Introduction | |

Why study physics? | |

Talking physics | |

The use of mathematics | |

Scientific notation and significant figures | |

Units | |

Dimensional analysis | |

Problem-solving techniques | |

Approximation | |

Graphs | |

Mechanics | |

Motion Along a Line | |

Understanding motion | |

Position and displacement | |

Velocity: rate of change of position | |

Acceleration: rate of change of velocity | |

Motion along a line with a constant acceleration | |

Visualizing motion along a line with a constant acceleration | |

Free fall | |

Motion in a Plane | |

Graphical addition and subtraction of vectors | |

Vector addition and subtraction using components | |

Velocity | |

Acceleration | |

Motion in a plane with constant acceleration | |

Velocity is relative; reference frames | |

Force and Newton’s Laws of Motion | |

Force | |

Inertia and equilibrium: Newton’s first law of motion | |

Net force, mass, and acceleration: Newton’s second law of motion | |

Interaction pairs: Newton’s third law of motion | |

Gravitational forces | |

Contact forces | |

Tension | |

Applying Newton’s second law | |

Reference frames | |

Apparent weight | |

Air resistance | |

Fundamental forces | |

Circular Motion | |

Description of uniform circular motion | |

Centripetal acceleration | |

Banked curves | |

Circular orbits | |

Nonuniform circular motion | |

Angular acceleration | |

Artificial gravity | |

Conservation of Energy | |

The law of conservation of energy | |

Work done by a constant force | |

Kinetic energy | |

Gravitational potential energy (1) | |

Gravitational potential energy (2) | |

Work done by variable forces: Hooke’s Law | |

Elastic potential energy | |

Power | |

Linear Momentum | |

A vector conservation law | |

Momentum | |

The impulse-momentum theorem | |

Conservation of momentum | |

Center of mass | |

Motion of the center of mass | |

Collisions in one dimension | |

Collisions in two dimensions | |

Torque and Angular Momentum | |

Rotational kinetic energy and rotational inertia | |

Torque | |

Work done by a torque | |

Equilibrium revisited | |

Equilibrium in the human body | |

Rotational form of Newton’s second law | |

The dynamics of rolling objects | |

Angular momentum | |

The vector nature of angular momentum | |

Fluids | |

States of matter | |

Pressure | |

Pascal's principle | |

The effect of gravity on fluid pressure | |

Measuring pressure | |

Archimedes' principle | |

Fluid flow | |

Bernoulli's equation | |

Viscosity | |

Viscous drag | |

Surface tension | |

Elasticity and Oscillations | |

Elastic deformations of solids | |

Hooke's law for tensile and compressive forces | |

Beyond Hooke's law | |

Shear and volume deformations | |

Simple harmonic motion | |

The period and frequency for SHM | |

Graphical analysis of SHM | |

The pendulum | |

Damped oscillations | |

Forced oscillations and resonance | |

Waves | |

Waves and energy transport | |

Transverse and longitudinal waves | |

Speed of transverse waves on a string | |

Periodic waves | |

Mathematical description of a wave | |

Graphing waves | |

Principle of superposition | |

Reflection and refraction | |

Interference and diffraction | |

Standing waves | |

Sound | |

Sound waves | |

The speed of sound waves | |

Amplitude and intensity of sound waves | |

Standing sound waves | |

The human ear | |

Timbre | |

Beats | |

The Doppler effect | |

Shock waves | |

Echolocation and medical imaging | |

Thermal Physics | |

Temperature and the Ideal Gas | |

Temperature | |

Temperature scales | |

Thermal expansion of solids and liquids | |

Molecular picture of a gas | |

Absolute temperature and the ideal gas law | |

Kinetic theory of the ideal gas | |

Temperature and reaction rates | |

Collisions between gas molecules | |

Heat | |

Internal energy | |

Heat | |

Heat capacity and specific heat | |

Specific heat of ideal gases | |

Phase transitions | |

Conduction | |

Convection | |

Radiation | |

Thermodynamics | |

The first law of thermodynamics | |

Thermodynamic processes | |

Thermodynamic processes for an ideal gas | |

Reversible and irreversible processes | |

Heat engines | |

Refrigerators and heat pumps | |

Reversible engines and heat pumps | |

Details of the Carnot cycle | |

Entropy | |

Statistical interpretation of entropy | |

The third law of thermodynamics | |

Electromagnetism | |

Electric Forces and Fields | |

Electric charge | |

Conductors and insulators | |

Coulomb’s law | |

The electric field | |

Motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field | |

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium | |

Gauss's law for electric fields | |

Electric Potential | |

Electric potential energy | |

Electric potential | |

The relationship between electric field and potential | |

Conservation of energy for moving charges | |

Capacitors | |

Dielectrics | |

Energy stored in a capacitor | |

Electric Current and Circuits | |

Electric current | |

Emf and circuits | |

Microscopic view of current in a metal | |

Resistance and resistivity | |

Kirchoff’s rules | |

Series and parallel circuits | |

Circuit analysis using Kirchoff’s rules | |

Power and energy in circuits | |

Measuring currents and voltages | |

RC circuits | |

Electrical safety | |

Magnetic Forces and Fields | |

Magnetic fields | |

Magnetic force on a point charge | |

Charged particle moving perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field | |

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field: general | |

A charged particle in crossed E and B fields | |

Magnetic force on a current-carrying wire | |

Torque on a current loop | |

Magnetic field due to an electric current | |

Ampère’s law | |

Magnetic materials | |

Electromagnetic Induction | |

Motional Emf | |

Electric generators | |

Faraday's law | |

Lenz's law | |

Back Emf in a motor | |

Transformers | |

Eddy currents | |

Induced electric fields | |

Mutual and self-inductance | |

LR circuits | |

Alternating Current | |

Sinusoidal currents and voltages; resistors in AC circuits | |

Electricity in the home | |

Capacitors in AC circuits | |

Inductors in AC circuits | |

RLC series circuit | |

Resonance in an RLC circuit | |

Converting AC to DC; filters | |

Electromagnetic Waves and Optics | |

Electromagnetic Waves | |

Accelerating charges produce electromagnetic waves | |

Maxwell’s equations | |

Antennas | |

The electromagnetic spectrum | |

Speed of EM waves in vacuum and in matter | |

Characteristics of electromagnetic waves in vacuum | |

Energy transport by EM waves | |

Polarization | |

The Doppler effect for EM waves | |

Reflection and Refraction of Light | |

Wavefronts, rays, and Huygens’ principle | |

The reflection of light | |

The refraction of light: Snell’s law | |

Total internal reflection | |

Brewster’s angle | |

The formation of images through reflection or refraction | |

Plane mirrors | |

Spherical mirrors | |

Thin lenses | |

Optical Instruments | |

Lenses in combination | |

Cameras | |

The eye | |

The simple magnifier | |

Compound microscopes | |

Telescopes | |

Aberrations of lenses and mirrors | |

Interference and Diffraction | |

Constructive and destructive interference | |

The Michelson interferometer | |

Thin films | |

Young’s double slit experiment | |

Gratings | |

Diffraction and Huygens’ principle | |

Diffraction by a single slit | |

Diffraction and the resolution of optical instruments | |

X-ray diffraction | |

Holography | |

Quantum and Particle Physics | |

Relativity | |

Postulates of relativity | |

Simultaneity and ideal observers | |

Time dilation | |

Length contraction | |

Velocities in different reference frames | |

Relativistic momentum | |

Mass and energy | |

Relativistic kinetic energy | |

Early Quantum Physics and the Photon | |

Quantization | |

Blackbody radiation | |

The photoelectric effect | |

X-ray production | |

Compton scattering | |

Spectroscopy and early models of the atom | |

The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom; atomic energy levels | |

Pair annihilation and pair production | |

Quantum Physics | |

The wave-particle duality | |

Matter waves | |

Electron microscopes | |

The uncertainty principle | |

Wave functions for a confined particle | |

The hydrogen atom: wave functions and quantum numbers | |

The exclusion principle: electron configurations for atoms other than hydrogen | |

Electron energy levels in a solid | |

Lasers | |

Tunneling | |

Nuclear Physics | |

Nuclear structure | |

Binding energy | |

Radioactivity | |

Radioactive decay rates and half-lives | |

Biological effects of radiation | |

Induced nuclear reactions | |

Fission | |

Fusion | |

Particle Physics | |

Fundamental particles | |

Fundamental interactions | |

Unification | |

“Who ordered that?” | |

Twenty-first-century particle physics | |

Appendices | |

Mathematics Review | |

Algebra | |

Solving equations | |

Exponents and logarithms | |

Proportions and ratios | |

Geometry | |

Trigonometry | |

Approximations | |

Vectors | |

Table of Selected Isotopes | |

Answers to Selected Questions and Problems | |

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