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Managing Organizational Change,9780072496802
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Managing Organizational Change

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780072496802

ISBN10:
0072496800
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/11/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
List Price: $149.51
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Summary

Managing Organizational Change, by Palmer/Dunford/Akin, provides managers with an awareness of the issues involved in managing change, moving them beyond "one-best way" approaches and providing them with access to multiple perspectives that they can draw upon in order to enhance their success in producing organizational change. These multiple perspectives provide a theme for the text as well as a framework for the way each chapter outlines different options open to managers in helping them to identify, in a reflective way, the actions and choices open to them. The authors favor using multiple perspectives to ensure that change managers are not trapped by a "one-best way" of approaching change which limits their options for action.Changing organizations is as messy as it is exhilarating, as frustrating as it is satisfying, as muddling-through and creative a process as it is a rational one. This book recognizes these tensions for those involved in managing organizational change. Rather than pretend that they do not exist it confronts them head on, identifying why they are there, how they can be managed and the limits they create for what the manager of organizational change can achieve.

Table of Contents

Preface xii
Chapter One Introduction: Stories of Change 1(22)
Stories of Change
2(6)
A Hewlett Packard Change Story: Managing a Merger
2(1)
An IBM Change Story: Transformational Change from Below and Above
3(2)
A Kodak Change Story: Provoking Reactions
5(1)
A McDonald's Change Story: Responding to Pressure
6(2)
Drawing Out the Change Issues and Where They Are Found in the Chapters That Follow
8(5)
Images of Managing Change...Chapter Two
9(1)
Why Organizations Change...Chapter Three
9(1)
What Changes in Organizations...Chapter Four
10(1)
Diagnosis for Change...Chapter Five
10(1)
Resistance to Change...Chapter Six
11(1)
Implementing Change...Chapters Seven and Eight
11(1)
Linking Vision and Change...Chapter Nine
12(1)
Strategies and Skills for Communicating Change...Chapters Ten and Eleven
12(1)
Consolidating Change...Chapter Twelve
13(1)
Bringing It All Together: A Roadmap of the Book
13(2)
A Note on Chapter Formats
15(1)
Conclusion
16(1)
Bibliography
17(2)
Notes
19(4)
Chapter Two Images of Managing Change 23(26)
Images of Managing Change: Where They Come From
24(3)
Images of Managing
24(1)
Images of Change Outcomes
25(2)
Six Images of Managing Change
27(6)
Image 1: Change Manager as Director
27(1)
Image 2: Change Manager as Navigator
28(1)
Image 3: Change Manager as Caretaker
29(2)
Image 4: Change Manager as Coach
31(1)
Image 5: Change Manager as Interpreter
31(2)
Image 6: Change Manager as Nurturer
33(1)
Using the Six-Images Framework
33(5)
Three Key Uses of the Six-Images Framework
36(2)
Conclusion
38(2)
Supplemental Reading
40(4)
Case Study: Green Mountain Resort (Dis)solves the Turnover Problem
41(3)
Bibliography
44(2)
Notes
46(3)
Chapter Three Why Organizations Change 49(28)
Environmental Pressures for Change
50(8)
Fashion Pressures
52(1)
Mandated Pressures
53(1)
Geopolitical Pressures
54(1)
Market Decline Pressures
55(1)
Hypercompetition Pressures
56(1)
Reputation and Credibility Pressures
57(1)
Why Organizations May Not Change in the Face of External Environmental Pressures
58(3)
Organizational Learning versus Threat-Rigidity
58(1)
Environment as Objective Entity versus Environment as Cognitive Construction
58(1)
Forces for Change versus Forces for Stability
59(2)
Organizational Pressures for Change
61(4)
Growth Pressures
61(1)
Integration and Collaboration Pressures
61(1)
Identity Pressures
62(1)
New Broom Pressures
63(1)
Power and Political Pressures
64(1)
Conclusion
65(1)
Supplemental Reading
66(3)
Case Study: Chipping Away at Intel
67(2)
Bibliography
69(4)
Notes
73(4)
Chapter Four What Changes in Organizations 77(30)
Types of Changes
78(11)
Distinguishing between First-Order and Second-Order Changes
78(1)
First-Order, Adaptive Changes
79(2)
Second-Order, Transformational Change
81(4)
Beyond Either First-Order or Second-Order Change
85(1)
Implications for Change Managers
86(3)
Types of Changes: Lessons from the Front Line
89(7)
Downsizing
89(2)
Technological Change
91(2)
Mergers and Acquisitions
93(3)
Conclusion
96(1)
Supplemental Reading
97(2)
Case Study: Nestlé
98(1)
Bibliography
99(4)
Notes
103(4)
Chapter Five Diagnosis for Change 107(38)
Models: Why Bother
108(1)
Modeling Organizations
109(7)
The Six-Box Organizational Model
109(1)
The 7-S Framework
109(1)
The Star Model
110(2)
The Congruence Model
112(2)
The Burke-Litwin Model
114(1)
The Four-Frame Model
114(1)
Diagnosis by Image
115(1)
Component Analysis
116(12)
The PESTEL Framework
116(1)
Scenario Analysis
116(1)
Gap Analysis
117(1)
The Elements of Strategy
118(1)
The Strategic Inventory
119(2)
Newsflash Exercise
121(2)
Cultural Web
123(1)
Structural Dilemmas
124(1)
The Boundaryless Organization
125(3)
Diagnosing Readiness to Change
128(8)
Stakeholder Analysis
134(1)
Force-Field Analysis
135(1)
Conclusion
136(1)
Supplemental Reading
136(4)
Case Study: Boeing
138(2)
Bibliography
140(2)
Notes
142(3)
Chapter Six Resistance to Change 145(32)
Support for Change
145(2)
Signs of Resistance to Change
147(1)
Why Do People Resist Change?
148(7)
Dislike of Change
148(1)
Discomfort with Uncertainty
148(1)
Perceived Negative Effect on Interests
149(1)
Attachment to the Established Culture/Ways of Doing Things
149(1)
Perceived Breach of Psychological Contract
150(1)
Lack of Conviction That Change Is Needed
150(1)
Lack of Clarity as to What Is Expected
150(1)
Belief That the Specific Change Being Proposed Is Inappropriate
150(1)
Belief That the Timing Is Wrong
151(1)
"Excessive Change"
151(1)
Cumulative Effect of Other Changes in One's Life
151(1)
Perceived Clash with Ethics
151(1)
Reaction to the Experience of Previous Changes
152(1)
Disagreement with the Way the Change Is Being Managed
153(2)
Managers as Change Resistors
155(2)
Managing Resistance
157(10)
A "Situational"Approach
157(1)
The Resistance Cycle, aka "Let Nature Take Its Course"
157(2)
"Creative Counters" to Expressions of Resistance
159(1)
Thought Self-Leadership
159(2)
Tinkering, Kludging, and Pacing
161(1)
The "Power of Resistance"
162(5)
Conclusion
167(1)
Supplemental Reading
168(2)
Case Study: Problems at Perrier
169(1)
Bibliography
170(3)
Notes
173(4)
Chapter Seven Implementing Change: Organization Development, Appreciative Inquiry, and Sense-Making Approaches 177(26)
Coach Image of Implementing Change: The Organization Development (OD) and Appreciative Inquiry (AI) Approaches
178(9)
Traditional OD Approach: Fundamental Values
178(2)
The OD Practitioner
180(2)
Criticisms of OD
182(1)
Current Relevance of OD's Traditional Values
182(1)
Are OD Values Universal?
183(1)
Engaging in Large-Scale Change
184(2)
Appreciative Inquiry: From Problem Solving to (Building on) What Works Well
186(1)
Interpreter Image of Implementing Change: Sense-Making Approaches
187(6)
Conclusion
193(1)
Supplemental Reading
194(3)
Case Study: Change at Dupont
195(2)
Bibliography
197(3)
Notes
200(3)
Chapter Eight Implementing Change: Change Management, Contingency, and Processual Approaches 203(26)
Director Image of Managing Change: Change Management and Contingency Approaches
204(11)
Change Management Approaches
204(5)
Is Change Management Supplanting OD?
209(1)
OD-Change Management Debates
210(2)
Contingency Approaches
212(2)
Why Contingency Approaches Are Not Dominant
214(1)
Navigator Images of Managing Change: Processual Approaches
215(3)
What Does Managing Change Mean from a Processual Approach?
216(2)
Conclusion
218(1)
Supplemental Reading
219(4)
Case Study: The British Airways Swipe Card Debacle
221(2)
Bibliography
223(3)
Notes
226(3)
Chapter Nine Linking Vision and Change 229(36)
Content of Meaningful Visions
230(7)
Vision Attributes
232(3)
Beyond Bumper Sticker Visions? Visions as Stories
235(1)
Relationship of Vision to Mission and Goals
235(1)
Relationship of Vision to Market Strategy
236(1)
How Context Affects Vision
237(1)
Processes by Which Visions Emerge
238(5)
Crafting the Vision
238(2)
Questions That Help to Develop a Vision
240(2)
Connecting the Vision to the Organization's Inner Voice
242(1)
When Visions Fail
243(2)
Adaptability of the Vision over Time
243(2)
Presence of Competing Visions
245(1)
Linking Vision to Change: Three Debates
245(8)
Does Vision Drive Change or Emerge during Change?
245(1)
Does Vision Help or Hinder Change?
246(2)
Is Vision an Attribute of Heroic Leaders or of Heroic Organizations?
248(5)
Conclusion
253(2)
Supplemental Reading
255(2)
Case Study: Role of Vision at Mentor Graphics
256(1)
Bibliography
257(4)
Notes
261(4)
Chapter Ten Strategies for Communicating Change 265(26)
The Communication Process
266(6)
Modeling the Communication Process
268(1)
Influence of Language, Power, Gender, and Emotion
268(4)
Strategies for Communicating Change
272(7)
Can You Communicate Too Much?
272(1)
Getting the Word out or Getting Buy-in?
272(5)
Beyond Spray and Pray
277(1)
Contingency Approaches to Communication Strategies
277(2)
Communication Media
279(4)
Media Richness
279(1)
Who Is Responsible for Communicating the Change?
280(2)
Tag Teams
282(1)
Conclusion
283(1)
Supplemental Reading
284(2)
Case Study: Cheryl Ways and Agilent Technology's Layoffs
285(1)
Bibliography
286(3)
Notes
289(2)
Chapter Eleven Skills for Communicating Change 291(24)
Communication Skills for Engaging Others in the Change Process
294(3)
Listening as a Communication Skill
294(1)
Telling Stories
294(1)
Selling Change Upward
295(2)
Toxic Handlers
297(1)
Change Conversation Skills
297(7)
Talking in Stages
298(2)
Talking Coherently
300(1)
Aligning Your Language with the Desired Change
301(1)
Creating a Common Change Language
302(2)
Communicating Change with the Outside World
304(3)
Selling Internal Changes to External Stakeholders
304(1)
Crisis Management and Corporate Reputation
305(2)
Conclusion
307(1)
Supplemental Reading
308(2)
Case Study: Tyco
309(1)
Bibliography
310(2)
Notes
312(3)
Chapter Twelve Consolidating Change 315(30)
Consolidation: What Are Its Signs?
315(4)
Actions to Consolidate Change
319(7)
Redesign Roles
319(1)
Redesign Reward System
319(1)
Link Selection Decisions to Change Objectives
320(1)
Act Consistently with Advocated Actions
321(1)
Encourage "Voluntary Acts of Initiative"
322(1)
Measure Progress
322(2)
Celebrate "En Route"
324(2)
Fine-Tune
326(1)
Some Words of Caution
326(6)
Expect Some Unanticipated Outcomes
326(1)
Be Alert to Measurement Limitations
327(1)
Don't "Declare Victory" Too Soon
328(1)
Beware Escalation of Commitment
329(1)
Recognize "Productive Failure"
330(2)
Conclusion
332(1)
Supplemental Reading
333(6)
Case Study: The Challenger and Columbia Shuttle Disasters
334(5)
Bibliography
339(2)
Notes
341(4)
Index 345


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