
Introduction to Management Accounting 


2  (24) 

The Meaning of Management Accounting 


4  (2) 

Information Needs of Managers and Other Users 


5  (1) 

Management Accounting and Financial Accounting 


6  (2) 

Current Focus of Management Accounting 


8  (4) 

New Methods of Costing Products and Services 


8  (1) 


9  (1) 

CrossFunctional Perspective 


10  (1) 


11  (1) 

Time Is a Competitive Element 


11  (1) 


12  (1) 

The Role of the Management Accountant 


12  (1) 

Management Accounting and Ethical Conduct 


13  (2) 


14  (1) 

Company Codes of Ethical Conduct 


14  (1) 


15  (11) 


16  (1) 


17  (1) 


17  (9) 

Basic Management Accounting Concepts 


26  (38) 

The Meaning and Uses of Cost 


28  (4) 


28  (1) 

Accumulating and Assigning Costs 


28  (1) 


29  (1) 

Assigning Costs to Cost Objects 


29  (3) 

Product and Service Costs 


32  (6) 


33  (3) 

How to Calculate Product Cost in Total and Per Unit 


36  (1) 

How to Calculate Prime Cost and Conversion Cost in Total and Per Unit 


36  (1) 


37  (1) 

Preparing Income Statements 


38  (26) 

Cost of Goods Manufactured 


39  (1) 

How to Calculate the Direct Materials Used in Production 


39  (1) 

How to Calculate Cost of Goods Manufactured 


40  (1) 

How to Calculate Cost of Goods Sold 


40  (1) 

Income Statement: Manufacturing Firm 


41  (1) 

How to Prepare an Income Statement for a Manufacturing Firm 


41  (1) 

How to Calculate the percentage of Sales Revenue for Each Line on the Income Statement 


42  (1) 

Income Statement: Service Organization 


43  (1) 

How to Prepare an Income Statement for a Service Organization 


43  (21) 


64  (46) 


66  (5) 

Measures of Output and the Relevant Range 


66  (1) 


67  (3) 


70  (1) 

The Reasonableness of StraightLine Cost Relationships 


71  (1) 

Mixed Costs and Step Costs 


71  (4) 


72  (1) 


73  (2) 

Accounting Records and Mixed Costs 


75  (1) 


75  (1) 

Methods for Separating Mixed Costs Into Fixed and Variable Components 


75  (15) 

How to Create and Use a Cost Formula 


76  (1) 


77  (1) 

How to Use the HighLow Method to Calculate Fixed Cost and the Variable Rate and to Construct a Cost Formula 


78  (1) 

How to Use the HighLow Method to Calculate Predicted Total Variable Cost and Total Cost for Budgeted Output 


79  (1) 

How to Use the HighLow Method to Calculate Predicted Total Variable Cost and Total Cost for a Time Period that Differs from the Data Period 


79  (1) 


80  (4) 

The Method of Least Squares 


84  (2) 

How to Use the Regression Method to Calculate Fixed Cost and the Variable Rate and to Construct a Cost Formula and to Determine Budgeted Cost 


86  (1) 


86  (4) 


90  (20) 

Using the Regression Programs 


90  (1) 


91  (19) 

CostVolumeProfit Analysis: A Managerial Planning Tool 


110  (44) 

BreakEven Point in Units and in Sales Dollars 


112  (7) 

Using Operating Income in CVP Analysis 


112  (1) 

How to Prepare a Contribution Margin Income Statement 


113  (1) 

BreakEven Point in Units 


114  (2) 

How to Solve for the BreakEven Point in Units 


116  (1) 

BreakEven Point in Sales Dollars 


117  (1) 

How to Calculate the Variable Cost Ratio and the Contribution Margin Ratio 


117  (2) 

How to Solve for the BreakEven Point in Sales Dollars 


119  (1) 

Units and Sales Dollars Needed to Achieve a Target Income 


119  (3) 

Units to Be Sold to Achieve a Target Income 


119  (1) 

How to Solve for the Number of Units to Be Sold to Earn a Target Operating Income 


120  (1) 

Sales Revenue to Achieve a Target Income 


121  (1) 

How to Solve for the Sales Needed to Earn a Target Operating Income 


121  (1) 

Graphs of CVP Relationships 


122  (4) 


122  (1) 

The CostVolumeProfit Graph 


123  (2) 

Assumptions of CostVolumeProfit Analysis 


125  (1) 

MultipleProduct Analysis 


126  (4) 

BreakEven Point in Units 


126  (2) 

How to Calculate the BreakEven Units for a MultipleProduct Firm 


128  (1) 

BreakEven Point in Sales Dollars 


129  (1) 

How to Calculate the BreakEven Sales Dollars for a MultipleProduct Firm 


129  (1) 

CVP Analysis and Risk and Uncertainty 


130  (24) 

Introducing Risk and Uncertainty 


132  (1) 

How to Compute the Margin of Safety 


133  (2) 

How to Compute the Degree of Operating Leverage 


135  (1) 

How to Compute the Impact of Increased Sales on Operating Income Using the Degree of Operating Leverage 


136  (1) 

Sensitivity Analysis and CVP 


137  (17) 


154  (46) 

Characteristics of the JobOrder Environment 


156  (2) 

JobOrder Production and Costing 


156  (1) 

Process Production and Costing 


156  (1) 

Production Costs in JobOrder Costing 


157  (1) 

Normal Costing and Overhead Application 


158  (8) 

Actual Costing versus Normal Costing 


158  (1) 

Importance of Unit Costs to Manufacturing Firms 


159  (1) 

Importance of Unit Costs to Service Firms 


159  (1) 

Normal Costing and Estimating Overhead 


160  (1) 

Applying Overhead to Production 


160  (1) 

How to Calculate the Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production 


161  (1) 

Reconciling Applied Overhead with Actual Overhead 


161  (1) 

How to Reconcile Actual Overhead with Applied Overhead 


162  (1) 

Departmental Overhead Rates 


163  (1) 

How to Calculate Predetermined Departmental Overhead Rates and Apply Overhead to Production 


164  (1) 

How to Convert Departmental Data to Plantwide Data to Calculate the Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production 


165  (1) 

Unit Costs in the JobOrder System 


165  (1) 

Keeping Track of Job Costs with Source Documents 


166  (3) 


166  (1) 


167  (1) 


168  (1) 


169  (1) 

The Flow of Costs Through the Accounts 


169  (10) 


169  (1) 

Accounting for Direct Labor Cost 


170  (1) 


170  (1) 

Accounting for Actual Overhead Costs 


171  (1) 

Accounting for Finished Goods 


172  (1) 

Accounting for Cost of Goods Sold 


173  (2) 

How to Prepare Brief JobOrder Cost Sheets 


175  (1) 

Accounting for Nonmanufacturing Costs 


176  (3) 

Appendix: Journal Entries Associated with JobOrder Costing 


179  (21) 


200  (44) 

Characteristics of Process Manufacturing 


202  (5) 


202  (2) 

How Costs Flow Through the Accounts in Process Costing 


204  (1) 

How to Calculate Cost Flows without WIP 


205  (1) 

Accumulating Costs in the Production Report 


206  (1) 

Service and Manufacturing Firms 


207  (1) 

The Impact of WorkInProcess Inventories on Process Costing 


207  (3) 

Equivalent Units of Production 


207  (1) 

How to Calculate Equivalent Units of Production: No Beginning Work in Process 


208  (1) 

How to Measure Output and Assign Costs: No Beginning Work in Process 


209  (1) 

Two Methods of Treating Beginning WorkinProcess Inventory 


209  (1) 


210  (7) 

Overview of the Weighted Average Method 


210  (1) 

How to Measure Output and Assign Costs: Weighted Average Method 


211  (1) 

Five Steps in Preparing a Production Report 


212  (1) 

How to Prepare a Physical Flow Schedule 


213  (2) 


215  (1) 

How to Prepare a Production Report: Weighted Average Method 


215  (1) 

Evaluation of the Weighted Average Method 


216  (1) 

Multiple Inputs and Multiple Departments 


217  (5) 

Nonuniform Application of Manufacturing Inputs 


217  (1) 

How to Calculate Equivalent Units, Unit Costs, and Value Inventories with Nonuniform Inputs 


217  (1) 


218  (2) 

How to Calculate the Physical Flow Schedule, Equivalent Units, and Unit Costs with TransferredIn Goods 


220  (2) 

Appendix: Production ReportFIFO Costing 


222  (22) 

Differences between the FIFO and Weighted Average Methods 


222  (1) 

Example of the FIFO Method 


223  (1) 

How to Calculate Output and Cost Assignments: FIFO Method 


223  (4) 

How to Prepare a Production Report: FIFO Method 


227  (17) 

ActivityBased Costing and Management 


244  (64) 

Limitations of FunctionalBased Cost Accounting Systems 


246  (6) 

NonUnitRelated Overhead Costs 


246  (1) 


247  (1) 

An Example Illustrating the Failure of UnitBased Overhead Rates 


247  (2) 

How to Calculate Consumption Ratios 


249  (1) 

How to Calculate Activity Rates 


249  (2) 

How to Calculate ActivityBased Unit Costs 


251  (1) 

ActivityBased Product Costing: Detailed Description 


252  (6) 

Identifying Activities and Their Attributes 


252  (3) 

Assigning Costs to Activities 


255  (1) 

How to Assign Resource Costs Using Direct Tracing and Resource Drivers 


256  (1) 

Assigning Cost to Products 


256  (2) 

ActivityBased Customer and Supplier Costing 


258  (4) 

ActivityBased Customer Costing 


259  (1) 

How to Calculate ActivityBased Customer Costs 


259  (1) 

ActivityBased Supplier Costing 


260  (1) 

How to Calculate ActivityBased Supplier Costs 


261  (1) 


262  (8) 

Driver Analysis: The Search for Root Causes 


262  (1) 

Activity Analysis: Identifying and Assessing Value Content 


263  (3) 

How to Assess NonValueAdded Costs 


266  (1) 

Activity Performance Measurement 


267  (1) 

How to Calculate Cycle Time and Velocity 


267  (3) 

Appendix: Quality and Environmental Costing 


270  (4) 


270  (1) 


270  (1) 


271  (1) 


272  (1) 

How to Prepare a Quality Cost Report 


272  (1) 

ActivityBased Management and Optimal Quality Costs 


273  (1) 

Environmental Cost Management 


274  (34) 

The Benefits of Ecoefficiency 


274  (1) 

Environmental Quality Cost Model 


275  (2) 

Environmental Cost Report 


277  (1) 

Reducing Environmental Costs: More ActivityBased Management 


278  (1) 

How to Prepare an Environmental Cost Report 


278  (2) 

Assigning Environmental Costs 


280  (1) 

How to Calculate ActivityBased Environmental Product Costs 


281  (27) 


308  (44) 


310  (2) 

Budgeting and Planning and Control 


310  (1) 


310  (2) 


312  (1) 

Preparing the Operating Budget 


312  (10) 


314  (1) 

How to Prepare a Sales Budget 


315  (1) 


316  (1) 

How to Prepare the Production Budget 


316  (1) 

Direct Materials Purchases Budget 


317  (1) 

How to Prepare a Direct Materials Purchases Budget 


317  (1) 


318  (1) 

How to Prepare a Direct Labor Budget 


319  (1) 


319  (1) 

How to Prepare an Overhead Budget 


319  (1) 

Ending Finished Goods Inventory Budget 


320  (1) 

How to Prepare the Ending Finished Goods Inventory Budget 


320  (1) 

Cost of Goods Sold Budget 


320  (1) 

How to Prepare a Cost of Goods Sold Budget 


321  (1) 

Selling and Administrative Expenses Budget 


321  (1) 

How to Prepare a Selling and Administrative Expenses Budget 


321  (1) 

Budgeted Income Statement 


322  (1) 

How to Prepare a Budgeted Income Statement 


322  (1) 

Preparing the Financial Budget 


322  (6) 


323  (1) 

How to Prepare a Cash Budget 


324  (3) 


327  (1) 

How to Prepare the Budgeted Balance Sheet 


327  (1) 

Using Budgets for Performance Evaluation 


328  (24) 

Frequent Feedback on Performance 


329  (1) 

Monetary and Nonmonetary Incentives 


329  (1) 


329  (2) 


331  (1) 


331  (1) 

Multiple Measures of Performance 


331  (21) 

Standard Costing: A Managerial Control Tool 


352  (46) 


354  (4) 

How Standards Are Developed 


354  (1) 


355  (1) 

Why Standard Cost Systems Are Adopted 


356  (2) 


358  (2) 

How to Compute Standard Quantities Allowed (SQ and SH) 


359  (1) 

Variance Analysis: General Description 


360  (4) 

Price and Usage Variances 


361  (1) 

The Decision to Investigate 


362  (1) 

How to Use Control Limits to Trigger a Variance Investigation 


363  (1) 

Variance Analysis: Materials 


364  (4) 

How to Calculate the Total Variance for Materials 


364  (1) 

Direct Materials Variances 


364  (2) 

How to Calculate Materials Variances: Formula and Columnar Approaches 


366  (1) 

Using Materials Variance Information 


366  (1) 

Responsibility for the Materials Price Variance 


367  (1) 

Analysis of the Materials Price Variance 


367  (1) 

Responsibility for the Materials Usage Variance 


367  (1) 

Analysis of the Materials Usage Variance 


367  (1) 

Accounting and Disposition of Materials Variances 


368  (1) 

Variance Analysis: Direct Labor 


368  (5) 

How to Calculate the Total Variance for Labor 


368  (1) 


368  (1) 

How to Calculate Labor Variances: Formula and Columnar Approaches 


369  (1) 

Using Labor Variance Information 


369  (1) 

Responsibility for the Labor Rate Variance 


370  (1) 

Responsibility for the Labor Efficiency Variance 


370  (1) 

Analysis of the Labor Efficiency Variance 


370  (3) 

Appendix 9A: Accounting for Variances 


373  (1) 

Entries for Direct Materials Variances 


373  (1) 

Entries for Direct Labor Variances 


373  (1) 

Disposition of Materials and Labor Variances 


374  (1) 

Appendix 9B: Kaizen and Target Costing 


374  (24) 

The Role of Kaizen Standards 


374  (1) 

How to Apply Kaizen Costing 


375  (1) 

The Role of Target Costing 


376  (1) 

How to Implement Target Costing 


377  (21) 

Flexible Budgets and Overhead Analysis 


398  (38) 

Using Budgets for Performance Evaluation 


400  (5) 

Static Budgets versus Flexible Budgets 


400  (1) 

How to Prepare a Performance Report based on a Static Budget (Using Budgeted Production) 


401  (2) 

How to Prepare a Flexible Production Budget 


403  (1) 

How to Prepare a Performance Report Using a Flexible Budget 


404  (1) 

Variable Overhead Analysis 


405  (4) 

Total Variable Overhead Variance 


405  (1) 

How to Calculate the Total Variable Overhead Variance 


405  (1) 

How to Calculate Variable Overhead Variances: Columnar and Formula Approaches 


406  (1) 

Comparison of the Spending Variance with the Price Variances of Materials and Labor 


407  (1) 

Responsibility for the Variable Overhead Spending Variance 


407  (1) 

Responsibility for the Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance 


407  (1) 

A Performance Report for the Variable Overhead Spending and Efficiency Variances 


408  (1) 

How to Prepare a Performance Report for the Variable Overhead Variances 


408  (1) 


409  (3) 

Total Fixed Overhead Variances 


409  (1) 

How to Calculate the Total Fixed Overhead Variance 


410  (1) 

How to Calculate Fixed Overhead Variances: Columnar and Formula Approaches 


411  (1) 

Responsibility for the Fixed Overhead Spending Variance 


411  (1) 

Analysis of the Fixed Overhead Spending Variance 


412  (1) 

Responsibility for the Fixed Overhead Volume Variance 


412  (1) 

Analysis of the Volume Variance 


412  (1) 


412  (24) 


413  (1) 

How to Prepare a Static Budget for an Activity 


414  (1) 

Activity Flexible Bedgeting 


415  (1) 

How to Prepare an Activity Flexible Budget 


416  (1) 

How to Prepare an ActivityBased Performance Report 


417  (19) 

Performance Evaluation, Variable Costing, and Decentralization 


436  (56) 

Decentralization and Responsibility Centers 


438  (4) 

Reasons for Decentralization 


438  (2) 

Divisions in the Decentralized Firm 


440  (2) 

Measuring the Performance of Profit Centers Using Variable and Absorption Income Statements 


442  (6) 


443  (1) 

How to Compute Inventory Cost Under Absorption and Variable Costing 


444  (1) 

Income Statements Using Variable and Absorption Costing 


444  (1) 

How to Prepare Income Statements Under Absorption and Variable Costing 


445  (1) 

Production, Sales, and Income Relationships 


446  (1) 

Evaluating ProfitCenter Managers 


446  (1) 

Segmented Income Statements Using Variable Costing 


447  (1) 

How to Prepare a Segmented Income Statement 


447  (1) 

Measuring the Performance of Investment Centers Using ROI 


448  (6) 


448  (1) 

How to Calculate Average Operating Assets, Margin, Turnover, and ROI 


449  (1) 


449  (1) 


450  (2) 

Disadvantages of ROI Measure 


452  (2) 

Measuring the Performance of Investment Centers Using Residual Income and Economic Value Added 


454  (3) 


454  (1) 

How to Calculate Residual Income 


454  (2) 

Economic Value Added (EVA) 


456  (1) 


457  (1) 


457  (8) 

Impact of Transfer Pricing on Divisions and the Firm as a Whole 


458  (1) 

Transfer Pricing Policies 


459  (2) 

How to Calculate Transfer Prices 


461  (4) 

Appendix: The Balanced Scorecard: Basic Concepts 


465  (3) 


466  (2) 

The Four Perspectives and Performance Measures 


468  (24) 

The Financial Perspective 


468  (1) 


469  (1) 


470  (2) 


472  (1) 

How to Compute Cycle Time and Velocity 


472  (1) 

Manufacturing Cycle Efficiency (MCE) 


472  (1) 


473  (1) 

Learning and Growth Perspective 


473  (19) 

ShortRun Decision Making: Relevant Costing and Inventory Management 


492  (48) 

ShortRun Decision Making 


494  (6) 

The DecisionMaking Model 


494  (1) 

Step 1: Define the Problem 


495  (1) 

Step 2: Identify the Alternatives 


495  (1) 

Step 3: Identify the Costs and Benefits Associated with Each Feasible Alternative 


495  (1) 

Step 4: Total the Relevant Costs and Benefits for Each Feasible Alternative 


496  (1) 

Step 5: Assess the Qualitative Factors 


496  (1) 

Step 6: Make the Decision 


497  (1) 

Ethics in Decision Making 


497  (1) 


498  (1) 

Cost Behavior and Relevant Costs 


499  (1) 

Some Common Relevant Cost Applications 


500  (9) 


500  (1) 

How to Structure a MakeorBuy Problem 


501  (2) 


503  (1) 

How to Structure a SpecialOrder Problem 


504  (1) 


505  (1) 

How to Structure a KeeporDrop Product Line Problem 


506  (1) 

How to Structure a KeeporDrop Product Line Problem with Complementary Effects 


506  (2) 

Further Processing of Joint Products 


508  (1) 

How to Structure the SellorProcessFurther Decision 


508  (1) 


509  (3) 

How to Determine the Optimal Product Mix with One Constrained Resource 


510  (1) 

How to Determine the Optimal Product Mix with One Constrained Resource and a Sales Constraint 


511  (1) 

Multiple Constrained Resources 


511  (1) 

The Use of Costs in Pricing Decisions 


512  (2) 


512  (1) 

How to Calculate Price by Applying a Markup Percentage to Cost 


512  (1) 

Target Costing and Pricing 


513  (1) 

How to Calculate a Target Cost 


513  (1) 

Decision Making for Inventory Management 


514  (26) 


514  (1) 

Economic Order Quantity: The Traditional Inventory Model 


515  (1) 

How to Calculate Ordering Cost, Carrying Cost, and Total InventoryRelated Cost 


516  (1) 

The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) 


516  (1) 

How to Calculate the EOQ, Ordering Cost, Carrying Cost, and Total InventoryRelated Cost 


517  (1) 

EOQ and Inventory Management 


517  (1) 

JustinTime Approach to Inventory Management 


517  (23) 

Capital Investment Decisions 


540  (42) 

Types of Capital Investment Decisions 


542  (1) 


543  (4) 


544  (1) 


544  (2) 

Accounting Rate of Return 


546  (1) 

How to Calculate the Accounting Rate of Return 


546  (1) 

Discounting Models: The Net Present Value Method 


547  (2) 


547  (1) 

An Example Illustrating Net Present Value 


548  (1) 

How to Assess Cash Flows and Calculate NPV 


548  (1) 


549  (2) 

Example: MultiplePeriod Setting with Uniform Cash Flows 


549  (1) 

How to Calculate IRR with Uniform Cash Flows 


550  (1) 

MultiplePeriod Setting: Uneven Cash Flows 


550  (1) 

Postaudit of Capital Projects 


551  (3) 

Honley Medical Company: An Illustrative Application 


551  (1) 


552  (1) 


553  (1) 

Mutually Exclusive Projects 


554  (8) 


554  (1) 

Example: Mutually Exclusive Projects 


555  (1) 

How to Calculate NPV and IRR for Mutually Exclusive Projects 


556  (1) 

Special Considerations for the Advanced Manufacturing Environment 


557  (5) 

Appendix 13A: Present Value Concepts 


562  (2) 


562  (1) 


562  (1) 

Present Value of an Uneven Series of Cash Flows 


563  (1) 

Present Value of a Uniform Series of Cash Flows 


563  (1) 

Appendix 13B: Present Value Tables 


564  (18) 

Support Department Cost Allocation 


582  (38) 

An Overview of Cost Allocation 


584  (4) 


584  (1) 

Assigning Costs from Departments to Products 


585  (1) 


586  (1) 

Objectives of Assigning Support Department Costs 


587  (1) 

Assigning Service Department Costs to Producing Departments 


588  (5) 


589  (1) 

How to Calculate and Use a Single Charging Rate 


590  (1) 


591  (1) 

How to Calculate and Assign Service Costs Using Multiple Charging Rates 


591  (1) 

Assigning Budgeted versus Actual Service Costs 


592  (1) 

Choosing a Support Department Cost Allocation Method 


593  (7) 


593  (2) 

How to Assign Support Department Costs Using the Direct Method 


595  (1) 

Sequential Method of Allocation 


596  (2) 

How to Assign Support Department Costs Using the Sequential Method 


598  (1) 

Reciprocal Method of Allocation 


599  (1) 

Departmental Overhead Rates and Product Costing 


600  (20) 

How to Calculate and Use Departmental Overhead Rates 


600  (20) 


620  (34) 

Overview of the Statement of Cash Flows 


622  (2) 


622  (1) 


622  (1) 

How to Classify Activities and Identify Them as Sources or Uses of Cash 


622  (2) 


624  (1) 

Methods for Calculating Operating Cash Flows 


624  (1) 

Preparation of the Statement: Indirect Method 


624  (7) 

Step One: Compute the Change in Cash Flow 


625  (1) 

How to Compute the Change in Cash Flow 


625  (1) 

Step Two: Compute Operating Cash Flows 


626  (1) 

How to Calculate Operating Cash Flows: Indirect Method 


626  (2) 

Step Three: Compute Investing Cash Flows 


628  (1) 

How to Compute Investing Cash Flows 


628  (1) 

Step Four: Cash Flows from Financing 


629  (1) 

How to Compute Financing Cash Flows 


629  (1) 

Step Five: Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows 


630  (1) 

How to Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows 


630  (1) 

The Direct Method: An Alternative Approach 


631  (1) 

How to Calculate Operating Cash Flows Using the Direct Method 


631  (1) 

Worksheet Approach to the Statement of Cash Flows 


632  (22) 

How to Prepare a Statement of Cash Flows Using a Worksheet Approach 


632  (2) 


634  (2) 


636  (18) 

Financial Statement Analysis 


654  (37) 


656  (3) 


656  (1) 

How to Prepare CommonSize Income Statements Using Base Period Horizontal Analysis 


657  (1) 


657  (1) 

How to Prepare Income Statements Using Net Sales as the Base: Vertical Analysis 


658  (1) 

Percentages and Size Effects 


658  (1) 


659  (4) 


659  (2) 


661  (2) 


663  (4) 


663  (1) 


663  (1) 

How to Calculate the Current Ratio and the Quick (or AcidTest) Ratio 


664  (1) 

Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio 


665  (1) 

How to Calculate the Average Accounts Receivable, the Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio, and the Accounts Receivable Turnover in Days 


665  (1) 


666  (1) 

How to Calculate the Average Inventory, the Inventory Ratio, and the Inventory Turnover in Days 


666  (1) 


667  (2) 

TimesInterestEarned Ratio 


667  (1) 

How to Calculate the TimesInterestEarned Ratio 


667  (1) 


668  (1) 

How to Calculate the Debt Ratio and the Debt to Equity Ratio 


668  (1) 


669  (22) 


669  (1) 

How to Calculate the Return on Sales 


669  (1) 


669  (1) 

How to Calculate the Average Total Assets and the Return on Assets 


670  (1) 

Return on Common Stockholders' Equity 


670  (1) 

How to Calculate the Average Common Stockholders' Equity and the Return on Stockholders' Equity 


670  (1) 


671  (1) 

How to Compute Earnings per Share 


671  (1) 


671  (1) 

How tπo Compute the PriceEarnings Ratio 


672  (1) 

Dividend Yield and Payout Ratios 


672  (1) 

How to Compute the Dividend Yield and the Dividend Payout Ratio 


672  (1) 

Impact of the JIT Manufacturing Environment 


673  (18) 
Glossary 

691  (8) 
Check Figures 

699  (6) 
Subject Index 

705  