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Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780136081685

ISBN10:
0136081681
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/27/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

An up-to-date text that provides a solid background in manufacturing processes, with a total of 120 examples and case studies, current and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and superior two-color graphics. The sixth edition has been completely updated, and addresses issues essential to modern manufacturing, ranging from traditional topics such as casting, forming, machining, and joining, to advanced topics such as the fabrication of microelectronic devices and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and nanomaterials and nanomanufacturing. A valuable reference text for manufacturing professionals.

Author Biography

Professor Serope Kalpakjian has been teaching at the Illinois Institute of Technology since 1963. After graduating from Robert College (with High Honors), Harvard University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he joined Cincinnati Milacron, Inc., where he was a research supervisor in charge of advanced metal-forming processes. He has published numerous papers and is the author of several articles in encyclopedias and handbooks; he has also edited various volumes and serves on the editorial boards of several journals and the Encyclopedia Americana.

He is the author of three additional manufacturing books, two of which received the M. Eugene Merchant Manufacturing Textbook Award. He is a Life Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Fellow and Life Member of ASM International, and Fell of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, and is a full member (Emeritus) of the International Institution for Production Engineering Research (CIRP). He is a founding member and a past president of the North American manufacturing Research Institution.

Professor Kalpakjian has received several awards: Citation by the Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation for best paper (1966); Citation by the Society of Carbide and Tool Engineers (1977); The "Excellence in Teaching Award" from the Illinois Institute of Technology (1970); the "Centennial Medallion" by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1980); the International "Education Award" by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (1989); and the Albert Easton White Distinguished Teacher Award by the American Society for Metals International (2000).



Dr. Steven R. Schmid is an Associate Professor in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Notre Dame, where he teaches and conducts research in manufacturing, machine design, and tribology. As the Director of the Manufacturing Tribology Laboratory at the university, he oversees industry and governmentally funded research on a wide variety of manufacturing topics, including tribological issues in rolling, forging and sheet metal forming, polymer processing, medical device design and manufacture, and nanomechanics.

He received his Bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology (with Honors) and Master's and Ph.D. degrees, both in Mechanical Engineering, from Northwestern University. Dr. Schmid is the recipient of a National Science Foundation CAREERS Award and an ALCOA Foundation Young Faculty Award. He has been a leading proponent for the integration of research and engineering education; NSF has sponsored workshops on this issue for which he has served as head of the steering committee.

He is the author of over thirty technical papers in various journals, has edited three conference proceedings, has co-authored "Fundamentals of Machine Elements," and has contributed two chapters to the CRC "Handbook of Modern Tribology." He serves on the Tribology Division Executive Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and has held officer positions in the Society of Manufacturing Engineers and the Society of Tribology and Lubrication Engineers. He is a registered Professional Engineer an a Certified Manufacturing Engineer.

Table of Contents

General Introduction 1

I.1 What Is Manufacturing? 1

I.2 Product Design and Concurrent Engineering 8

I.3 Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service 11

I.4 Green Design and Manufacturing 13

I.5 Selection of Materials 15

I.6 Selection of Manufacturing Processes 18

I.7 Computer-integrated Manufacturing 26

I.8 Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management 29

I.9 Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing 32

I.10 Manufacturing Costs and Global Competition 32

I.11 General Trends in Manufacturing 34

 

Part I: Fundamentals of Materials: Their Behavior

and Manufacturing Properties 37

1 The Structure of Metals 40

1.1 Introduction 40

1.2 Types of Atomic Bonds 41

1.3 The Crystal Structure of Metals 42

1.4 Deformation and Strength of Single Crystals 44

1.5 Grains and Grain Boundaries 47

1.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals 50

1.7 Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth 51

1.8 Cold, Warm, and Hot Working 52

Summary 53 Key Terms 53 Bibliography 54

Review Questions 54 Qualitative Problems 54

Quantitative Problems 55 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 55

 

2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and

Manufacturing Properties of Materials 56

2.1 Introduction 56

2.2 Tension 57

2.3 Compression 66

2.4 Torsion 67

2.5 Bending (Flexure) 68

2.6 Hardness 68

2.7 Fatigue 74

2.8 Creep 75

2.9 Impact 75

2.10 Failure and Fracture of Materials in Manufacturing

and in Service 76

2.11 Residual Stresses 81

2.12 Work, Heat, and Temperature 82

Summary 83 Key Terms 84 Bibliography 84

Review Questions 84 Qualitative Problems 85

Quantitative Problems 85 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 86

 

3 Physical Properties of Materials 88

3.1 Introduction 88

3.2 Density 89

3.3 Melting Point 92

3.4 Specific Heat 92

3.5 Thermal Conductivity 93

3.6 Thermal Expansion 93

3.7 Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties 94

3.8 Corrosion Resistance 95

Summary 97 Key Terms 97 Bibliography 98

Review Questions 98 Qualitative Problems 98

Quantitative Problems 98 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 99

 

4 Metal Alloys: Their Structure and Strengthening

by Heat Treatment 100

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 Structure of Alloys 101

4.3 Phase Diagrams 103

4.4 The Iron—Carbon System 107

4.5 The Iron—Iron-carbide Phase Diagram and the Development

of Microstructures in Steels 108

4.6 Cast Irons 110

4.7 Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys 111

4.8 Hardenability of Ferrous Alloys 115

4.9 Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Alloys and

Stainless Steels 117

4.10 Case Hardening 119

4.11 Annealing 121

4.12 Heat-treating Furnaces and Equipment 123

4.13 Design Considerations for Heat Treating 125

Summary 126 Key Terms 127 Bibliography 127

Review Questions 127 Qualitative Problems 127

Quantitative Problems 128 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 128

 

5 Ferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General

Properties, and Applications 129

5.1 Introduction 129

5.2 Production of Iron and Steel 130

5.3 Casting of Ingots 133

5.4 Continuous Casting 134

5.5 Carbon and Alloy Steels 136

5.6 Stainless Steels 143

5.7 Tool and Die Steels 145

Summary 147 Key Terms 148 Bibliography 148

Review Questions 148 Qualitative Problems 149

Quantitative Problems 149 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 150

 

6 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys: Production,

General Properties, and Applications 151

6.1 Introduction 151

6.2 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 152

6.3 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 157

6.4 Copper and Copper Alloys 158

6.5 Nickel and Nickel Alloys 160

6.6 Superalloys 161

6.7 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 162

6.8 Refractory Metals and Alloys 163

6.9 Beryllium 164

6.10 Zirconium 164

6.11 Low-melting Alloys 164

6.12 Precious Metals 166

6.13 Shape-memory Alloys (Smart Materials) 166

6.14 Amorphous Alloys (Metallic Glasses) 167

6.15 Metal Foams 167

Summary 168 Key Terms 168 Bibliography 169

Review Questions 169 Qualitative Problems 169

Quantitative Problems 170 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 170

 

7 Polymers: Structure, General Properties,

and Applications 171

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 The Structure of Polymers 173

7.3 Thermoplastics 180

7.4 Thermosetting Plastics 184

7.5 Additives in Plastics 184

7.6 General Properties and Applications of Thermoplastics 185

7.7 General Properties and Applications of Thermosetting

Plastics 188

7.8 Biodegradable Plastics 190

7.9 Elastomers (Rubbers) 191

Summary 192 Key Terms 193 Bibliography 193

Review Questions 194 Qualitative Problems 194

Quantitative Problems 195 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 195

 

8 Ceramics, Graphite, Diamond, and

Nanomaterials: Structure, General Properties,

and Applications 196

8.1 Introduction 196

8.2 The Structure of Ceramics 197

8.3 General Properties and Applications of Ceramics 201

8.4 Glasses 205

8.5 Glass Ceramics 207

8.6 Graphite 208

8.7 Diamond 210

8.8 Nanomaterials 210

Summary 212 Key Terms 212 Bibliography 213

Review Questions 213 Qualitative Problems 214

Quantitative Problems 214 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 214

 

9 Composite Materials: Structure, General

Properties, and Applications 216

9.1 Introduction 216

9.2 The Structure of Reinforced Plastics 217

9.3 Properties of Reinforced Plastics 222

9.4 Applications of Reinforced Plastics 225

9.5 Metal-matrix Composites 227

9.6 Ceramic-matrix Composites 229

9.7 Other Composites 230

Summary 231 Key Terms 231 Bibliography 231

Review Questions 232 Qualitative Problems 232

Quantitative Problems 233 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 233

 

Part II: Metal-Casting Processes

and Equipment 235

 

1 0 Fundamentals of Metal Casting 237

10.1 Introduction 237

10.2 Solidification of Metals 238

10.3 Fluid Flow 243

10.4 Fluidity of Molten Metal 245

10.5 Heat Transfer 247

10.6 Defects 249

Summary 253 Key Terms 254 Bibliography 254

Review Questions 254 Qualitative Problems 255

Quantitative Problems 255 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 256

 

11 Metal-Casting Processes and Equipment 258

11.1 Introduction 258

11.2 Expendable-mold, Permanent-pattern Casting Processes 262

11.3 Expendable-mold, Expendable-pattern Casting Processes 270

11.4 Permanent-mold Casting Processes 277

11.5 Casting Techniques for Single-crystal Components 285

11.6 Rapid Solidification 286

11.7 Inspection of Castings 287

11.8 Melting Practice and Furnaces 287

11.9 Foundries and Foundry Automation 289

Summary 289 Key Terms 290 Bibliography 290

Review Questions 291 Qualitative Problems 291

Quantitative Problems 292 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 292

 

12 Metal Casting: Design, Materials,

and Economics 294

12.1 Introduction 294

12.2 Design Considerations in Casting 294

12.3 Casting Alloys 302

12.4 Economics of Casting 307

Summary 308 Key Terms 309 Bibliography 309

Review Questions 309 Qualitative Problems 309

Quantitative Problems 310 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 310

 

Part III: Forming and Shaping Processes

and Equipment 313

 

13 Metal-Rolling Processes and Equipment 316

13.1 Introduction 316

13.2 The Flat-rolling Process 318

13.3 Flat-rolling Practice 322

13.4 Rolling Mills 325

13.5 Various Rolling Processes and Mills 327

Summary 332 Key Terms 333 Bibliography 333

Review Questions 333 Qualitative Problems 333

Quantitative Problems 334 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 334

 

14 Metal-Forging Processes and Equipment 335

14.1 Introduction 335

14.2 Open-die Forging 337

14.3 Impression-die and Closed-die Forging 339

14.4 Various Forging Operations 343

14.5 Forgeability of Metals; Forging Defects 348

14.6 Die Design, Die Materials, and Lubrication 349

14.7 Die-manufacturing Methods and Die Failures 351

14.8 Forging Machines 353

14.9 Economics of Forging 355

Summary 357 Key Terms 358 Bibliography 358

Review Questions 358 Qualitative Problems 358

Quantitative Problems 359 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 359

 

15 Metal Extrusion and Drawing Processes

and Equipment 360

15.1 Introduction 360

15.2 The Extrusion Process 362

15.3 Hot Extrusion 364

15.4 Cold Extrusion 368

15.5 Extrusion Defects 371

15.6 Extrusion Equipment 373

15.7 The Drawing Process 373

15.8 Drawing Practice 375

15.9 Drawing Defects and Residual Stresses 377

15.10 Drawing Equipment 377

Summary 378 Key Terms 378 Bibliography 379

Review Questions 379 Qualitative Problems 379

Quantitative Problems 380 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 380

 

16 Sheet-Metal Forming Processes and

Equipment 381

16.1 Introduction 381

16.2 Shearing 382

16.3 Sheet-metal Characteristics and Formability 392

16.4 Formability Tests for Sheet Metals 394

16.5 Bending Sheets, Plates, and Tubes 397

16.6 Miscellaneous Bending and Related Operations 401

16.7 Deep Drawing 407

16.8 Rubber Forming and Hydroforming 413

16.9 Spinning 417

16.10 Superplastic Forming 420

16.11 Specialized Forming Processes 421

16.12 Manufacturing of Metal Honeycomb Structures 426

16.13 Design Considerations in Sheet-metal Forming 428

16.14 Equipment for Sheet-metal Forming 430

16.15 Economics of Sheet-forming Operations 431

Summary 432 Key Terms 433 Bibliography 433

Review Questions 434 Qualitative Problems 434

Quantitative Problems 435 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 435

 

17 Powder-Metal Processing and Equipment 437

17.1 Introduction 437

17.2 Production of Metal Powders 438

17.3 Compaction of Metal Powders 444

17.4 Sintering 452

17.5 Secondary and Finishing Operations 456

17.6 Design Considerations 457

17.7 Process Capabilities 459

17.8 Economics of Powder Metallurgy 460

Summary 462 Key Terms 462 Bibliography 463

Review Questions 463 Qualitative Problems 463

Quantitative Problems 464 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 464

 

18 Ceramics, Glasses, and Superconductors:

Processing and Equipment 465

18.1 Introduction 465

18.2 Shaping Ceramics 466

18.3 Forming and Shaping of Glass 472

18.4 Techniques for Strengthening and Annealing Glass 476

18.5 Design Considerations for Ceramics and Glasses 478

18.6 Processing of Superconductors 479

Summary 480 Key Terms 481 Bibliography 481

Review Questions 482 Qualitative Problems 482

Quantitative Problems 482 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 483

 

19 Plastics and Composite Materials: Forming

and Shaping 484

19.1 Introduction 484

19.2 Extrusion 486

19.3 Injection Molding 493

19.4 Blow Molding 499

19.5 Rotational Molding 501

19.6 Thermoforming 502

19.7 Compression Molding 503

19.8 Transfer Molding 504

19.9 Casting 505

19.10 Foam Molding 506

19.11 Cold Forming and Solid-phase Forming 507

19.12 Processing Elastomers 507

19.13 Processing Polymer-matrix Composites 508

19.14 Processing Metal-matrix and Ceramic-matrix Composites 517

19.15 Design Considerations 518

19.16 Economics of Processing Plastics and Composite Materials 520

Summary 521 Key Terms 522 Bibliography 522

Review Questions 523 Qualitative Problems 523

Quantitative Problems 524 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 524

 

20 Rapid-Prototyping Processes and

Operations 525

20.1 Introduction 525

20.2 Subtractive Processes 528

20.3 Additive Processes 530

20.4 Virtual Prototyping 541

20.5 Direct Manufacturing and Rapid Tooling 542

Summary 549 Key Terms 549 Bibliography 549

Review Questions 550 Qualitative Problems 550

Quantitative Problems 550 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 551

 

Part IV: Machining Processes

and Machine Tools 553

 

21 Fundamentals of Machining 556

21.1 Introduction 556

21.2 Mechanics of Cutting 558

21.3 Cutting Forces and Power 568

21.4 Temperatures in Cutting 571

21.5 Tool Life: Wear and Failure 574

21.6 Surface Finish and Integrity 581

21.7 Machinability 583

Summary 587 Key Terms 588 Bibliography 588

Review Questions 588 Qualitative Problems 589

Quantitative Problems 589 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 590

 

22 Cutting-Tool Materials and Cutting Fluids 591

22.1 Introduction 591

22.2 High-speed Steels 595

22.3 Cast-cobalt Alloys 596

22.4 Carbides 596

22.5 Coated Tools 600

22.6 Alumina-based Ceramics 604

22.7 Cubic Boron Nitride 605

22.8 Silicon-nitride-based Ceramics 605

22.9 Diamond 605

22.10 Whisker-reinforced Materials and Nanomaterials 606

22.11 Tool Costs and Reconditioning of Tools 607

22.12 Cutting Fluids 607

Summary 612 Key Terms 612 Bibliography 613

Review Questions 613 Qualitative Problems 613

Quantitative Problems 614 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 614

 

23 Machining Processes: Turning and Hole

Making 615

23.1 Introduction 615

23.2 The Turning Process 618

23.3 Lathes and Lathe Operations 626

23.4 Boring and Boring Machines 641

23.5 Drilling, Drills, and Drilling Machines 643

23.6 Reaming and Reamers 652

23.7 Tapping and Taps 653

Summary 655 Key Terms 656 Bibliography 656

Review Questions 656 Qualitative Problems 657

Quantitative Problems 657 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 658

 

24 Machining Processes: Milling, Broaching, Sawing,

Filing, and Gear Manufacturing 659

24.1 Introduction 659

24.2 Milling and Milling Machines 660

24.3 Planing and Shaping 674

24.4 Broaching and Broaching Machines 675

24.5 Sawing 678

24.6 Filing 681

24.7 Gear Manufacturing by Machining 681

Summary 689 Key Terms 690 Bibliography 690

Review Questions 690 Qualitative Problems 691

Quantitative Problems 691 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 692

 

25 Machining Centers, Machine-Tool Structures,

and Machining Economics 693

25.1 Introduction 693

25.2 Machining Centers 694

25.3 Machine-tool Structures 702

25.4 Vibration and Chatter in Machining Operations 706

25.5 High-speed Machining 709

25.6 Hard Machining 711

25.7 Ultraprecision Machining 711

25.8 Machining Economics 713

Summary 717 Key Terms 717 Bibliography 717

Review Questions 717 Qualitative Problems 718

Quantitative Problems 718 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 718

 

26 Abrasive Machining and Finishing

Operations 719

26.1 Introduction 719

26.2 Abrasives and Bonded Abrasives 721

26.3 The Grinding Process 727

26.4 Grinding Operations and Machines 736

26.5 Design Considerations for Grinding 744

26.6 Ultrasonic Machining 744

26.7 Finishing Operations 746

26.8 Deburring Operations 750

26.9 Economics of Abrasive Machining and Finishing Operations 753

Summary 754 Key Terms 755 Bibliography 755

Review Questions 756 Qualitative Problems 756

Quantitative Problems 757 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 757

 

27 Advanced Machining Processes 759

27.1 Introduction 759

27.2 Chemical Machining 761

27.3 Electrochemical Machining 765

27.4 Electrochemical Grinding 768

27.5 Electrical-discharge Machining 769

27.6 Laser-beam Machining 774

27.7 Electron-beam Machining 777

27.8 Water-jet Machining 778

27.9 Abrasive-jet Machining 779

27.10 Hybrid Machining Systems 780

27.11 Economics of Advanced Machining Processes 781

Summary 784 Key Terms 784 Bibliography 784

Review Questions 785 Qualitative Problems 785

Quantitative Problems 785 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 786

 

Part V: Micromanufacturing and Fabrication of

Microelectronic Devices 787

 

28 Fabrication of Microelectronic Devices 790

28.1 Introduction 790

28.2 Clean Rooms 793

28.3 Semiconductors and Silicon 794

28.4 Crystal Growing and Wafer Preparation 795

28.5 Film Deposition 798

28.6 Oxidation 799

28.7 Lithography 800

28.8 Etching 808

28.9 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 816

28.10 Metallization and Testing 818

28.11 Wire Bonding and Packaging 820

28.12 Yield and Reliability 825

28.13 Printed Circuit Boards 826

Summary 827 Key Terms 828 Bibliography 828

Review Questions 829 Qualitative Problems 829

Quantitative Problems 830 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 830

 

29 Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices

and Systems and Nanoscale Manufacturing 831

29.1 Introduction 831

29.2 Micromachining of MEMS Devices 833

29.3 The LIGA Microfabrication Process 844

29.4 Solid Free-form Fabrication of Devices 850

29.5 Nanoscale Manufacturing 855

Summary 858 Key Terms 858 Bibliography 858

Review Questions 859 Qualitative Problems 859

Quantitative Problems 860 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 860

 

Part VI: Joining Processes and

Equipment 861

 

30 Fusion-Welding Processes 865

30.1 Introduction 865

30.2 Oxyfuel—gas Welding 866

30.3 Arc-welding Processes: Nonconsumable Electrode 869

30.4 Arc-welding Processes: Consumable Electrode 873

30.5 Electrodes for Arc Welding 879

30.6 Electron-beam Welding 880

30.7 Laser-beam Welding 880

30.8 Cutting 882

30.9 The Weld Joint, Quality, and Testing 884

30.10 Joint Design and Process Selection 893

Summary 897 Key Terms 897 Bibliography 898

Review Questions 898 Qualitative Problems 898

Quantitative Problems 899 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 899

 

31 Solid-State Welding Processes 900

31.1 Introduction 900

31.2 Cold Welding and Roll Bonding 901

31.3 Ultrasonic Welding 902

31.4 Friction Welding 903

31.5 Resistance Welding 905

31.6 Explosion Welding 913

31.7 Diffusion Bonding 914

31.8 Economics of Welding Operations 916

Summary 918 Key Terms 919 Bibliography 919

Review Questions 919 Qualitative Problems 919

Quantitative Problems 920 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 920

 

32 Brazing, Soldering, Adhesive-Bonding,

and Mechanical-Fastening Processes 921

32.1 Introduction 921

32.2 Brazing 922

32.3 Soldering 926

32.4 Adhesive Bonding 931

32.5 Mechanical Fastening 939

32.6 Joining Plastics, Ceramics, and Glasses 942

32.7 Economics of Joining Operations 945

Summary 946 Key Terms 947 Bibliography 947

Review Questions 947 Qualitative Problems 948

Quantitative Problems 948 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 948

 

Part VII: Surface Technology 949

 

33 Surface Roughness and Measurement; Friction,

Wear, and Lubrication 951

33.1 Introduction 951

33.2 Surface Structure and Integrity 952

33.3 Surface Texture and Roughness 953

33.4 Friction 957

33.5 Wear 961

33.6 Lubrication 964

33.7 Metalworking Fluids and Their Selection 966

Summary 970 Key Terms 970 Bibliography 971

Review Questions 971 Qualitative Problems 971

Quantitative Problems 972 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 972

 

34 Surface Treatments, Coatings, and Cleaning 973

34.1 Introduction 973

34.2 Mechanical Surface Treatments 974

34.3 Mechanical Plating and Cladding 976

34.4 Case Hardening and Hard Facing 976

34.5 Thermal Spraying 977

34.6 Vapor Deposition 979

34.7 Ion Implantation and Diffusion Coating 982

34.8 Laser Treatments 982

34.9 Electroplating, Electroless Plating, and Electroforming 983

34.10 Conversion Coatings 986

34.11 Hot Dipping 987

34.12 Porcelain Enameling; Ceramic and Organic Coatings 988

34.13 Diamond Coating and Diamondlike Carbon 989

34.14 Surface Texturing 990

34.15 Painting 990

34.16 Cleaning of Surfaces 991

Summary 993 Key Terms 993 Bibliography 993

Review Questions 994 Qualitative Problems 994

Quantitative Problems 994 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 995

 

Part VIII: Engineering Metrology,

Instrumentation, and Quality

Assurance 997

 

35 Engineering Metrology and

Instrumentation 998

35.1 Introduction 998

35.2 Measurement Standards 999

35.3 Geometric Features of Parts; Analog and Digital

Measurements 1000

35.4 Traditional Measuring Methods and Instruments 1001

35.5 Modern Measuring Instruments and Machines 1008

35.6 Automated Measurement and Inspection 1011

35.7 General Characteristics and Selection of Measuring

Instruments 1012

35.8 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 1012

Summary 1017 Key Terms 1017 Bibliography 1017

Review Questions 1018 Qualitative Problems 1018

Quantitative Problems 1018 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1019

 

36 Quality Assurance, Testing, and Inspection 1020

36.1 Introduction 1020

36.2 Product Quality 1021

36.3 Quality Assurance 1022

36.4 Total Quality Management 1023

36.5 Taguchi Methods 1025

36.6 The ISO and QS Standards 1029

36.7 Statistical Methods of Quality Control 1030

36.8 Statistical Process Control 1033

36.9 Reliability of Products and Processes 1039

36.10 Nondestructive Testing 1040

36.11 Destructive Testing 1044

36.12 Automated Inspection 1044

Summary 1045 Key Terms 1045 Bibliography 1046

Review Questions 1046 Qualitative Problems 1047

Quantitative Problems 1047 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1047

 

Part IX: Manufacturing in a Competitive

Environment 1049

 

37Automation of Manufacturing Processes 1051

37.1 Introduction 1051

37.2 Automation 1053

37.3 Numerical Control 1060

37.4 Adaptive Control 1066

37.5 Material Handling and Movement 1068

37.6 Industrial Robots 1071

37.7 Sensor Technology 1077

37.8 Flexible Fixturing 1081

37.9 Assembly Systems 1083

37.10 Design Considerations for Fixturing, Assembly, Disassembly,

and Servicing 1086

37.11 Economic Considerations 1089

Summary 1089 Key Terms 1090 Bibliography 1090

Review Questions 1091 Qualitative Problems 1091

Quantitative Problems 1092 Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1092

 

38 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 1093

38.1 Introduction 1093

38.2 Manufacturing Systems 1094

38.3 Computer-integrated Manufacturing 1094

38.4 Computer-aided Design and Engineering 1097

38.5 Computer-aided Manufacturing 1104

38.6 Computer-aided Process Planning 1104

38.7 Computer Simulation of Manufacturing Processes

and Systems 1107

38.8 Group Technology 1108

Summary 1115 Key Terms 1115 Bibliography 1115

Review Questions 1116 Qualitative Problems 1116

Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1116

 

39 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

Systems 1117

39.1 Introduction 1117

39.2 Cellular Manufacturing 1118

39.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems 1120

39.4 Holonic Manufacturing 1122

39.5 Just-in-time Production 1124

39.6 Lean Manufacturing 1125

39.7 Communications Networks in Manufacturing 1127

39.8 Artificial Intelligence 1129

39.9 Economic Considerations 1132

Summary 1132 Key Terms 1133 Bibliography 1133

Review Questions 1134 Qualitative Problems 1134

Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1134

 

40 Product Design and Process Selection

in a Competitive Environment 1135

40.1 Introduction 1135

40.2 Product Design 1136

40.3 Product Quality and Life Expectancy 1139

40.4 Life-cycle Assessment and Sustainable Manufacturing 1140

40.5 Material Selection for Products 1142

40.6 Material Substitution 1146

40.7 Manufacturing Process Capabilities 1148

40.8 Process Selection 1152

40.9 Manufacturing Costs and Cost Reduction 1156

Summary 1161 Key Terms 1161 Bibliography 1162

Review Questions 1162 Qualitative Problems 1162

Synthesis, Design, and Projects 1163

Index 1165

 

Case Studies

11.1: Lost-foam Casting of Engine Blocks 272

11.2: Investment Casting of Total Knee Replacements 275

14.1: Manufacture of a Stepped Pin by Heading and Piercing

Operations 345

14.2: Suspension Components for the Lotus Elise Automobile 356

16.1: Manufacturing of Food and Beverage Cans 412

16.2: Tube Hydroforming of an Automotive Radiator Closure 415

16.3: Cymbal Manufacture 424

17.1: Powder Metallurgy Parts in a Snowblower 461

18.1: Production of High-temperature Superconducting Tapes 480

19.1: Manufacture of Head Protector™ Tennis Racquets 515

20.1: Invisalign® Orthodontic Aligners 543

23.1: Bone Screw Retainer 654

24.1: Ping Golf Putter 688

27.1: Electrochemical Machining of a Biomedical Implant 767

27.2: Manufacture of Small Satellites 781

29.1: Digital Micromirror Device 837

29.2: Accelerometer for Automotive Air Bags 851

31.1: Friction Welding of Pistons 917

32.1: Light Curing Acrylic Adhesives for Medical Products 937

36.1: Manufacture of Television Sets by Sony Corporation 1028

36.2: Dimensional Control of Plastic Parts in Saturn Automobiles 1038

37.1: Robotic Deburring of a Blow-molded Toboggan 1076

38.1: CAD Model Development for Automotive Components 1101

40.1: Automobile Tires: From Cradle-to-grave to Cradle-to-cradle 1141

 



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