9780838498323

Manual de Gramática with Atajo CD-ROM : Grammar Reference for Students of Spanish

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  • ISBN13:

    9780838498323

  • ISBN10:

    0838498329

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/22/1998
  • Publisher: Heinle
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Summary

Combines clear, easy-reference charts with detailed grammar presentations in English and conceptual distinctions between Spanish and English. A chapter of practice exercises, writing activities correlated to Atajo, plus an appendix clarifying common lexical difficulties make this a valuable tool for intermediate and advanced literature and language courses.

Table of Contents

PREFACE XIX
Chapter 1 Overview
1(24)
A Sentence Components
2(4)
B Verb Structure
6(1)
C Sentence Structure
7(7)
1. INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
7(1)
2. MAIN OR PRINCIPAL CLAUSES
7(1)
3. DEPENDENT OR SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
7(7)
D Accents
14(11)
1. SYLLABIFICATION
14(1)
a. Consonants (Consonantes)
14(1)
b. Vowels (Vocales)
15(2)
2. STRESS
17(1)
a. Categorization of Words by Stress
17(1)
b. Rules for Written Accents
18(1)
c. Special Cases
19(1)
(1) ADVERBS ENDING IN -MENTE
19(1)
(2) MONOSYLLABLES
19(1)
(3) NON-MONOSYLLABIC HOMONYMS
20(1)
(a) Aun vs. Aun
20(1)
(b) Solo vs. Solo
20(1)
(c) Demonstrative Pronouns
21(1)
(d) Exclamative and Interrogative Adjectives, Pronouns, or Adverbs
21(4)
Chapter 2 Nouns and Noun Determiners
25(28)
A Nouns and Their Equivalents
26(8)
1. INTRODUCTION
26(1)
a. Definition
26(1)
b. Noun Equivalents
26(2)
c. Noun Companions
28(1)
2. NOUNS: GENDER AND NUMBER
29(11)
a. Gender (Genero)
29(3)
b. Number (Numero)
32(1)
3. PERSONAL A
32(2)
B Noun Determiners
34(19)
1. ARTICLES
34(1)
a. Definite Articles
34(2)
(1) SUBJECTS
36(1)
(2) TITLES
37(1)
(3) LANGUAGES
37(1)
(4) POSSESSIVES VS. ARTICLES
38(1)
b. Indefinite Articles
39(2)
2. ADJECTIVES
41(1)
a. Demonstrative Adjectives
41(1)
b. Possessive Adjectives
42(1)
c. Forms of Descriptive Adjectives
43(1)
(1) COMMON ADJECTIVE ENDINGS
43(1)
(2) ADJECTIVES WITH SHORT AND LONG FORMS
44(1)
d. Position of Descriptive Adjectives
44(5)
e. Comparisons
49(1)
(1) COMPARISONS OF INEQUALITY
49(1)
(a) With Adverbs, Adjectives, and Nouns
49(1)
(b) With a Numerical Expression, Use De Instead of Que
49(1)
(c) With a Verb or Clause as Second Part of Comparison
50(1)
(2) COMPARISONS OF EQUALITY
51(1)
(a) Tanto(-a, -os, -as)... como
51(1)
(b) Tanto como
51(1)
(c) Tan...como
51(1)
f. Superlatives
52(1)
Chapter 3 Pronouns
53(48)
A Personal Pronouns
54(15)
1. DEFINITIONS
54(1)
a. Intransitive Verbs
54(1)
b. Transitive Verbs
54(1)
(1) WITH SUBJECT AND DIRECT OBJECT
54(1)
(2) WITH SUBJECT, DIRECT OBJECT, AND INDIRECT OBJECT
54(1)
(3) WITH SUBJECT AND INDIRECT OBJECT ONLY
55(1)
2. SUBJECT PRONOUNS
56(3)
3. DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
59(1)
a. Formation and Usage
59(1)
b. Stressed and Unstressed Object Pronouns (Direct and Indirect Object)
60(1)
c. Lo: The Neuter (Invariable) Pronoun
61(1)
4. INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
62(2)
5. REQUIRED REPETITIVE OBJECT PRONOUNS
64(1)
a. Direct Object Pronouns
64(1)
b. Indirect Object Pronouns
64(1)
6. ORDER OF OBJECT PRONOUNS WHEN COMBINED
65(1)
7. POSITION OF OBJECT PRONOUNS
66(1)
8. PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT PRONOUNS
67(2)
B Se
69(11)
1. INTRODUCTION
69(1)
2. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
70(1)
a. Reflexives
70(1)
b. Reciprocals
72(1)
3. SE ME CONSTRUCTION: ACCIDENTAL OR IRRESPONSIBLE SE
72(4)
4. IMPERSONAL SE
76(1)
a. Introduction
76(1)
(1) AGENT PRESENT
76(1)
(2) NO AGENT: IMPERSONAL
77(1)
(3) NO AGENT: NOT IMPERSONAL
77(1)
b. Impersonal Se with Inanimate Objects
77(1)
c. Impersonal Se with Persons
78(1)
d. Impersonal Se with Both Human and Inanimate Objects
79(1)
e. Impersonal Reflexive Construction--Uno
79(1)
C Demonstrative and Possessive Pronouns
80(2)
1. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
80(1)
2. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
81(1)
D Interrogatives
82(5)
1. QUE
82(1)
2. CUAL
83(1)
3. QUE VS. CUAL WITH SER
83(2)
4. "HOW"
85(1)
a. "How" + Verb = Como
85(1)
b. "How" + Adjective or Adverb
85(1)
5. WORD ORDER
86(1)
E Exclamatives
87(3)
1. QUE + NOUN
87(1)
2. QUE + MODIFIED NOUN
87(1)
3. QUE + ADJECTIVE
88(1)
4. QUE + ADVERB
88(1)
5. COMO + VERB
88(1)
6. CUANTO + VERB
89(1)
7 CUANTO(A) + NOUN
89(1)
8 CUANTOS(AS) + NOUN
89(1)
9. QUIEN + VERB
89(1)
F Indefinites and Negatives
90(3)
G Relative Pronouns
93(8)
1. FORMATION AND USAGE
93(2)
2. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WITHOUT A PREPOSITION
95(1)
3. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WITH A PREPOSITION
95(1)
a. El cual / el que
95(1)
b. Exceptional Prepositions
96(1)
4. ADDITIONAL USES
96(1)
a. Lo que / lo cual (invariable)
96(1)
b. El que
96(1)
c. Lo que
97(1)
d. Cuyo
97(1)
e. Donde
98(1)
f. "Who"
98(1)
(1) INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN: QUIEN
98(1)
(2) RELATIVE PRONOUN: QUE
98(1)
(3) EL CUAL / EL QUE
99(1)
g. "What"
99(2)
Chapter 4 Prepositions, Adverbs, and Conjunctions
101(46)
A Prepositions
102(22)
1. FUNCTION OF PREPOSITIONS
102(1)
2. VERBS USED WITHOUT PREPOSITIONS
103(1)
3. INDIVIDUAL PREPOSITIONS
104(1)
a. A
104(1)
(1) USAGE
104(1)
(2) PERSONAL A
105(1)
(3) EXPRESSIONS WITH A
105(2)
(4) VERBS WITH A
107(1)
b. Con
108(1)
(1) USAGE
108(1)
(2) EXPRESSIONS WITH CON
109(1)
(3) VERBS WITH CON
109(1)
c. De
110(1)
(1) USAGE
110(1)
(2) EXPRESSIONS WITH DE
111(1)
(3) VERBS WITH DE
111(1)
d. En
113(1)
(1) USAGE
113(1)
(2) EXPRESSIONS WITH EN
114(1)
(3) VERBS WITH EN
114(1)
e. Para
116(1)
(1) USAGE
116(1)
(2) EXPRESSIONS WITH PARA
116(1)
f. Por
117(1)
(1) USAGE
117(1)
(2) EXPRESSIONS WITH POR
118(1)
(3) VERBS WITH POR
119(1)
4. LIST OF EXPRESSIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS (ENGLISH-SPANISH)
120(2)
5. REVIEW OF EXPRESSIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS
122(2)
B Adverbs
124(15)
1. DEFINITION
124(1)
2. ADVERBS ENDING IN -MENTE
124(1)
3. WORD ORDER
125(1)
4. MULTIPLE-FUNCTION WORDS
125(1)
5. ADVERBS OF PLACE
126(1)
a. Aca / alla; aqui / alli
127(1)
b. Arriba, encima; abajo, debajo; bajo
128(1)
6. ADVERBS OF TIME
128(1)
a. Aun, aun
129(1)
b. Nunca, jamas
129(1)
c. Tarde, temprano
129(1)
d. Ya, ya no, todavia, todavia no
130(1)
e. Examples of Adverbs of Time
130(1)
7. ADVERBS OF MANNER
131(1)
a. Asi
131(1)
b. Bien
132(1)
8. ADVERBS OF QUANTITY
132(1)
a. Demasiado, mucho, muy
133(1)
b. Example of Adverbs of Quantity
133(1)
9. ADVERBS OF CONFIRMATION, DOUBT, OR NEGATION
134(1)
a. Acaso / quiza / tal vez
134(1)
b. Bueno
135(1)
c. No
135(1)
d. Si
135(1)
e. Tambien / tampoco
136(1)
f. Ya
136(1)
10. ADVERBIAL PHRASES
136(1)
11. RELATED ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS
137(2)
C Conjunctions
139(2)
1. USAGE
139(1)
2. CONJUNCTIONS OF COORDINATION
139(1)
3. CONJUNCTIONS OF SUBORDINATION
140(1)
D Transitions
141(6)
Chapter 5 Verbs: Formation
147(28)
A Indicative Mood
148(12)
1. PRESENT INDICATIVE
148(1)
a. Regular Verbs
148(1)
b. Stem-Changing Verbs
148(2)
c. Spelling-Changing Verbs
150(1)
d. Classified Irregular Verbs
151(1)
e. Other Irregular Verbs
152(1)
2. PAST TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE
153(1)
a. Imperfect Indicative
153(1)
b. Preterite
154(3)
c. Present Perfect Indicative
157(1)
d. Pluperfect Indicative
158(1)
3. FUTURE
158(1)
a. Simple Future
158(1)
b. Future Perfect
159(1)
B Conditional Mood
160(1)
1. PRESENT CONDITIONAL
160(1)
2. CONDITIONAL PERFECT
161(1)
C Subjunctive Mood
161(6)
1. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
161(1)
a. Regular Verbs
161(1)
b. Stem-Changing Verbs
162(1)
c. Irregular Verbs
162(2)
2. IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
164(2)
3. PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
166(1)
4. PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
166(1)
D Imperative Mood
167(5)
1. DIRECT COMMANDS
167(1)
a. Tu
167(1)
b. Usted / Ustedes
168(1)
c. Vosotros
170(1)
d. Nosotros
171(1)
2. INDIRECT COMMANDS
172(1)
E Infinitive
172(1)
1. PRESENT INFINITIVE
172(1)
2. PERFECT INFINITIVE
172(1)
F Participle
173(2)
1. PRESENT PARTICIPLE OR GERUND
173(1)
2. PAST PARTICIPLE
173(2)
Chapter 6 Verbs: Usage
175(82)
A Present Indicative
176(1)
B Past Indicative Tenses: Preterite vs. Imperfect vs. Pluperfect
177(1)
1. INTRODUCTION
177(1)
2. ACTION VS. STATE
177(1)
a. Definitions
177(1)
b. Verbs of Action: Preterite Is the Rule, Imperfect Is the Exception
178(2)
(1) SPECIAL NOTE ON "WOULD"
180(1)
(2) ACTION VS. STATE REVIEW ELIMINATION CHECKLIST
180(1)
c. Verbs of State: Imperfect Is the Rule, Preterite Is the Exception
181(4)
3. BEGINNING-MIDDLE-END
185(1)
a. Preterite: Beginning and / or End
185(1)
b. Imperfect: Middle
186(1)
4. DIACHRONIC VS. SYNCHRONIC
187(1)
5. PLUPERFECT
188(2)
C Compound Tenses
190(7)
1. INTRODUCTION
190(1)
2. PERFECT TENSES
191(1)
a. Present Perfect Indicative
191(1)
b. Future Perfect
191(1)
c. Past Perfect (Pluperfect) Indicative
192(1)
d. Conditional Perfect
192(1)
e. Present Perfect Subjunctive
192(1)
f. Pluperfect Subjunctive
192(1)
3. SIMPLE PROGRESSIVE TENSES
193(1)
a. INTRODUCTION
193(1)
b. Present Progressive
193(1)
c. Future Progressive
194(1)
d. Past Progressive
194(1)
e. Conditional Present Progressive
194(1)
f. Subjunctive Present Progressive
195(1)
g. Subjunctive Imperfect Progressive
195(1)
4. PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES
195(1)
a. Introduction
195(1)
b. Indicative Present Perfect Progressive
195(1)
c. Indicative Future Perfect Progressive
195(1)
d. Indicative Pluperfect Progressive
196(1)
e. Conditional Perfect Progressive
196(1)
f. Subjunctive Present Perfect Progressive
196(1)
g. Subjunctive Pluperfect Progressive
196(1)
5. MODAL AUXILIARIES
197(1)
D Ways of Expressing the Future
197(1)
E Conditional
198(2)
1. INTRODUCTION
198(1)
2. COURTESY WITH CONDITIONAL OF MODAL AUXILIARIES
199(1)
3. HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS WITH OR WITHOUT CONDITION EXPRESSED WITH SI
199(1)
4. FUTURE OF THE PAST
199(1)
5. PROBABILITY IN THE PAST
200(1)
F Probability
200(2)
G Subjunctive
202(29)
1. INTRODUCTION
202(1)
2. NOMINAL CLAUSES
202(1)
a. Definition and Usage
202(1)
b. Subjunctive after Expressions of Emotion
203(1)
c. Subjunctive after Expressions of Volition and Influence
205(3)
d. Subjunctive after Expressions of Doubt and Negation of Reality
208(1)
e. Subjunctive after Impersonal Expressions with Ser
209(2)
3. ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES
211(1)
a. Definition
211(1)
b. Usage
211(1)
4. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
212(1)
a. Definition
212(1)
b. Usage
212(1)
5. SEQUENCE OF TENSES
217(1)
a. Introduction
217(1)
b. Chronological Relativity
217(1)
c. Aspect Relativity
223(1)
d. Tense Relativity from Indicative to Subjunctive
224(1)
(1) MAIN CLAUSE IN THE PRESENT SET
224(1)
(2) MAIN CLAUSE IN THE PAST SET
225(1)
6. IF (SI) CLAUSES
226(1)
a. Sequence of Tenses
226(1)
b. Como si (As If)
227(1)
7. OJALA
228(1)
8. EXPRESSIONS OF LEAVE-TAKING
229(2)
H Infinitives and Present Participles
231(5)
1. INFINITIVES
231(1)
a. Present Infinitive
231(1)
b. Perfect Infinitive
233(1)
2. PRESENT PARTICIPLES
234(2)
I Verbs Like Gustar
236(5)
1. FORMATION
236(1)
2. WORD ORDER
236(1)
3. VERBS SIMILAR TO GUSTAR
237(1)
4. ARTICLES
240(1)
5. CHANGES IN MEANING
240(1)
J Reflexive Verbs
241(8)
K Indirect Discourse
249(8)
1. INTRODUCTION
249(1)
2. VERB-TENSE CHANGES
250(1)
3. NO VERB-TENSE CHANGES
251(1)
4. PERSON CHANGES
252(1)
5. TIME CHANGES
253(1)
6. OTHER CHANGES
254(1)
a. Connectives
254(1)
b. This, That, and the Other
254(1)
c. Verbs of Communication
254(1)
d. A Note on Word Order with Indirect Interrogatives
255(2)
Chapter 7 Ser, Estar, Haber, Hacer, and Tener
257(20)
A Overview
258(1)
B Ser vs. Estar
259(12)
1. WITH EQUAL ELEMENTS: SER
260(1)
2. WITH ADJECTIVES
260(1)
a. Predicate Adjectives
260(1)
(1) ABURRIDO
262(1)
(2) BUENO
262(1)
(3) CALLADO
263(1)
(4) CIEGO
263(1)
(5) COMODO
263(1)
(6) FRIO
263(1)
(7) LISTO
263(1)
(8) MADURO
264(1)
(9) RICO
264(1)
(10) VERDE
264(1)
(11) VIVO
264(1)
b. Expressions with "To Be"
264(2)
c. Impersonal Expressions
266(1)
3. WITH PREPOSITIONS AND ADVERBS
266(1)
a. De
266(1)
b. Time and Place
267(1)
4. WITH PAST AND PRESENT PARTICIPLES
268(1)
a. With Present Participles
268(1)
b. With Past Participles: Passive Voice and Resultant Condition
268(1)
(1) FORMATION OF THE PASSIVE VOICE
268(1)
(2) A NOTE ON THE PASSIVE VOICE
269(2)
C Estar vs. Haber
271(1)
D Expressions with Estar and Tener
272(1)
1. EXPRESSIONS WITH ESTAR
272(1)
2. EXPRESSIONS WITH TENER
272(1)
E Time Expressions
273(4)
1. INTRODUCTION
273(1)
a. Counting Forward
273(1)
b. Counting Backward
273(1)
2. DURATION
274(1)
a. Counting Back from the Present
274(1)
b. Counting Back from a Moment in the Past
275(1)
3. AGO
276(1)
Chapter 8 Lexical Variations
277(26)
A Introduction
278(1)
B Terms and Expressions
278(25)
1. ACABAR
278(1)
2. APPLY
279(1)
3. ASK
280(1)
4. AT
281(1)
5. ATTEND
281(1)
6. BECAUSE
282(1)
7. BECOME OR GET
283(2)
8. BUT
285(1)
9. COME AND GO
286(1)
10. DESPEDIR
287(1)
11. EXIT AND SUCCESS
287(1)
12. GO AND LEAVE
288(1)
13. GUIDE
289(1)
14. KNOW
290(1)
15. LEARN
290(1)
16. MEET
291(1)
17. ORDER
292(1)
18. PENSAR
292(1)
19. PEOPLE VS. MACHINES
293(1)
20. PLAY
295(1)
21. PUT
296(1)
22. REALIZE
297(1)
23. SERVE
297(1)
24. SPEND
298(1)
25. TAKE
298(1)
26. TIME
300(1)
27. WHAT
300(1)
Ejercicios 303(124)
Verb Tables 427(37)
Index 464(9)
Answer Key 473

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