9780312439460

The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, A Concise History, Volume II: Since 1340

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780312439460

  • ISBN10:

    0312439466

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-07-28
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

Praised for its highly readable narrative and unmatched integration of political, social and cultural history,The Making of the West: A Concise Historycaptures the spirit of each age as it situates Europe within a global context. The rich narrative pays sustained attention to important topics and developments over time and reveals the cross-cultural interactions that have shaped today's world, presenting the history of the West as an ongoing process. The text's hallmark global perspective, broad geographic coverage, new student study aids, and handy format are combined with the best full-color art and map programs of any brief text.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Brief Contents xix
Maps and Figures xxxvii
About the Authors xli
Crisis and Renaissance, 1340-1500 425(48)
A Multitude of Crises
426(22)
Economic Contraction and the Black Death
426(4)
The Hundred Years' War, 1337-1453
430(6)
Ottoman Conquest and New Political Configurations in Eastern Europe
436(3)
Hard Times
439(1)
The Crisis of the Papacy
440(4)
Stamping Out Dissenters, Heretics, Jews, and Muslims
444(3)
End of the Reconquista and Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, 1492
447(1)
New Forms of Thought and Expression: The Renaissance
448(15)
Renaissance Humanism
448(4)
New Perspectives in Art and Music
452(5)
Republics and Principalities in Italy
457(2)
The Intersection of Private and Public Lives
459(4)
On the Threshold of World History
463(8)
The Divided Mediterranean
463(2)
Portuguese Confrontations
465(1)
The Voyages of Columbus
466(1)
A New Era in Slavery
467(1)
Europeans in a New World
468(3)
Conclusion
471(2)
Struggles over Beliefs, 1500-1648 473(50)
The Protestant Reformation
474(12)
Popular Piety and Christian Humanism
474(2)
Martin Luther and the German Nation
476(3)
Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin
479(2)
Reshaping Society through Religion
481(3)
Catholic Renewal and Missionary Zeal
484(2)
State Power and Religious Conflict, 1500-1618
486(12)
Wars among Habsburgs, Valois, and Ottomans
487(2)
French Wars of Religion
489(2)
Challenges to Habsburg Power and the Rise of the Dutch Republic
491(3)
England Goes Protestant
494(4)
The Thirty Years' War and the Balance of Power, 1618-1648
498(6)
Origins and Course of the War
498(2)
The Effects of Constant Fighting
500(1)
The Peace of Westphalia, 1648
501(2)
Growth of State Authority
503(1)
From Growth to Recession
504(5)
Causes and Consequences of Economic Crisis
505(2)
The Economic Balance of Power
507(2)
A Clash of Worldviews
509(11)
The Arts in an Age of Religious Conflict
509(3)
The Natural Laws of Politics
512(2)
Origins of the Scientific Revolution
514(3)
Magic and Witchcraft
517(3)
Conclusion
520(3)
State Building and the Search for Order, 1648-1690 523(30)
Louis XIV: Model of Absolutism
524(8)
The Fronde, 1648-1653
525(1)
Court Culture as an Element of Absolutism
526(2)
Enforcing Religious Orthodoxy
528(1)
Extending State Authority at Home and Abroad
529(3)
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
532(8)
Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden: Militaristic Absolutism
533(2)
An Uneasy Balance: Austrian Habsburgs and Ottoman Turks
535(2)
Russia: Foundations of Bureaucratic Absolutism
537(2)
Poland-Lithuania Overwhelmed
539(1)
Constitutionalism in England
540(8)
England Turned Upside Down, 1642-1660
541(4)
The "Glorious Revolution" of 1688
545(3)
Other Outposts of Constitutionalism
548(4)
The Dutch Republic
548(3)
Freedom and Slavery in the New World
551(1)
The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture
552(1)
Social Contract Theory: Hobbes and Locke 553(14)
Newton and the Consolidation of the Scientific Revolution
554(2)
Freedom and Order in the Arts
556(3)
Women and Manners
559(2)
Reforming Popular Culture
561(4)
Conclusion
565(2)
The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1690-1740 567(42)
The Atlantic System and the World Economy
569(9)
Slavery and the Atlantic System
569(5)
World Trade and Settlement
574(3)
The Birth of Consumer Society
577(1)
New Social and Cultural Patterns
578(8)
Agricultural Revolution
578(3)
Social Life in the Cities
581(1)
The Growing Public for Culture
582(4)
Religious Revivals
586(1)
Consolidation of the European State System
586(14)
The Limits of French Absolutism
587(2)
British Rise and Dutch Decline
589(3)
Russia's Emergence as a European Power
592(2)
The Balance of Power in the East
594(3)
The Power of Diplomacy and the Importance of Numbers
597(1)
Public Hygiene and Health Care
598(2)
The Birth of the Enlightenment
600(6)
Popularization of Science and Challenges to Religion
600(2)
Travel Literature and the Challenge to Custom and Tradition
602(2)
Raising the Woman Question
604(2)
Conclusion
606(3)
The Promise of Enlightenment, 1740-1789 609(42)
The Enlightenment at Its Height
610(11)
The Men and Women of the Republic of Letters
611(2)
Conflicts with Church and State
613(2)
The Individual and Society
615(3)
Spreading the Enlightenment
618(1)
The Limits of Reason: Roots of Romanticism and Religious Revival
619(2)
Society and Culture in an Age of Enlightenment
621(11)
The Nobility's Reassertion of Privilege
621(2)
The Middle Class and the Making of a New Elite
623(4)
Life on the Margins
627(2)
Roots of Industrialization
629(3)
State Power in an Era of Reform
632(8)
War and Diplomacy
632(4)
State-Sponsored Reform
636(2)
Limits of Reform
638(2)
Rebellions against State Power
640(7)
Food Riots and Peasant Uprisings
640(2)
Public Opinion and Political Opposition
642(2)
Revolution in North America
644(3)
Conclusion
647(4)
The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815 651(48)
The Revolution of Rights and Reason
653(12)
Protesters in the Low Countries and Poland
653(2)
Origins of the French Revolution, 1787-1789
655(4)
From Monarchy to Republic
659(6)
Terror and Resistance
665(9)
Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety
665(2)
The Republic of Virtue, 1793-1794
667(2)
Resisting the Revolution
669(2)
The Fall of Robespierre and the End of the Terror, 1794-1799
671(3)
The Directory and the Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
674(9)
Revolution on the March
675(3)
Revolution in the Colonies
678(2)
The End of the French Republic
680(3)
Emperor Napoleon I, r. 1804-1814
683(12)
The Authoritarian State
683(2)
The New Paternalism
685(3)
"Europe Was at My Feet": Napoleon's Military Conquests
688(3)
Napoleon's Fall
691(4)
Conclusion
695(4)
Industrialization and Social Ferment, 1815-1850 699(48)
The "Restoration" of Europe
700(7)
The Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815
700(3)
The Revival of Religion
703(1)
Political Challenges to the Vienna Settlement
704(3)
The Advance of Industrialization and Urbanization
707(7)
Engines of Change
708(1)
Formation of the Working Class
709(3)
Urbanization and Its Consequences
712(2)
New Ideologies
714(12)
Conservatism
714(1)
Liberalism
715(2)
Socialism and the Early Labor Movement
717(3)
Nationalism
720(3)
Romanticism
723(3)
Reform or Revolution?
726(19)
Depicting and Reforming the Social Order
726(5)
Abuses and Reforms Overseas
731(1)
The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
732(7)
Aftermath to 1848
739(6)
Conclusion
745(2)
Constructing the Nation-State, c. 1850-1880 747(50)
The End of the Concert of Europe
749(6)
Napoleon III and the Quest for French Glory
749(2)
The Crimean War, 1853-1856: Turning Point in European Affairs
751(1)
Spirit of Reform in Russia
752(3)
War and Nation Building
755(11)
Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Process of Italian Unification
755(3)
Bismarck and the Realpolitik of German Unification
758(4)
Francis Joseph and the Creation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
762(1)
Political Stability through Gradual Reform in Great Britain
763(1)
Civil War and Nation Building in the United States and Canada
764(2)
Industry and Nation Building
766(6)
Industrial Innovation
766(2)
Facing Economic Crisis
768(2)
Revolution in Business Practices
770(2)
Establishing Social Order
772(13)
Bringing Order to the Cities
772(2)
Expanding the Reach of Bureaucracy
774(1)
Schooling and Professionalizing Society
775(3)
Spreading Western Order beyond the West
778(3)
Contesting the Nation-State at Home
781(4)
The Culture of Social Order
785(9)
The Arts Confront Social Reality
785(4)
Religion and Secular Order
789(2)
From Natural Science to Social Science
791(3)
Conclusion
794(3)
Empire, Modernity, and the Road to War, c. 1880-1914 797(54)
The Challenge of Empire
799(10)
Scramble for Africa
799(5)
Imperial Newcomers
804(2)
Growing Resistance to Colonial Domination
806(3)
Modern Life in an Age of Empire
809(13)
Life in the "Best Circles"
809(2)
The "Best Circles" Transformed
811(5)
Working People's Strategies
816(2)
Toward National Fitness: Reforming the Working Class, Expanding Sports and Leisure
818(2)
Sciences of the Modern Self
820(2)
Modernity and the Revolt in Ideas
822(7)
The Challenge to Positivism
823(1)
Revolutionizing Science
824(1)
Modern Art
825(2)
Musical Iconoclasm
827(2)
The Birth of Mass Politics
829(14)
Mass Politics and the Growing Power of Labor
829(4)
Rights for Women and the Battle for Suffrage
833(2)
Liberalism Modified
835(1)
Anti-Semitism, Nationalism, and Zionism in Mass Politics
836(5)
Threats to Russian Empire
841(2)
Roads to World War I
843(6)
Competing Alliances and Clashing Ambitions
843(3)
The Race to Arms
846(3)
Conclusion
849(2)
War, Revolution, and Reconstruction, 1914-1929 851(48)
The Great War, 1914-1918
852(11)
War Erupts
853(1)
The Conflict Widens
854(1)
Battlefronts
855(5)
The Home Front
860(3)
Protest, Revolution, and War's End: 1917-1918
863(7)
War Protest
863(1)
Revolution and Civil War in Russia
864(5)
Ending the War: 1918
869(1)
The Search for Peace in an Era of Revolution
870(6)
Europe in Turmoil
870(1)
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919-1920
871(3)
Economic and Diplomatic Consequences of the Peace
874(2)
A Decade of Recovery: Europe in the 1920's
876(9)
Changes in the Political Landscape across Europe
877(4)
Reconstructing the Economy
881(1)
Restoring Society
882(3)
Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators
885(11)
Culture for the Masses
885(1)
Cultural Debates over the Future
886(3)
The Communist Utopia
889(3)
Fascism on the March in Italy
892(4)
Conclusion
896(3)
An Age of Catastrophes, 1929-1945 899(46)
The Great Depression
900(5)
Economic Disaster Strikes
900(2)
Social Effects of the Depression
902(1)
Global Dimensions of the Crash
903(2)
Totalitarian Triumph
905(9)
The Rise of Stalinism
906(3)
Hitler's Rise to Power
909(2)
The Nazification of German Politics
911(2)
Nazi Racism
913(1)
Democracies on the Defensive
914(6)
Confronting the Economic Crisis
914(4)
Cultural Visions in Hard Times
918(2)
The Road to Global War
920(7)
A Surge in Global Imperialism
921(2)
The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939
923(2)
Hitler's Conquest of Central Europe, 1938-1939
925(2)
World War II, 1939-1945
927(15)
The German Onslaught
927(2)
War Expands: The Pacific and Beyond
929(1)
The War against Civilians and the Holocaust
930(2)
Societies at War
932(1)
From Resistance to Allied Victory
933(5)
An Uneasy Postwar Settlement
938(4)
Conclusion
942(3)
Remaking Europe in the Shadow of Cold War, c. 1945-1965 945(42)
World Politics Transformed
946(9)
Europe Prostrate
947(2)
New Superpowers: The United States and the Soviet Union
949(1)
Origins of the Cold War
950(3)
The Division of Germany
953(2)
Political and Economic Recovery in Europe
955(11)
Dealing with the Nazi Past
955(2)
Rebirth of the West
957(4)
The Welfare State: Common Ground East and West
961(2)
Recovery in the East
963(3)
Decolonization in a Cold War Climate
966(8)
The End of Empire in Asia
967(1)
The Struggle for Identity in the Middle East
968(2)
New Nations in Africa
970(3)
The Arrival of New Europeans
973(1)
Cultural Life on the Brink of Nuclear War
974(10)
Restoring "Western" Values
975(2)
Rising Consumerism and Shifting Gender Norms
977(2)
The Culture of Cold War
979(2)
Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Atomic Brink
981(3)
Conclusion
984(3)
Postindustrial Society and the End of the Cold War Order, 1965-1989 987(42)
The Revolution in Technology
988(7)
The Information Age: Television and Computers
988(3)
The Space Age
991(2)
Revolutions in Biology, Reproductive Technology, and Sexual Behavior
993(2)
Postindustrial Society and Culture
995(8)
The New Worker
996(1)
The Boom in Education and Research
997(1)
A Redefined Family and a Generation Gap
998(2)
Art, Ideas, and Religion in a Technocratic Society
1000(3)
Protesting Cold War Conditions
1003(10)
Cracks in the Cold War Order
1004(2)
The Explosion of Civic Activism
1006(4)
1968: Year of Crisis
1010(3)
The Erosion of Superpower Mastery Ends the Cold War
1013(13)
The West, the World, and the Politics of Energy
1013(3)
The Western Bloc Meets Challenges with Reform
1016(4)
Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Bloc
1020(6)
Conclusion
1026(3)
The New Globalism: Opportunities and Dilemmas, 1989 to the Present 1029
Soviet Collapse Releases Global Forces
1031(9)
The Breakup of Yugoslavia
1032(2)
The Soviet Union Comes Apart
1034(2)
An Elusive Market Economy
1036(2)
Chechnya and Post-Soviet States: The Quest for Independence and Influence
1038(2)
Global Opportunities Transcend the Nation-State
1040(7)
Europe Looks beyond the Nation-State
1040(3)
Globalizing Cities and Fragmenting Nations
1043(2)
Global Organizations
1045(2)
Global Challenges and Discontents
1047(10)
Pollution and Population
1047(2)
Population and Disease
1049(2)
North versus South?
1051(1)
Islam Confronts the West
1052(3)
The Rise of the Pacific Economy
1055(2)
Global Culture and Society in the New Millennium
1057(10)
Redefining the West: The Impact of Global Migration
1057(2)
Global Networks and the Economy
1059(1)
The Global Diffusion of Culture
1060(7)
Conclusion: The Making of the West Continues
1067
Suggested References SR-6
Glossary of Key Terms G-1
Index I-1

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