(1)
The isostatic anomaly
131(1)
The evidence for isostasy
132(1)
Isostatic rebound and the viscosity of the asthenosphere
133(1)
How the mantle is both solid and liquid: Solid-state creep
134(1)
What is the lithosphere?
135(1)
Forces on the lithosphere
135(1)
The shape of the Earth
135(4)
Seeing the ocean floor in the ocean surface
135(1)
The large-scale shape of the Earth
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
Further reading
137(1)
Problems
138(1)
Magnetism
139(1)
Palaeomagnetism and Mineral Magnetism
139(23)
The Earth's magnetic field, present and past
139(3)
Magnets and magnetic fields
139(1)
The Earth's magnetic field at present
140(2)
The Earth's magnetic field in the past
142(1)
Palaeomagnetism
142(4)
Measuring a palaeomagnetic direction
142(2)
Palaeopoles, palaeolatitudes, and rotations
144(1)
Apparent polar wander (APW) paths and relative continental movements
145(1)
The magnetism of rocks
146(7)
The atomic nature of magnetisation
146(1)
Magnetic domains
147(1)
Curie and blocking temperatures
148(1)
Thermal remanent magnetisation (TRM)
149(2)
Magnetic minerals
151(1)
Mechanisms that magnetise rocks at ambient temperature
152(1)
Testing when the remanence was acquired
153(1)
Laboratory tests
153(1)
Field tests
153(1)
Magnetostratigraphy
154(3)
The magnetic polarity timescale
154(3)
Magnetic polarity stratigraphy
157(1)
Magnetic stratigraphy utilising secular variation and excursions
157(1)
Mineral magnetism
157(1)
Magnetic fabric: Susceptibility anisotropy
158(4)
Summary
159(1)
Further reading
160(1)
Problems
160(2)
Magnetic Surveying
162(19)
Magnetic surveying
162(5)
Anomaly of a buried magnet
162(1)
Magnetometers
162(1)
Data acquisition
163(4)
Data reduction
167(1)
Anomalies of some simply shaped bodies
167(3)
Magnetic poles and fields
168(1)
The field of a dipole
168(1)
Anomaly of a dipole, or small body
168(1)
Anomaly of a sphere
169(1)
Anomaly of a vertical sheet
170(1)
Depth of the body
170(2)
Remanent and induced magnetisation
172(2)
Computer modelling
174(1)
More advanced processing of data
174(1)
Reduction to the pole
174(1)
Pseudogravity
174(1)
Upward and downward continuation
174(1)
Magnetic gradiometry
175(1)
The Blairgowrie magnetic anomaly: A case study
176(5)
Summary
178(1)
Further reading
179(1)
Problems
179(2)
Electrical
181(1)
Resistivity Methods
181(21)
Basic electrical quantities
181(2)
Resistivity surveying
183(3)
Resistivities of rocks and minerals
183(2)
How electricity flows through rocks
185(1)
The need for four electrodes
185(1)
Vertical electric sounding, VES: Measuring layered structures
186(8)
The basic concept
186(1)
Refraction of current paths
186(1)
Apparent resistivity
186(2)
Carrying out a Wenner VES survey
188(1)
Modelling the data
189(2)
Other electrode arrays
191(2)
Limitations of vertical electrical sounding
193(1)
Resistivity profiling: Detecting lateral variations
194(3)
Introduction
194(1)
Some arrays for profiling
195(2)
Electrical imaging
197(1)
Designing and interpreting a resistivity survey
198(4)
Choosing a resistivity array
198(1)
Geological interpretation
199(1)
Summary
199(1)
Further reading
200(1)
Problems
200(2)
Induced Polarisation and Self-Potential
202(8)
Induced polarization, IP
202(2)
What induced polarization is
202(1)
Carrying out an IP survey
203(1)
Data reduction and display
204(1)
Self-potential, SP
204(6)
What self-potential is
204(2)
SP surveying
206(2)
Summary
208(1)
Further reading
209(1)
Problems
209(1)
Electromagnetic Methods
210(23)
Basic concepts
210(1)
Electromagnetic induction
210(1)
Factors that affect the signal
211(1)
Some e-m systems
211(4)
Moving transmitter-plus-receiver system (Slingram)
211(4)
Turam system
215(1)
Transient electromagnetic, TEM, systems
215(2)
The basic concept
215(1)
The INPUT system
216(1)
Electromagnetic waves
217(2)
Wavelengths
217(1)
Absorption and attenuation of e-m waves
218(1)
VLF (very-low-frequency) method
219(2)
Basic concepts
219(1)
Carrying out a VLF survey
220(1)
Phase
221(4)
Magnetotelluric, MT, surveying: Looking into the deep crust and mantle
225(2)
Basic concepts
225(2)
Carrying out an MT survey
227(1)
Ground-penetrating radar, GPR
227(6)
How ground-penetrating radar works
227(2)
Velocity, reflection, penetration, and resolution
229(1)
Data reduction
230(1)
Uses of GPR surveys
230(1)
Summary
230(1)
Further reading
231(1)
Problems
231(2)
Radioactivity
233(1)
The Ages of Rocks and Minerals: Radiometric Dating
233(28)
The atomic clock
233(2)
The uranium--lead (U--Pb) dating method
235(1)
Assumptions of the Basic Dating Equation
236(1)
The potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating method
236(5)
The conventional K--Ar method
237(2)
The argon-argon (Ar--Ar) method
239(2)
The rubidium--strontium (Rb--Sr) dating method
241(2)
The samarium--neodymium (Sm--Nd) dating method
243(1)
The lead--lead (Pb--Pb) dating method
243(3)
Theory of the method
243(1)
The `age of the Earth'
244(2)
Fission-track (FT) dating
246(1)
What event is being dated?
247(4)
Diffusion
247(1)
Closure temperature
248(1)
Cooling histories
249(1)
Two dates from a single rock, using the Rb--Sr method
250(1)
Two dates from a single rock, using the U--Pb discordia method
250(1)
Dating palaeomagnetism of slowly cooled regions
251(1)
Dating sedimentary rocks
251(1)
The geological time scale
251(1)
Dating young rocks
252(4)
Uranium-series disequilibrium methods
253(2)
Carbon-14 (14C) and other dating methods using cosmogenic isotopes
255(1)
Why so many radiometric dating methods?
256(5)
Summary
257(1)
Further reading
258(1)
Problems
258(3)
Radioactive Surveying
261(8)
Radioactive radiations
261(1)
γ ray surveys
261(5)
Measurement: The γ ray spectrometer
261(1)
Carrying out a γ ray survey
262(2)
Geological mapping
264(2)
Radon monitoring
266(3)
Summary
267(1)
Further reading
267(1)
Problems
268(1)
Geothermics
269(1)
Geothermics: Heat and Temperature in the Earth
269(16)
Basic ideas in geothermics
269(3)
Introduction
269(1)
Temperature and heat
269(1)
How heat travels: Conduction and convection
270(1)
Convection and conduction within the Earth
270(2)
Heat flow and temperature
272(5)
Measurement of heat flux
272(1)
Oceanic lithosphere
272(3)
Continental lithosphere and radioactivity
275(2)
Effects of changes to the lithosphere
277(2)
Thermal capacity
277(1)
Filling of a sedimentary basin
277(1)
Overthrusting and underthrusting
278(1)
Crustal thickening and orogenies
278(1)
Global heat flow and geothermal energy
279(2)
Global heat flow
279(1)
Sources of the Earth's heat
279(1)
Geothermal energy
280(1)
The effect of surface temperature changes: A record of past climates
281(4)
Summary
282(1)
Further reading
283(1)
Problems
283(2)
Subsurface Geophysics
285(1)
Well Logging and Other Subsurface Geophysics
285(24)
Introduction
285(1)
Drilling and its effects on the formations
285(1)
Sources of information from a borehole: Logs
286(1)
Geophysical well logging in the oil industry
287(2)
The most commonly used logs
289(10)
The measurement of strata dip, borehole inclination, and diameter
289(1)
The self-potential log
290(1)
Resistivity logs
291(3)
Radioactivity logs
294(3)
The sonic log
297(1)
The temperature log
298(1)
Cross plots
298(1)
Geophysical logging outside the oil industry
299(4)
Mineral exploration
299(2)
Magnetic logs
301(1)
The IP--resistivity log
302(1)
Other well-logging applications
303(1)
Other subsurface geophysics
303(6)
Summary
303(1)
Further reading
304(1)
Problems
305(4)
Part II EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS
Which Geophysical Methods to Use?
309(4)
Introduction
309(1)
Does the problem have geophysical expression?
309(1)
Is the variation lateral or vertical?
309(1)
Is the signal detectable?
310(1)
Will the result be clear enough to be useful?
310(1)
Is a survey practicable?
311(2)
Problems
311(2)
Global Tectonics
313(32)
The basic concept of plate tectonics
313(1)
Divergent, or constructive, margins
314(3)
Ocean-floor magnetic anomalies
314(1)
The shape of spreading ridges
315(2)
Conservative margins
317(3)
Convergent, or destructive, margins
320(6)
Ocean--ocean convergent margins and subduction zones
321(3)
Ocean--continent convergent margins
324(1)
Continent-continent convergent margins
325(1)
The geometry of plate tectonics
326(5)
Poles of rotation
326(2)
Triple junctions and plate evolution
328(3)
The globe according to plate tectonics
331(1)
Continental positions in the past
332(1)
Crust formation at ridges
333(3)
What moves the plates?
336(9)
Forces on plates
336(2)
The hot-spot frame of reference: Plate velocities
338(1)
Deducing the dominant drive forces
339(1)
Plate tectonics and mantle convection
340(1)
Summary
341(2)
Further Reading
343(1)
Problems
343(2)
Is the Kenya Rift a New Plate Margin? A Regional Geophysical Study
345(16)
Introduction: The East African Rift System
345(2)
Morphology and geology of the Kenya Rift
347(1)
Gravity studies
348(1)
Seismic surveys
349(7)
The seismicity of Kenya
349(1)
Teleseismic studies
350(1)
Seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection surveys
351(5)
Combined seismic and gravity models
356(1)
Heat flow studies
356(3)
Electrical conductivity
359(1)
Summary
360(1)
Further reading
360(1)
Hydrocarbon Exploration
361(17)
Introduction: Energy sources and the demand for hydrocarbons
361(3)
The origin and accumulation of hydrocarbons
364(1)
Where sedimentary basins form
364(2)
Exploration for petroleum
366(1)
The West Sole gas field of the southern North Sea: A case study
367(3)
The Forties oil field of the northern North Sea: A case study
370(6)
Discovery and initial development of the field
370(3)
Further development of the Forties field
373(3)
The future
376(2)
Further reading
377(1)
Exploration for Metalliferous Ores
378(12)
Introduction: Metalliferous and other ore deposits
378(1)
The formation of ores and their geophysical properties
378(3)
Where ores form
381(1)
Exploration for orebodies
382(1)
The Elura Orebody, New South Wales, Australia: A case study
383(7)
Background and reconnaissance surveys
383(2)
Initial surveys of the Elura orebody
385(1)
Evaluation of the deposit
386(2)
Assessment of geophysical surveying methods
388(1)
Further reading
388(2)
Volcanoes
390(9)
Introduction: Types of eruption and damage
390(1)
Methods for investigating volcanoes and monitoring activity
391(1)
The 1989--1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: A case study
391(3)
Background
392(1)
The 1989--1990 eruption
392(1)
Monitoring of activity
393(1)
Etna lava eruptions 1991--1993: A case study
394(5)
Background
394(1)
Deformation and microgravity
394(2)
The 1991--1993 eruption
396(2)
Further reading
398(1)
The Chicxulub Structure and the K/T Mass Extinction
399(9)
Introduction
399(1)
Impacts and craters
399(2)
The Chicxulub structure
401(5)
Background
401(1)
The structure of Chicxulub
401(3)
Ages of the Chicxulub structure and ejecta
404(2)
The Manson Crater
406(1)
Giant eruptions
406(1)
Conclusions to date
406(2)
Further reading
407(1)
Hydrogeology and Contaminated Land
408(12)
Introduction
408(1)
Aquifers
408(1)
Geophysical methods useful in hydrogeology
408(1)
GPR surveying of the water table, the Netherlands: An example
409(1)
Background
409(1)
Offsets of the water table
409(1)
Structural control of aquifers in East Anglia, England: A case study
410(2)
Introduction
410(1)
Geophysical surveys
410(2)
Saline contamination of the Crag aquifer, East Anglia: A case study
412(5)
Background
412(1)
Geophysical surveys
413(4)
Landfill sites and contaminated ground
417(3)
Introduction
417(1)
Investigation of a landfill in northern England: A case study
417(1)
Landfill monitoring: A case study
418(1)
Further reading
419(1)
Location of Cavities and Voids
420(9)
Introduction
420(1)
Possible geophysical techniques for locating cavities
420(3)
Seismic methods
420(1)
Electrical methods
421(1)
Magnetic methods
421(1)
Gravity methods
422(1)
Fracturing around cavities
423(1)
Collapses in buried karstic terrain, Kuwait: A case study
423(3)
Background
423(1)
Gravity survey
424(2)
Land reclamation, south Wales: A case study
426(3)
Background
426(1)
Gravity survey
427(1)
Further reading
428(1)
Archaeological Site Surveying
429(10)
Site surveying
429(1)
Archaeological features and their geophysical expression
430(1)
Ditches, pits, and postholes
430(1)
Foundations
430(1)
Furnaces, fireplaces, and kilns
430(1)
Geophysical methods useful for archaeological surveying
431(3)
Magnetic and susceptibility surveys
431(1)
Resistivity surveys
431(1)
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
432(1)
Other techniques
433(1)
Display of data
433(1)
A possible Roman villa: A case study
434(1)
Background
434(1)
Geophysical surveys
434(1)
Hudson's Bay Company fur trade post: A case study
434(5)
Background
434(2)
Geophysical surveys
436(2)
Further reading
438(1)
Appendix A List of Symbols and Abbreviations 439(3)
Appendix B Answers to Problems 442(7)
Bibliography 449(8)
Figure Sources 457(4)
Index 461

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