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Manual of Mineral Science, 23rd Edition,9780471721574
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Manual of Mineral Science, 23rd Edition



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First published in 1848, authored by J.D. Dana, the Manual of Mineral Science now enters its 23rd edition. This new edition, authored by Cornelis Klein of the University of New Mexico and Barbara Dutrow of Louisiana State continues in the tradition of its predecessors as the standard textbook in Mineralogy, Mineral Science, Earth Materials, and Rocks and Minerals courses. Over the years, the Manual of Mineral Science has brought its authority and comprehensive approach to students the world over: Since the 19th edition, the Manual of Mineral Science has been translated into 4 different languages; Russian, Spanish, Chinese, and Italian, and will soon be available in Slovak.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
What is a Mineral?p. 2
Defining a Mineral More Broadlyp. 3
Where Do We Find Minerals and What Can We Learn?p. 3
Minerals as Integral to Earth Sciencep. 4
Mineralogy as Important to Other Fieldsp. 7
Disciplines of Mineral Sciencep. 9
History of Mineralogyp. 10
Minerals in Our Livesp. 15
Naming of Mineralsp. 16
References and Literature of Mineralogyp. 16
What's to Comep. 17
Standard Mineralogical Reference Works and Further Readingp. 17
Physical Properties of Mineralsp. 19
Crystal Shapep. 20
Properties Based on Interaction with Lightp. 23
Lusterp. 23
Colorp. 24
Streakp. 24
Play of Colorsp. 24
Chatoyancy and Asterismp. 26
Luminescencep. 26
Fluorescence and Phosphorescencep. 26
Mechanical Propertiesp. 28
Cleavagep. 28
Partingp. 29
Fracturep. 29
Hardnessp. 30
Tenacityp. 31
Properties Related to Massp. 32
Density and Specific Gravityp. 32
Factors That Affect Density and Specific Gravityp. 32
Average Specific Gravityp. 33
Measurement of Specific Gravityp. 33
Other Diagnostic Propertiesp. 34
Magnetismp. 34
Radioactivityp. 34
Solubility in Acidsp. 34
Other Sensory Testsp. 35
Electrical Properties (of Industrial Use)p. 35
Piezoelectricityp. 35
Pyroelectricityp. 36
References and Further Readingp. 36
Elements of Crystal Chemistryp. 37
The Atomp. 37
Electron Configurationp. 38
Chemical Elements, Electronic Configuration, and the Periodic Tablep. 46
Atomic and Ionic Radiip. 46
The Ionp. 51
Bonding Forces in Crystalsp. 53
Bonds with Valence Electronsp. 53
Ionic Bondp. 53
Metallic Bondp. 56
Covalent Bondp. 58
Estimation of the Character of the Bonding Mechanismp. 59
Electronegativityp. 59
Bonds That Do Not Involve Valence Electronsp. 62
Van der Waals Bondp. 62
Hydrogen Bondp. 63
Crystals with More Than One Bond Typep. 64
References and Further Readingp. 64
Aspects of Crystal Structuresp. 66
Coordination of Ionsp. 66
Pauling's Rulesp. 68
The Coordination Principlep. 69
Other Coordination Geometriesp. 73
Coordination of Common Cationsp. 73
The Electrostatic Valency Principlep. 74
Uniform Bond Strengthp. 75
Nonuniform Bond Strengthp. 75
Sharing of Polyhedral Elements, 1p. 76
Sharing of Polyhedral Elements, 2p. 76
The Principle of Parsimonyp. 76
Additional Controls on Mineral Structuresp. 78
Isostructuralismp. 79
Polymorphismp. 79
Illustration of Crystal Structuresp. 80
Examples of Selected Common Structure Typesp. 83
NaCl Structurep. 84
CsCl Structurep. 84
Sphalerite (ZnS) Structurep. 85
CaF[subscript 2] Structurep. 85
Rutile (TiO[subscript 2]) Structurep. 86
Perovskite(ABO[subscript 3]) Structurep. 86
Spinel (AB[subscript 2]O[subscript 4]) Structurep. 87
Silicate Structuresp. 89
References and Further Readingp. 89
Chemical Composition of Mineralsp. 90
Composition of the Earthp. 90
Composition of the Earth's Crustp. 91
Composition of the Mantlep. 93
Composition of the Corep. 95
Composition of the Earthp. 95
Variability of Mineral Compositionsp. 96
Substitutional Solid Solutionp. 97
Coupled Substitutionp. 98
Interstitial Solid Solutionp. 98
Omission Solid Solutionp. 99
Determination of a Mineral Formulap. 99
Calculation of Mineral Formulae from Metal Percentagesp. 100
Mineral Formulae from Oxide Weight Percentagesp. 101
Mineral Formulae for Hydrous Silicatesp. 103
Graphical Representation of Mineral Compositionp. 104
Linear or Bar Diagramsp. 104
Triangular Diagramsp. 105
Triangular Representation of More Than Three Componentsp. 106
References and Further Readingp. 108
Crystallography: External Symmetry of Mineralsp. 109
Symmetryp. 111
Symmetry Elements (Without Translation)p. 114
Rotationp. 114
Reflection (Mirror)p. 117
Center of Symmetryp. 118
Rotation with Inversionp. 118
Symmetry Notationp. 120
Combinations of Rotationsp. 121
Combinations of Rotation Axes and Mirrorsp. 123
Combinations of Symmetry Operations Without Translationp. 125
Crystal Systemsp. 129
Crystallographic Axesp. 129
Crystallographic Notation for Planesp. 131
Face Interceptsp. 131
Miller Indicesp. 133
Zonesp. 134
Crystal Formp. 134
Names of Formsp. 137
Illustration and Description of Formsp. 138
References and Further Readingp. 142
Bilateral Symmetry in Humans and Architecturep. 112
Internal Order and Symmetry In Mineralsp. 143
Translation Directions and Distancesp. 144
One-Dimensional Order-Rowsp. 145
Two-Dimensional Order-Plane Latticesp. 146
Rotation Angle Restrictionsp. 150
Symmetry Content of Planar Motifsp. 152
Symmetry Content of Plane Latticesp. 153
Two-Dimensional Plane Groupsp. 154
Three-Dimensional Orderp. 156
Three-Dimensional Latticesp. 156
Symmetry Elements in 3D that Involve Translation: Screw Axes and Glide Planesp. 164
Space Groupsp. 165
References and Further Readingp. 168
Patterns in Our Environmentp. 151
Periodic Drawingsp. 158
Crystal Projectionsp. 169
Spherical Projectionp. 170
Stereographic Projectionp. 172
Stereographic Net and the Mechanics of Plottingp. 174
Measuring Crystal Anglesp. 175
Projection of an Orthorhombic Crystalp. 177
Projection of a Monoclinic Crystalp. 179
References and Further Readingp. 181
Selected Point Groups and Further Aspects of Space Groupsp. 182
Nineteen of the Thirty-Two Point Groupsp. 183
Triclinic Systemp. 185
Monoclinic Systemp. 186
Orthorhombic Systemp. 187
Tetragonal Systemp. 191
Hexagonal Systemp. 194
Isometric Systemp. 200
Characteristics of Isometric Crystalsp. 207
Representations of Some Space Groupsp. 208
Space Group Derivationp. 208
Illustrations of Space Groupsp. 208
References and Further Readingp. 216
Crystal Growth and Defects; Twinning, Color, and Magnetismp. 217
Crystal Growthp. 218
Vectorial Propertiesp. 220
Structural Complexities and Defectsp. 222
Point Defectsp. 222
Line Defectsp. 223
Planar Defectsp. 223
Other Defectsp. 225
Mineralogic Examples of Defect Structuresp. 225
Intergrowths of Crystalsp. 226
Twinningp. 227
Twin Classificationp. 228
Common Twin Lawsp. 231
Triclinic Systemp. 231
Monoclinic Systemp. 231
Orthorhombic Systemp. 232
Tetragonal Systemp. 232
Hexagonal Systemp. 232
Isometric Systemp. 233
Origin of Colorp. 234
Crystal Field Transitionsp. 235
Molecular Orbital Transitionsp. 239
Color Centersp. 239
Physical Processes as a Cause of Colorp. 240
Origin of Magnetic Propertiesp. 241
Mineraloids (Noncrystalline Minerals)p. 243
References and Further Readingp. 244
Mineral Stability and Phase Diagramsp. 245
Stability, Activation Energy, and Equilibriump. 245
Introductory Thermodynamicsp. 246
Phase Diagramsp. 249
Componentsp. 250
Examples of Mineral Stability (Phase) Diagramsp. 250
One-Component Diagramsp. 250
Two-Component Diagramsp. 253
Three- or More-Component Diagramsp. 256
Diagrams for Mineral Reactions Involving H[subscript 2]O or CO[superscript 2]p. 262
Eh-pH Diagramsp. 263
References and Further Readingp. 265
Post-Crystallization Processes in Mineralsp. 266
Polymorphic Reactionsp. 267
Reconstructive Polymorphismp. 269
Displacive Polymorphismp. 271
Order-Disorder Polymorphismp. 272
Polytypismp. 274
Secondary Twinningp. 275
Exsolutionp. 276
Radioactivity and Metamictizationp. 282
Metamict Mineralsp. 282
Pseudomorphismp. 284
References and Further Readingp. 285
Optical Microscopyp. 287
Nature of Lightp. 288
Reflection and Refractionp. 289
Refractive Index and Snell's Lawp. 289
Total Reflection and the Critical Anglep. 290
Isotropic and Anisotropic Crystalsp. 290
Polarized Lightp. 291
Polarized Light by Absorptionp. 291
Polarized Light by Reflectionp. 291
The Polarizing Microscopep. 291
Microscopic Examination of Minerals and Rocksp. 293
Isotropic Crystals and the Becke Linep. 293
Uniaxial Crystalsp. 294
Uniaxial Crystals Between Crossed Polarsp. 295
Extinctionp. 295
Interferencep. 296
Accessory Platesp. 297
Uniaxial Crystals in Convergent Polarized Lightp. 297
Determination of Optic Signp. 298
Sign of Elongationp. 299
Absorption and Dichroismp. 299
Biaxial Crystalsp. 300
The Biaxial Indicatrixp. 300
Optical Orientation in Biaxial Crystalsp. 301
Biaxial Crystals in Convergent Polarized Lightp. 302
The Apparent Optic Anglep. 302
Determination of Optic Sign of Biaxial Crystalsp. 303
Absorption and Pleochroismp. 304
Other Propertiesp. 304
Optical Properties of Opaque Mineralsp. 304
References and Further Readingp. 306
Analytical and Imaging Methods in Mineral Sciencep. 307
Technique Overviewp. 308
Techniques That Use X-raysp. 308
X-ray Diffraction Techniques (XRD)p. 308
X-ray Spectrap. 308
Diffraction Effects and the Bragg Equationp. 311
Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction and Structure Analysisp. 313
The Determination of Crystal Structuresp. 314
X-ray Powder Diffraction and Mineral Identificationp. 317
X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF)p. 321
Electron Beam Techniquesp. 323
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)p. 323
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)p. 324
Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA)p. 326
Additional Techniquesp. 328
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)p. 328
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)p. 329
References and Further Readingp. 330
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Native Elements, Sulfides, and Sulfosaltsp. 331
Mineral Classificationp. 332
Crystal Chemistry of Native Elements, Sulfides, and Sulfosaltsp. 333
Native Elementsp. 333
Native Metalsp. 333
Native Semimetalsp. 335
Native Nonmetalsp. 335
Sulfidesp. 337
Sulfosaltsp. 340
Systematic Descriptionsp. 341
Native Metalsp. 341
Native Nonmetalsp. 345
Sulfides, Sulfarsenides, and Arsenidesp. 351
Sulfosaltsp. 366
References and Further Readingp. 367
Economic Geologyp. 338
Diamond Synthesisp. 348
Veins and Vein Mineralizationp. 352
Sulfide Minerals as Ores and as Mining-Related Contaminantsp. 354
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halidesp. 368
Crystal Chemistry of Oxidesp. 368
Crystal Chemistry of Hydroxidesp. 373
Crystal Chemistry of Halidesp. 374
Systematic Descriptionsp. 375
Oxidesp. 375
Hydroxidesp. 390
Halidesp. 393
References and Further Readingp. 398
Ore Minerals for the Steel Industryp. 380
Evaporite Mineralsp. 394
Crystal Chemistry and Systematic Descriptions of Carbonates, Nitrates, Borates, Sulfates, Chromates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadatesp. 399
Crystal Chemistry of Carbonatesp. 400
Calcite Groupp. 401
Aragonite Groupp. 401
Dolomite Groupp. 402
Crystal Chemistry of Nitratesp. 403
Crystal Chemistry of Boratesp. 403
Crystal Chemistry of Sulfatesp. 403
Crystal Chemistry of Tungstates and Molybdatesp. 405
Crystal Chemistry of Phosphates, Arsenaes, and Vanadatesp. 406
Systematic Descriptionsp. 407
Carbonatesp. 407
Nitratesp. 416
Boratesp. 416
Sulfates and Chromatesp. 420
Tungstates and Molybdatesp. 425
Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadatesp. 427
References and Further Readingp. 433
The Source of Chemicals in Fertilizersp. 429
Crystal Chemistry of Rock-Forming Silicatesp. 434
Nesosilicatesp. 438
Sorosilicatesp. 441
Cyclosilicatesp. 442
Inosilicatesp. 446
Pyroxene Groupp. 447
Pyroxenoid Groupp. 451
Amphibole Groupp. 452
Phyllosilicatesp. 456
Tectosilicatesp. 467
SiO[subscript 2] Groupp. 468
Feldspar Groupp. 470
Structurep. 471
Compositionp. 474
Feldspathoid Groupp. 477
Zeolite Groupp. 477
References and Further Readingp. 482
Systematic Descriptions of Rock-Forming Silicatesp. 483
Nesosilicatesp. 484
Phenacite Groupp. 484
Olivine Groupp. 484
Garnet Groupp. 487
Al[subscript 2]SiO[subscript 2] Groupp. 491
Humite Groupp. 495
Sorosilicatesp. 498
Epidote Groupp. 499
Cyclosilicatesp. 502
Inosilicatesp. 505
Pyroxene Groupp. 505
Pyroxenoid Groupp. 511
Amphibole Groupp. 514
Phyllosilicatesp. 519
Serpentine Groupp. 519
Clay Mineral Groupp. 521
Mica Groupp. 525
Chlorite Groupp. 531
Related Speciesp. 532
Tectosilicatesp. 534
SiO[subscript 2] Groupp. 534
Feldspar Groupp. 539
K-Feldsparsp. 539
Feldspathoid Groupp. 544
Scapolite Seriesp. 547
Zeolite Groupp. 549
References and Further Readingp. 552
The Two Most Common Crustal Rock Types: Basalt and Granitep. 507
Asbestos: A Mixture and Mix-Up of Mineralsp. 516
Clay Minerals and Some of Their Applicationsp. 523
Mineral Dust in the Environmentp. 537
Minerals in Pegmatitesp. 542
Zeolites and Their Many Unique Propertiesp. 550
Gem Mineralsp. 554
Gem Mineralsp. 555
Gem Qualificationsp. 555
Types of Gem Cutsp. 556
The Early Uses of Gemsp. 556
Important Gems-Past and Presentp. 557
Diamondp. 557
Berylp. 558
Ruby and Sapphirep. 559
Opalp. 559
Jadep. 560
Chrysoberylp. 560
Topazp. 560
Tourmalinep. 561
Quartzp. 561
Turquoisep. 561
Garnetp. 561
Zirconp. 562
Olivinep. 562
Gem Properties and Instruments for Their Determinationp. 562
Physical Propertiesp. 562
Cleavage and Fracturep. 562
Hardnessp. 562
Specific Gravityp. 562
Fluorescencep. 563
Instruments for Studying Gemsp. 563
Observationp. 563
Hand Lensp. 563
The Microscopep. 563
The Polariscopep. 564
Refractive Index and the Refractometerp. 564
Dispersionp. 566
The Dichroscopep. 566
Color Filtersp. 567
The Spectroscopep. 567
X-ray Diffractionp. 568
Synthesis of Gem Materialsp. 568
Verneuil Processp. 568
Czochralski Processp. 568
Flux Growthp. 568
Hydrothermal Growthp. 568
Treatment of Gemstonesp. 569
Dyeingp. 569
Heat Treatmentp. 569
Irradiationp. 569
Synthetic and Treated Gemsp. 569
Berylp. 569
Chrysoberylp. 570
Corundum (Ruby and Sapphire)p. 570
Diamondp. 570
Jadep. 570
Opalp. 571
Quartzp. 571
Rutilep. 572
Spinelp. 572
Turquoisep. 572
Manufactured Gem Materials Without Natural Counterpartsp. 572
Garnetp. 572
Strontium Titanatep. 572
Cubic Zirconiap. 573
References and Further Readingp. 573
Mineral Assemblages: Introduction to Rock Typesp. 574
Igneous Rocksp. 575
General Occurrence and Texturep. 576
Chemical Compositionp. 576
Classificationp. 578
Mineralogical Compositionp. 580
Plutonic Rocksp. 580
Volcanic Rocksp. 583
Fragmental Igneous Rocksp. 585
Pegmatitesp. 585
Sedimentary Rocksp. 585
Chemical Compositionp. 586
Mineralogical Compositionp. 586
Classificationp. 588
Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocksp. 585
Allochemical Carbonate Rocksp. 590
Orthochemical Sedimentary Rocksp. 593
Further Description of Rock Typesp. 594
Metamorphic Rocksp. 596
Chemical Compositionp. 597
Mineralogical Compositionp. 597
Rock Typesp. 602
References and Further Readingp. 603
Determinative Tablesp. 604
General Classification of the Tablesp. 605
Luster-Metallic or Submetallicp. 605
Luster-Nonmetallicp. 605
Minerals Arranged by Several Physical Propertiesp. 606
Minerals Arranged According to Increasing Specific Gravityp. 635
Nonopaque Minerals and Some Synthetic Compounds Arranged According to Increasing Refractive indexp. 637
Outstanding Contributions to the Mineral Sciencesp. 639
Development of Models for the Atomp. 642
Distribution of Forms in 32 Point Groups, Arranged by Crystal Systemp. 646
Space Groups as an Expression of Morphology and Structurep. 648
Mineral Indexp. 653
Subject Indexp. 667
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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