Machine Elements in Mechanical Design

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 4/13/2017
  • Publisher: Pearson

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The concepts, procedures, data, and analysis techniques needed to design and integrate machine elements into mechanical devices and systems.

For over three decades students and practicing engineers have used Machine Elements in Mechanical Design to learn about the principles and practices of mechanical design. They have either continued to use the text in their careers, or have newly discovered it as an invaluable resource in their work. With an emphasis on applying the technology of various machine elements while considering those elements in the context of the larger machine, this text references a broad array of available resources, from industrial sources to professional organizations. It promotes practical decision making in design and provides excellent preparation for moving from an academic environment to a professional position with strong, long-term growth potential.


Continuing the book’s emphasis on proven approaches and the use of readily available materials, and its focus on practical, safe, and efficient design, this edition includes new content and adjustments contributed by the two new coauthors and features stronger technical content in stress analysis, a wider set of technical topics, and beautiful enhancements to the visual attractiveness of the book throughout numerous new full-color graphic illustrations.


Appreciated for its readability, while recognized for its technical strength and comprehensive coverage of the material, Machine Elements in Mechanical Design is the ideal guide to the skills and knowledge needed for success in this field. 

Author Biography

Robert L. Mott is professor emeritus of engineering technology at the University of Dayton. He is a member of ASEE, SME, and ASME. He is a Fellow of ASEE and a recipient of the ASEE James H. McGraw Award and the Archie Higdon Distinguished Educator Award from the Mechanics Division. He is a recipient of the SME Education Award. He holds the Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering degree from General Motors Institute (Now Kettering University) and the Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University. He has authored three textbooks; Applied Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition (2015) and Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, 6th Edition(2018), published by Pearson/Prentice-Hall; and Applied Strength of Materials, 6th Edition (2017) published by CRC Press. His work experience includes serving as a research engineer for General Motors Corporation, consulting for industrial clients, working for the University of Dayton Research Institute, leading the Center for Advanced Manufacturing for UDRI, and expert witness for accident analysis cases for industrial and automotive accident cases. He has also served as a senior personnel for 12 years for the NSF-sponsored National Center for Manufacturing Education based in Dayton, Ohio.


Edward M. Vavrek is an associate professor in mechanical engineering technology at Purdue University Northwest, located at the Westville, IN campus, an extension of Purdue University. He is a member of AGMA, ASME, and ASEE. He received his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University Calumet, Masters in Business Administration from Indiana University Northwest, and Masters in Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology. He has significant industrial experience in design and development of machinery, using SolidWorks and Inventor, within the printing/converting, shipbuilding, railroad, steel mill, and automotive industries. He has presented multiple papers on his software developed for the area of machine design. He holds one U.S. patent. He also does extensive private consulting in mechanical design that is highly relevant to the content of this book.


Dr. Jyhwen Wang, Ph.D. is a professor with dual appointment in the departments of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution and Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University in College Station, TX. He holds the degrees of Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering and Master of Engineering in Manufacturing Engineering from Northwestern University in Evansville, IL, the M.S. in Industrial Engineering and Operations Research from Syracuse University in Syracuse, NY, and the B.S. in Industrial Engineering from Tunghai University in Taichung, Taiwan. He has significant industrial experience with Weirton Steel Corporation in Weirton, West Virginia along with consulting for several organizations. He has participated in funded research and education projects as PI or Co-PI. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Professional society memberships include ASME, ASEE, SME, NAMRI/SME (North American Manufacturing Research Institute), and NADDRG (North American Deep Drawing Research Group). He has written book sections for Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials (2003) and Manufacturing Engineering and Technology (2001) by Kalpakjian and Schmid published by Prentice Hall.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Principles of Design and Stress Analysis


1 The Nature of Mechanical Design

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

1—1 Objectives of this Chapter

1—2 The Design Process

1—3 Skills Needed in Mechanical Design

1—4 Functions, Design Requirements, and Evaluation Criteria

1—5 Example of the Integration of Machine Elements into a Mechanical Design

1—6 Computational AIDS in this Book

1—7 Design Calculations

1—8 Preferred Basic Sizes, Screw Threads, and Standard Shapes

1—9 Unit Systems

1—10 Distinction Among Weight, Force, and Mass


Internet Sites for General Mechanical Design

Internet Sites for Innovation and Managing Complex Design



2 Materials in Mechanical Design

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

2—1 Objectives of this Chapter

2—2 Properties of Materials

2—3 Classification of Metals and Alloys

2—4 Variability of Material Properties Data

2—5 Carbon and Alloy Steel

2—6 Conditions for Steels and Heat Treatment

2—7 Stainless Steels

2—8 Structural Steel

2—9 Tool Steels

2—10 Cast Iron

2—11 Powdered Metals

2—12 Aluminum

2—13 Zinc Alloys and Magnesium

2—14 Nickel-Based Alloys and Titanium

2—15 Copper, Brass, and Bronze

2—16 Plastics

2—17 Composite Materials

2—18 Materials Selection


Internet Sites Related to Design Properties of Materials


Supplementary Problems

Internet-Based Assignments


3 Stress and Deformation Analysis

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

3—1 Objective of This Chapter

3—2 Philosophy of a Safe Design

3—3 Representing Stresses on a Stress Element

3—4 Normal Stresses Due to Direct Axial Load

3—5 Deformation Under Direct Axial Loading

3—6 Shear Stress Due to Direct Shear Load

3—7 Torsional Load — Torque, Rotational Speed, and Power

3—8 Shear Stress Due to Torsional Load

3—9 Torsional Deformation

3—10 Torsion in Members Having Noncircular Cross Sections

3—11 Torsion in Closed, Thin-Walled Tubes

3—12 Torsion in Open Thin-Walled Tubes

3—13 Shear Stress Due to Bending

3—14 Shear Stress Due to Bending — Special Shearing Stress Formulas

3—15 Normal Stress Due to Bending

3—16 Beams with Concentrated Bending Moments

3—17 Flexural Center for Beam Bending

3—18 Beam Deflections

3—19 Equations for Deflected Beam Shapes

3—20 Curved Beams

3—21 Superposition Principle

3—22 Stress Concentrations

3—23 Notch Sensitivity and Strength Reduction Factor


Internet Sites Related to Stress and Deformation Analysis


4 Combined Stresses

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

4—1 Objectives of this Chapter

4—2 General Case of Combined Stress

4—3 Stress Transformation

4—4 Mohr’s Circle and Tresca and von Mises Stresses

4—5 Mohr’s Circle Practice Problems

4—6 Mohr’s Circle for Special Stress

4—7 Analysis of Complex Loading Conditions


Internet Sites



5 Design for Different Types of Loading

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

5-1        Objectives of This Chapter

5-2        Types of Loading and Stress Ratio

5-3        Failure Theories

5-4        Design for Static Loading

5-5        Fatigue Strength and Endurance Strength

5-6        Estimate of Endurance Strength

5-7        Design for Cyclic Loading

5-8        Recommended Design and Processing for Fatigue Loading

5-9        Design Factors

5-10      Design Philosophy

5-11      General Design Procedure

5-12      Design Examples

5-13      Statistical Approaches to Design

5-14      Finite Life and Damage Accumulation Method


6 Columns

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

6—1 Objectives of this Chapter

6—2 Properties of the Cross Section of a Column

6—3 End Fixity and Effective Length

6—4 Slenderness Ratio

6—5 Transition Slenderness Ratio

6—6 Long Column Analysis: The Euler Formula

6—7 Short Column Analysis: The J. B. Johnson Formula

6—8 Column Analysis Spreadsheet

6—9 Efficient Shapes for Column Cross Sections

6—10 The Design of Columns

6—11 Crooked Columns

6—12 Eccentrically Loaded Columns




Part 2 Design of a Mechanical Drive


7 Belt Drives and Chain Drives

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

7—1 Objectives of this Chapter

7—2 Kinematics of Belt and Chain Drive Systems

7—3 Types of Belt Drives

7—4 V-Belt Drives

7—5 Synchronous Belt Drives

7—6 Chain Drives

7—7 Wire Rope


Internet Sites Related to Belt Drives and Chain




8 Kinematics of Gears

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

8—1 Objectives of This Chapter

8—2 Spur Gear Styles

8—3 Spur Gear Geometry: Involute-Tooth Form

8—4 Spur Gear Nomenclature and Gear-Tooth Features

8—5 Interference between Mating Spur Gear Teeth

8 -6 Internal Gear Geometry

8—7 Helical Gear Geometry

8—8 Bevel Gear Geometry

8—9 Types of Wormgearing

8—10 Geometry of Worms and Wormgears

8—11 Gear Manufacturing

8—12 Gear Quality

8—13 Velocity Ratio and Gear Trains

8—14 Devising Gear Trains


Internet Sites Related to Kinematics of Gears



9 Spur Gear Design

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

9—1 Objectives of this Chapter

9—2 Concepts from Previous Chapters

9—3 Forces, Torque, and Power in Gearing

9—4 Allowable Stress Numbers

9—5 Bending Stress in Gear Teeth

9—6 Contact Stress in Gear Teeth

9—7 Metallic Gear Materials

9—8 Selection of Gear Material

9—9 Design of Spur Gears

9—10 Gear Design for the Metric Module System

9—11 Computer-Aided Spur Gear Design and Analysis

9—12 Use of the Spur Gear Design Spreadsheet

9—13 Power-Transmitting Capacity

9—14 Plastics Gearing

9—15 Practical Considerations for Gears and Interfaces with other Elements


Internet Sites Related to Spur Gear Design



10 Helical Gears, Bevel Gears, and Wormgearing

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

10—1 Objectives of this Chapter

10—2 Forces on Helical Gear Teeth

10—3 Stresses in Helical Gear Teeth

10—4 Pitting Resistance for Helical Gear Teeth

10—5 Design of Helical Gears

10—6 Forces on Straight Bevel Gears

10—7 Bearing Forces on Shafts Carrying Bevel Gears

10—8 Bending Moments on Shafts Carrying Bevel Gears

10—9 Stresses in Straight Bevel Gear Teeth

10—10 Forces, Friction, and Efficiency in Wormgear Sets

10—11 Stress in Wormgear Teeth

10—12 Surface Durability of Wormgear Drives

10—13 Emerging Technology and Software for Gear Design


Internet Sites Related to Helical Gears, Bevel Gears, and Wormgearing




11 Keys, Couplings, and Seals

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

11—1 Objectives of this Chapter

11—2 Keys

11—3 Materials for Keys

11—4 Stress Analysis to Determine Key Length

11—5 Splines

11—6 Other Methods of Fastening Elements to Shafts

11—7 Couplings

11—8 Universal Joints

11—9 Other Means of Axial Location

11—10 Types of Seals

11—11 Seal Materials


Internet Sites for Keys, Couplings, and Seals




12 Shaft Design

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

12—1 Objectives of This Chapter

12—2 Shaft Design Procedure

12—3 Forces Exerted on Shafts by Machine Elements

12—4 Stress Concentrations in Shafts

12—5 Design Stresses for Shafts

12—6 Shafts in Bending and Torsion Only

12—7 Shaft Design Examples–Bending and Torsion Only

12—8 Shaft Design Example–Bending and Torsion with Axial Forces

12—9 Spreadsheet Aid for Shaft Design

12—10 Shaft Rigidity and Dynamic Considerations

12—11 Flexible Shafts


Internet Sites for Shaft Design



13 Tolerances and Fits

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

13—1 Objectives of this Chapter

13—2 Factors Affecting Tolerances and Fits

13—3 Tolerances, Production Processes, and Cost

13—4 Preferred Basic Sizes

13—5 Clearance Fits

13—6 Interference Fits

13—7 Transition Fits

13—8 Stresses for Force Fits

13—9 General Tolerancing Methods

13—10 Robust Product Design


Internet Sites Related to Tolerances and Fits



14 Rolling Contact Bearings

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

14—1 Objectives of This Chapter

14—2 Types of Rolling Contact Bearings

14—3 Thrust Bearings

14—4 Mounted Bearings

14—5 Bearing Materials

14—6 Load/Life Relationship

14—7 Bearing Manufacturers’ Data

14—8 Design Life

14—9 Bearing Selection: Radial Loads Only

14—10 Bearing Selection: Radial and Thrust Loads Combined

14—11 Bearing Selection from Manufacturers’ Catalogs

14—12 Mounting of Bearings

14—13 Tapered Roller Bearings

14—14 Practical Considerations in the Application of Bearings

14—15 Importance of Oil Film Thickness in Bearings

14—16 Life Prediction under Varying Loads

14—17 Bearing Designation Series


Internet Sites Related to Rolling Contact Bearings



15 Completion of the Design of a Power Transmission

The Big Picture

15—1 Objectives of this Chapter

15—2 Description of the Power Transmission to be Designed

15—3 Design Alternatives and Selection of the Design Approach

15—4 Design Alternatives for the Gear-Type Reducer

15—5 General Layout and Design Details of the Reducer

15—6 Final Design Details for the Shafts

15—7 Assembly Drawing


Internet Sites Related to Transmission Design


Part 3 Design Details and Other Machine Elements


16 Plain Surface Bearings

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

16—1 Objectives of This Chapter

16—2 The Bearing Design Task

16—3 Bearing Parameter, μn/p

16—4 Bearing Materials

16—5 Design of Boundary-Lubricated Bearings

16—6 Full-Film Hydrodynamic Bearings

16—7 Design of Full-Film Hydro-dynamically Lubricated Bearings

16—8 Practical Considerations for Plain Surface Bearings

16—9 Hydrostatic Bearings

16—10 Tribology: Friction, Lubrication, and Wear


Internet Sites Related to Plain Bearings and Lubrication

17 Linear Motion Elements

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

17—1 Objectives of This Chapter

17—2 Power Screws

17—3 Ball Screws

17—4 Application Considerations for Power Screws and Ball Screws


Internet Sites for Linear Motion Elements



18 Springs

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

18—1 Objectives of this Chapter

18—2 Kinds of Springs

18—3 Helical Compression Springs

18—4 Stresses and Deflection for Helical Compression Springs

18—5 Analysis of Spring Characteristics

18—6 Design of Helical Compression Springs

18—7 Extension Springs

18—8 Helical Torsion Springs

18—9 Improving Spring Performance by Shot Peening

18—10 Spring Manufacturing


Internet Sites Relevant to Spring Design



19 Fasteners

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

19—1 Objectives of this Chapter

19—2 Bolt Materials and Strength

19—3 Thread Designations and Stress Area

19—4 Clamping Load and Tightening of Bolted Joints

19—5 Externally Applied Force on a Bolted Joint

19—6 Thread Stripping Strength

19—7 Other Types of Fasteners and Accessories

19—8 Other Means of Fastening and Joining


Internet Sites Related to Fasteners



20 Machine Frames, Bolted Connections, and Welded Joints

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

20—1 Objectives of this Chapter 6

20—2 Machine Frames and Structures

20—3 Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Joints

20—4 Welded Joints


Internet Sites for Machine Frames, Bolted Connections, and Welded Joints



21 Electric Motors and Controls

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

21—1 Objectives of This Chapter

21—2 Motor Selection Factors

21—3 AC Power and General Information about AC Motors 6

21—4 Principles of Operation of AC Induction Motors

21—5 AC Motor Performance

21—6 Three-Phase, Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors

21—7 Single-Phase Motors

21—8 AC Motor Frame Types and Enclosures

21—9 Controls for AC Motors

21—10 DC Power

21—11 DC Motors

21—12 DC Motor Control

21—13 Other Types of Motors


Internet Sites for Electric Motors and Controls



22 Motion Control: Clutches and Brakes

The Big Picture

You Are the Designer

22—1 Objectives of this Chapter

22—2 Descriptions of Clutches and Brakes

22—3 Types of Friction Clutches and Brakes

22—4 Performance Parameters

22—5 Time Required to Accelerate a Load

22—6 Inertia of a System Referred to the Clutch Shaft Speed

22—7 Effective Inertia for Bodies Moving Linearly

22—8 Energy Absorption: Heat-Dissipation Requirements

22—9 Response Time

22—10 Friction Materials and Coefficient of Friction

22—11 Plate-Type Clutch or Brake

22—12 Caliper Disc Brakes

22—13 Cone Clutch or Brake

22—14 Drum Brakes

22—15 Band Brakes

22—16 Other Types of Clutches and Brakes


Internet Sites for Clutches and Brakes



23 Design Projects

23—1 Objectives of this Chapter

23—2 Design Projects


List of Appendices

Appendix 1 Properties of Areas

Appendix 2 Preferred Basic Sizes and Screw Threads

Appendix 3 Design Properties of Carbon and Alloy Steels

Appendix 4 Properties of Heat-Treated Steels

Appendix 5 Properties of Carburized Steels

Appendix 6 Properties of Stainless Steels

Appendix 7 Properties of Structural Steels

Appendix 8 Design Properties of Cast Iron–U.S. Units Basis

Appendix 8A Design Properties of Cast Iron–SI Units Basis

Appendix 9 Typical Properties of Aluminum

Appendix 10-1 Properties of Die-Cast Zinc Alloys

Appendix 10-2 Properties of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys

Appendix 11-1 Properties of Nickel-Based Alloys

Appendix 11-2 Properties of Titanium Alloys

Appendix 12 Properties of Bronzes, Brasses, and Other Copper Alloys

Appendix 13 Typical Properties of Selected Plastics

Appendix 14 Beam-Deflection Formulas

Appendix 15 Commercially Available Shapes Used for Load-Carrying Members

Appendix 16 Conversion Factors

Appendix 17 Hardness Conversion Table

Appendix 18 Stress Concentration Factors

Appendix 19 Geometry Factor, I, for Pitting for Spur Gears


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