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Machine Elements in Mechanical Design

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130618856

ISBN10:
0130618853
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/16/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $198.00
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Summary

Using the most up-to-date information, this book provides a practical approach to designing machine elements in the context of complete mechanical design.Covering some of the primary machine elements such as belt drives, chain drives, gears, shafts, keys, couplings, seals, and rolling contact bearings. It also covers plain surface bearings, linear motion elements, fasteners, springs, machine frames, bolted connections, welded joints, electric motors, controls, clutches, and brakes.This book is for any individual design professional for which a practical approach to mechanical design, based on sound engineering principles, is desired.

Table of Contents

PART I Principles of Design and Stress Analysis
1(260)
The Nature of Mechanical Design
2(27)
The Big Picture
3(6)
You Are the Designer
9(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
9(1)
The Mechanical Design Process
9(2)
Skills Needed in Mechanical Design
11(1)
Functions, Design Requirements, and Evaluation Criteria
11(3)
Example of the Integration of Machine Elements into a Mechanical Design
14(3)
Computational Aids in This Book
17(1)
Design Calculations
17(1)
Preferred Basic Sizes, Screw Threads, and Standard Shapes
18(6)
Unit Systems
24(2)
Distinction among Weight, Force, and Mass
26(3)
References
27(1)
Internet Sites
27(1)
Problems
28(1)
Materials in Mechanical Design
29(54)
The Big Picture
30(1)
You Are the Designer
31(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
32(1)
Properties of Materials
32(12)
Classification of Metals and Alloys
44(1)
Variability of Material Properties Data
45(1)
Carbon and Alloy Steel
46(3)
Conditions for Steels and Heat Treatment
49(4)
Stainless Steels
53(1)
Structural Steel
54(1)
Tool Steels
54(1)
Cast Iron
54(2)
Powdered Metals
56(1)
Aluminum
57(2)
Zinc Alloys
59(1)
Titanium
60(1)
Copper, Brass, and Bronze
60(1)
Nickel-Based Alloys
61(1)
Plastics
61(4)
Composite Materials
65(12)
Materials Selection
77(6)
References
78(1)
Internet Sites
79(1)
Problems
80(3)
Stress and Deformation Analysis
83(52)
The Big Picture
84(1)
You Are the Designer
85(4)
Objectives of This Chapter
89(1)
Philosophy of a Safe Design
89(1)
Representing Stresses on a Stress Element
89(1)
Direct Stresses: Tension and Compression
90(2)
Deformation under Direct Axial Loading
92(1)
Direct Shear Stress
92(2)
Relationship among Torque, Power, and Rotational Speed
94(1)
Torsional Shear Stress
95(2)
Torsional Deformation
97(1)
Torsion in Members Having Noncircular Cross Sections
98(2)
Torsion in Closed, Thin-Walled Tubes
100(1)
Open Tubes and a Comparison with Closed Tubes
100(2)
Vertical Shearing Stress
102(2)
Special Shearing Stress Formulas
104(1)
Stress Due to Bending
105(2)
Flexural Center for Beams
107(1)
Beam Deflections
108(2)
Equations for Deflected Beam Shape
110(2)
Beams with Concentrated Bending Moments
112(5)
Combined Normal Stresses: Superposition Principle
117(2)
Stress Concentrations
119(3)
Notch Sensitivity and Strength Reduction Factor
122(13)
References
123(1)
Internet Sites
123(1)
Problems
123(12)
Combined Stresses and Mohr's Circle
135(28)
The Big Picture
136(1)
You Are the Designer
136(2)
Objectives of This Chapter
138(1)
General Case of Combined Stress
138(7)
Mohr's Circle
145(6)
Mohr's Circle Practice Problems
151(4)
Case When Both Principal Stresses Have the Same Sign
155(3)
Mohr's Circle for Special Stress Conditions
158(3)
Analysis of Complex Loading Conditions
161(2)
References
162(1)
Internet Site
162(1)
Problems
162(1)
Design for Different Types of Loading
163(66)
The Big Picture
164(2)
You Are the Designer
166(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
166(1)
Types of Loading and Stress Ratio
166(6)
Endurance Strength
172(1)
Estimated Actual Endurance Strength, Sn
173(8)
Example Problems for Estimating Actual Endurance Strength
181(1)
Design Philosophy
182(3)
Design Factors
185(1)
Predictions of Failure
186(7)
Design Analysis Methods
193(4)
General Design Procedure
197(3)
Design Examples
200(13)
Statistical Approaches to Design
213(1)
Finite Life and Damage Accumulation Method
214(15)
References
218(1)
Problems
219(10)
Columns
229(32)
The Big Picture
230(1)
You Are the Designer
231(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
231(1)
Properties of the Cross Section of a Column
232(1)
End Fixity and Effective Length
232(2)
Slenderness Ratio
234(1)
Transition Slenderness Ratio
234(1)
Long Column Analysis: The Euler Formula
235(4)
Short Column Analysis: The J. B. Johnson Formula
239(2)
Column Analysis Spreadsheet
241(3)
Efficient Shapes for Column Cross Sections
244(1)
The Design of Columns
245(5)
Crooked Columns
250(1)
Eccentrically Loaded Columns
251(10)
References
257(1)
Problems
257(4)
PART II Design of a Mechanical Drive
261(398)
Belt Drives and Chain Drives
264(36)
The Big Picture
265(2)
You Are the Designer
267(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
267(1)
Types of Belt Drives
268(1)
V-Belt Drives
269(3)
V-Belt Drive Design
272(11)
Chain Drives
283(2)
Design of Chain Drives
285(15)
References
296(2)
Internet Sites
298(1)
Problems
298(2)
Kinematics of Gears
300(63)
The Big Picture
301(4)
You Are the Designer
305(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
306(1)
Spur Gear Styles
306(1)
Spur Gear Geometry: Involute-Tooth Form
307(1)
Spur Gear Nomenclature and Gear-Tooth Features
308(12)
Interference between Mating Spur Gear Teeth
320(2)
Velocity Ratio and Gear Trains
322(7)
Helical Gear Geometry
329(4)
Bevel Gear Geometry
333(6)
Types of Wormgearing
339(2)
Geometry of Worms and Wormgears
341(3)
Typical Geometry of Wormgear Sets
344(3)
Train Value for Complex Gear Trains
347(3)
Devising Gear Trains
350(13)
References
357(1)
Internet Sites
357(1)
Problems
358(5)
Spur Gear Design
363(86)
The Big Picture
364(1)
You Are the Designer
365(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
365(1)
Concepts from Previous Chapters
366(1)
Forces, Torque, and Power in Gearing
367(3)
Gear Manufacture
370(2)
Gear Quality
372(6)
Allowable Stress Numbers
378(1)
Metallic Gear Materials
379(6)
Stresses in Gear Teeth
385(9)
Selection of Gear Material Based on Bending Stress
394(5)
Pitting Resistance of Gear Teeth
399(3)
Selection of Gear Material Based on Contact Stress
402(5)
Design of Spur Gears
407(6)
Gear Design for the Metric Module System
413(2)
Computer-Aided Spur Gear Design and Analysis
415(4)
Use of the Spur Gear Design Spreadsheet
419(9)
Power-Transmitting Capacity
428(2)
Practical Considerations for Gears and Interfaces with Other Elements
430(4)
Plastics Gearing
434(15)
References
442(1)
Internet Sites
443(1)
Problems
444(5)
Helical Gears, Bevel Gears, and Wormgearing
449(42)
The Big Picture
450(2)
You Are the Designer
452(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
452(1)
Forces on Helical Gear Teeth
452(3)
Stresses in Helical Gear Teeth
455(4)
Pitting Resistance for Helical Gear Teeth
459(1)
Design of Helical Gears
460(3)
Forces on Straight Bevel Gears
463(2)
Bearing Forces on Shafts Carrying Bevel Gears
465(5)
Bending Moments on Shafts Carrying Bevel Gears
470(1)
Stresses in Straight Bevel Gear Teeth
470(3)
Design of Bevel Gears for Pitting Resistance
473(2)
Forces, Friction, and Efficiency in Wormgear Sets
475(6)
Stress in Wormgear Teeth
481(1)
Surface Durability of Wormgear Drives
482(9)
References
488(1)
Internet Sites
488(1)
Problems
489(2)
Keys, Couplings, and Seals
491(39)
The Big Picture
492(1)
You Are the Designer
493(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
493(1)
Keys
494(4)
Materials for Keys
498(1)
Stress Analysis to Determine Key Length
499(4)
Splines
503(5)
Other Methods of Fastening Elements to Shafts
508(5)
Couplings
513(3)
Universal Joints
516(2)
Retaining Rings and Other Means of Axial Location
518(3)
Types of Seals
521(4)
Seal Materials
525(5)
References
526(1)
Internet Sites
527(1)
Problems
528(2)
Shaft Design
530(45)
The Big Picture
531(1)
You Are the Designer
532(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
532(1)
Shaft Design Procedure
532(3)
Forces Exerted on Shafts by Machine Elements
535(5)
Stress Concentrations in Shafts
540(3)
Design Stresses for Shafts
543(3)
Shafts in Bending and Torsion Only
546(2)
Shaft Design Example
548(4)
Recommended Basic Sizes for Shafts
552(1)
Additional Design Examples
553(8)
Spreadsheet Aid for Shaft Design
561(1)
Shaft Rigidity and Dynamic Considerations
562(1)
Flexible Shafts
563(12)
References
564(1)
Internet Sites
564(1)
Problems
565(10)
Tolerances and Fits
575(22)
The Big Picture
576(1)
You Are the Designer
577(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
577(1)
Factors Affecting Tolerances and Fits
578(1)
Tolerances, Production Processes, and Cost
578(3)
Preferred Basic Sizes
581(1)
Clearance Fits
581(4)
Interference Fits
585(1)
Transition Fits
586(1)
Stresses for Force Fits
587(4)
General Tolerancing Methods
591(1)
Robust Product Design
592(5)
References
594(1)
Internet Sites
594(1)
Problems
595(2)
Rolling Contact Bearings
597(33)
The Big Picture
598(1)
You Are the Designer
599(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
600(1)
Types of Rolling Contact Bearings
600(4)
Thrust Bearings
604(1)
Mounted Bearings
604(2)
Bearing Materials
606(1)
Load/Life Relationship
606(1)
Bearing Manufacturers' Data
606(5)
Design Life
611(2)
Bearing Selection: Radial Loads Only
613(1)
Bearing Selection: Radial and Thrust Loads Combined
614(2)
Mounting of Bearings
616(2)
Tapered Roller Bearings
618(3)
Practical Considerations in the Application of Bearings
621(3)
Importance of Oil Film Thickness in Bearings
624(1)
Life Prediction under Varying Loads
625(5)
References
627(1)
Internet Sites
627(1)
Problems
628(2)
Completion of the Design of a Power Transmission
630(29)
The Big Picture
631(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
631(1)
Description of the Power Transmission to Be Designed
631(2)
Design Alternatives and Selection of the Design Approach
633(2)
Design Alternatives for the Gear-Type Reducer
635(1)
General Layout and Design Details of the Reducer
635(17)
Final Design Details for the Shafts
652(3)
Assembly Drawing
655(4)
References
657(1)
Internet Sites
657(2)
PART III Design Details and Other Machine Elements
659
Plain Surface Bearings
660(34)
The Big Picture
661(2)
You Are the Designer
663(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
663(1)
The Bearing Design Task
663(2)
Bearing Parameter, μn/p
665(1)
Bearing Materials
666(2)
Design of Boundary-Lubricated Bearings
668(6)
Full-Film Hydrodynamic Bearings
674(1)
Design of Full-Film Hydrodynamically Lubricated Bearings
675(7)
Practical Considerations for Plain Surface Bearings
682(1)
Hydrostatic Bearings
683(4)
Tribology: Friction, Lubrication, and Wear
687(7)
References
691(1)
Internet Sites
692(1)
Problems
693(1)
Linear Motion Elements
694(17)
The Big Picture
695(3)
You Are the Designer
698(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
698(1)
Power Screws
699(5)
Ball Screws
704(3)
Application Considerations for Power Screws and Ball Screws
707(4)
References
709(1)
Internet Sites
709(1)
Problems
709(2)
Fasteners
711(18)
The Big Picture
713(1)
You Are the Designer
714(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
714(1)
Bolt Materials and Strength
714(3)
Thread Designations and Stress Area
717(2)
Clamping Load and Tightening of Bolted Joints
719(3)
Externally Applied Force on a Bolted Joint
722(1)
Thread Stripping Strength
723(1)
Other Types of Fasteners and Accessories
724(2)
Other Means of Fastening and Joining
726(3)
References
727(1)
Internet Sites
727(1)
Problems
728(1)
Springs
729(44)
The Big Picture
730(1)
You Are the Designer
731(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
732(1)
Kinds of Springs
732(3)
Helical Compression Springs
735(9)
Stresses and Deflection for Helical Compression Springs
744(2)
Analysis of Spring Characteristics
746(3)
Design of Helical Compression Springs
749(8)
Extension Springs
757(5)
Helical Torsion Springs
762(7)
Improving Spring Performance by Shot Peening
769(1)
Spring Manufacturing
770(3)
References
770(1)
Internet Sites
770(1)
Problems
771(2)
Machine Frames, Bolted Connections, and Welded Joints
773(22)
The Big Picture
774(1)
You Are the Designer
775(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
775(1)
Machine Frames and Structures
776(4)
Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Joints
780(3)
Welded Joints
783(12)
References
792(1)
Internet Sites
792(1)
Problems
793(2)
Electric Motors and Controls
795(35)
The Big Picture
796(1)
You Are the Designer
797(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
797(1)
Motor Selection Factors
798(1)
AC Power and General Information about AC Motors
799(1)
Principles of Operation of AC Induction Motors
800(2)
AC Motor Performance
802(1)
Three-Phase, Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors
803(3)
Single-Phase Motors
806(2)
AC Motor Frame Types and Enclosures
808(3)
Controls for AC Motors
811(9)
DC Power
820(1)
DC Motors
821(3)
DC Motor Control
824(1)
Other Types of Motors
824(6)
References
826(1)
Internet Sites
827(1)
Problems
827(3)
Motion Control: Clutches and Brakes
830(37)
The Big Picture
831(2)
You Are the Designer
833(1)
Objectives of This Chapter
833(1)
Descriptions of Clutches and Brakes
833(2)
Types of Friction Clutches and Brakes
835(5)
Performance Parameters
840(1)
Time Required to Accelerate a Load
841(3)
Inertia of a System Referred to the Clutch Shaft Speed
844(1)
Effective Inertia for Bodies Moving Linearly
845(1)
Energy Absorption: Heat-Dissipation Requirements
846(1)
Response Time
847(2)
Friction Materials and Coefficient of Friction
849(2)
Plate-Type Clutch or Brake
851(3)
Caliper Disc Brakes
854(1)
Cone Clutch or Brake
854(1)
Drum Brakes
855(5)
Band Brakes
860(2)
Other Types of Clutches and Brakes
862(5)
References
864(1)
Internet Sites
864(1)
Problems
865(2)
Design Projects
867
Objectives of This Chapter
868(1)
Design Projects
868
Appendices
1(43)
Appendix 1 Properties of Areas
1(2)
Appendix 2 Preferred Basic Sizes and Screw Threads
3(3)
Appendix 3 Design Properties of Carbon and Alloy Steels
6(2)
Appendix 4 Properties of Heat-Treated Steels
8(3)
Appendix 5 Properties of Carburized Steels
11(1)
Appendix 6 Properties of Stainless Steels
12(1)
Appendix 7 Properties of Structural Steels
13(1)
Appendix 8 Design Properties of Cast Iron
14(1)
Appendix 9 Typical Properties of Aluminum
15(1)
Appendix 10 Typical Properties of Zinc Casting Alloys
16(1)
Appendix 11 Properties of Titanium Alloys
16(1)
Appendix 12 Properties of Bronzes
17(1)
Appendix 13 Typical Properties of Selected Plastics
17(1)
Appendix 14 Beam-Deflection Formulas
18(9)
Appendix 15 Stress Concentration Factors
27(4)
Appendix 16 Steel Structural Shapes
31(6)
Appendix 17 Aluminum Structural Shapes
37(2)
Appendix 18 Conversion Factors
39(1)
Appendix 19 Hardness Conversion Table
40(1)
Appendix 20 Geometry Factor I for Pitting for Spur Gears
41(3)
Answers to Selected Problems 44
Index 1

Excerpts

The objective of this book is to provide the concepts, procedures, data, and decision analysis techniques necessary to design machine elements commonly found in mechanical devices and systems. Students completing a course of study using this book should be able to execute original designs for machine elements and integrate the elements into a system composed of several elements. This process requires a consideration of the performance requirements of an individual element and of the interfaces between elements as they work together to form a system. For example, a gear must be designed to transmit power at a given speed. The design must specify the number of teeth, pitch, tooth form, face width, pitch diameter, material, and method of heat treatment. But the gear design also affects, and is affected by, the mating gear, the shaft carrying the gear, and the environment in which it is to operate. Furthermore, the shaft must be supported by bearings, which must be contained in a housing. Thus, the designer should keep the complete system in mind while designing each individual element. This book will help the student approach design problems in this way. This text is designed for those interested in practical mechanical design. The emphasis is on the use of readily available materials and processes and appropriate design approaches to achieve a safe, efficient design. It is assumed that the person using the book will be the designer, that is, the person responsible for determining the configuration of a machine or a part of a machine. Where practical, all design equations, data, and procedures needed to make design decisions are specified. It is expected that students using this book will have a good background in statics, strength of materials, college algebra, and trigonometry. Helpful, but not required, would be knowledge of kinematics, industrial mechanisms, dynamics, materials, and manufacturing processes. Among the important features of this book are the following: It is designed to be used at the undergraduate level in a first course in machine design. The large list of topics allows the instructor some choice in the design of the course. The format is also appropriate for a two-course sequence and as a reference for mechanical design project courses. Students should be able to extend their efforts into topics not covered in classroom instruction because explanations of principles are straightforward and include many example problems. The practical presentation of the material leads to feasible design decisions and is useful to practicing designers. The text advocates and demonstrates use of computer spreadsheets in cases requiring long, laborious solution procedures. Using spreadsheets allows the designer to make decisions and to modify data at several points within the problem while the computer performs all computations. See Chapter 6 on columns, Chapter 9 on spur gears, Chapter 12 on shafts, Chapter 13 on shrink fits, and Chapter 19 on spring design. Other computer-aided calculation software can also be used. References to other books, standards, and technical papers assist the instructor in presenting alternate approaches or extending the depth of treatment. Lists of Internet sites pertinent to topics in this book are included at the end of most chapters to assist readers in accessing additional information or data about commercial products. In addition to the emphasis on original design of machine elements, much of the discussion covers commercially available machine elements and devices, since many design projects require an optimum combination of new, uniquely designed parts and purchased components. For some topics the focus is on aiding the designer in selecting commercially available components, such as rolling contact bearings, flexible couplings, ball screws, electric motors, belt drives, chain drives, clutches, and brakes. Computations and problem solutions use both the International System of Units (SI) and the U.S. Customary System (inch-pound-second) approximately equally. The basic reference for the usage of SI units is IEEE/ASTM-SI-10 Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System,which has replaced ASTM E380 and ANSI/IEEE Standard 268-1992. Extensive appendices are included along with detailed tables in many chapters to help the reader to make real design decisions, using only this text. MDESIGN-MECHANICAL DESIGN SOFTWARE INCLUDED IN THE BOOK The design of machine elements inherently involves extensive procedures, complex calculations, and many design decisions. Data must be found from numerous charts and tables. Furthermore, design is typically iterative, requiring the designer to try several options for any given element, leading to the repetition of design calculations with new data or new design decisions. This is especially true for complete mechanical devices containing several components as the interfaces between components are considered. Changes to one component often require changes to mating elements. Use of computer aided mechanical design software can facilitate the design process by performing many of the tasks while leaving the major design decisions to the creativity and judgment of the designer or engineer. We emphasize that users of computer software must have a solid understanding of the principles of design and stress analysis to ensure that design decisions are based on reliable foundations. We recommend that the software be used only after mastering a given design methodology by careful study and using manual techniques. Included in this book is the MDESIGN mechanical design software created by the TEDATA Company. Derived from the successful MDESIGN mec software produced for the European market, the U.S. version of MDESIGN employs standards and design methods that are typically in use in North America. Many of the textual aids and design procedures come directly from this book, Machine Elements in Mechanical Design. Topics for which the MDESIGN software can be used as a supplement to this book include: Beam stress analysis Beam deflections Mohr''s circle Columns Belt drives Chain drives Spur gears Helical gears Shafts Keys Power screws Springs Rolling contact bearings Plain surface bearings Bolted connections Fasteners Clutches Brakes Special icons as shown on the preceding page are placed in the margins at places in this book where use of the software is pertinent. Also, the Solutions Manual, available only to instructors using this book in scheduled classes, includes guidance for use of the software. FEATURES OF THE FOURTH EDITION The practical approach to designing machine elements in the context of complete mechanical designs is retained and refined in this edition. An extensive amount of updating has been accomplished through the inclusion of new photographs of commercially available machine components, new design data for some elements, new or revised standards, new end-of-chapter references, listings of Internet sites, and some completely new elements. The following list summarizes the primary features and the updates. The three-part structure that was introduced in the third edition has been maintained. Part I (Chapters 1-6) focuses on reviewing and upgrading readers'' understanding of design philosophies, the principles of strength of materials, the design properties of materials, combined stresses, design for different types of loading, and the analysis and design of columns. Part II (Chapters 7-15) is organized aroun


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