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Many Peoples, Many Faiths : Women and Men in the World Religions

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131178076

ISBN10:
0131178075
Format:
Paperback w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For courses in World Religions. This classic work presents the religions of the world in both a factual and empathetic manner, while tackling some of today's most critical religious issues. text has been fully updated with current information on today's new religious movements, the role of women in world religions today, religion in the years to come, and more. This text includes a wealth of learning aids, including practical outlines that guide students in researching and writing papers.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Photo Credits xxii
Understanding the World's Religious Heritage
1(481)
Chapter Objectives
1(1)
A New Day of Religious Encounter
2(1)
Visiting a Strange Land
3(1)
Conditioned and Unconditioned Reality
4(1)
Doors and Windows to the Ultimate
5(3)
Forms of Religious Expression
8(6)
Theoretical Expression: What Is Said in Religion
8(2)
Practical Expression: What Is Done in Religion
10(1)
Sociological Expression: The Kinds of Groups Formed by Religion
11(2)
Ethics
13(1)
Art
14(1)
The Interrelationship of the Forms of Expression
14(1)
Descriptive and Critical Approaches
14(2)
Periods in Religious History
16(6)
Hunting and Gathering Religion
16(1)
Agricultural Religion
16(1)
Ancient Empires
17(1)
Religion Responding to History
17(2)
Medieval Devotion
19(1)
Modernism
20(1)
Postmodernism
20(1)
Looking Forward
21(1)
Women in the World Religions
22(2)
Fundamental Features of Religions
24(1)
Summary
24(1)
Questions for Review
24(1)
Suggested Readings on the Study of World Religions
25(2)
Suggested Websites
27(2)
The Sacred in Nature
The Religions of Prehistoric and Tribal Peoples
29(1)
Chapter Objectives
29(1)
The First Human Faiths
30(4)
Gods, Spirits, and the World
34(1)
Initiation Rites of Men and Women
35(2)
Shamans
37(7)
Archaic Hunters
44(1)
Archaic Gatherers
45(1)
Archaic Farmers
46(4)
Women in Early Agrarian Societies and the Patriarchal Revolution
50(3)
Summary
53(1)
Questions for Review
54(1)
Suggested Readings on Prehistoric and Tribal Religions
54(1)
Suggested Websites
55(2)
Life Against Time
The Spiritual Paths of India
57(1)
Chapter Objectives
57(1)
The Face of India
58(1)
Understanding Hinduism
59(4)
Major Influences on and Developments in Hinduism through Time
63(31)
The Religion of the Ancient Aryans
63(6)
The Upanishads
69(4)
Spiritual Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism
73(4)
The Laws of Manu
77(1)
The Yoga Sutras
78(1)
The Bhagavad-Gita
79(4)
Advaita Vedanta
83(1)
Tantrism
83(2)
Devotional Hinduism
85(7)
Devotionalism in the Meeting of Hinduism and Islam
92(2)
The Practice of Hinduism Today
94(5)
Home Rites
94(1)
Weddings
95(1)
Funerals
95(1)
Caste
96(1)
Water and Cows
96(1)
Sadhus
97(1)
Temples
98(1)
Modern Hinduism
99(3)
A Clash of Values---East and West
99(1)
Mohandas K. Gandhi, Indian Independence, and Its Aftermath
100(2)
Women in Hinduism
102(11)
Sources of Classical Hindu Ideals of Womanhood
102(2)
The Subordination of the Ideal Hindu Wife
104(2)
Places of Power and Participation
106(2)
Women and Reform in India
108(2)
The Political and Religious Forces Shaping the Lives of Today's Hindu Women
110(3)
Other Religions of India
113(4)
Jainism
113(2)
Sikhism
115(2)
Hinduism in America
117(112)
India Comes to America
117(110)
Other Hindu Influences in America
117(2)
Summary
119(1)
Questions for Review
120(2)
Suggested Readings on the Religions of India
122(4)
Suggested Websites
126(1)
Wisdom Embarked For The Farther Shore
The Journey of Buddhism
127(1)
Chapter Objectives
127(1)
A Religion of Transformation of Consciousness
128(1)
The Life of the Buddha
129(4)
Basic Buddhist Teaching
133(6)
The Middle Way
133(1)
The Four Noble Truths and ``No Self,''
134(4)
Nirvana
138(1)
Theravada Buddhism
139(5)
Mahayana Buddhism
144(10)
Nagarjuna's Two Basic Principles
147(3)
The Bodhisattva
150(1)
``Mind Only'' (Yogacara)
151(2)
The Three Forms of Buddhic Expression (The Three ``Buddha Bodies'')
153(1)
Vajrayana (Tantric) Buddhism
154(5)
Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet
156(3)
Chan or Zen Buddhism
159(3)
Pure Land Buddhism
162(1)
Women in Buddhism
163(11)
The Dharma: Opening the Door to Women's Enlightenment
163(1)
Women in Early Indian Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism
164(3)
Women in Mahayana Buddhism
167(2)
Women in Vajrayana (Tantric) Buddhism
169(3)
Women in Chan (Zen) and Pure Land Buddhism
172(1)
Women in Contemporary Buddhism East and West
172(2)
Buddhism in America
174(3)
Summary
177(1)
Questions for Review
178(1)
Suggested Readings on Buddhism
179(4)
Suggested Websites
183(2)
Dragon And Sun
Religions of East Asia
185(1)
Chapter Objectives
185(1)
The East Asian Spiritual World
186(3)
Religion in China
189(1)
Ancient China
189(2)
The Dao---Foundational to Confucianism and Daoism
191(1)
Confucianism
192(12)
Confucius (Kung Fuzi) and the Confucian Classics
192(1)
Fundamentals of the Confucian Tradition
193(5)
The Han Synthesis and Yin--Yang
198(1)
Mandarins (Ru)
199(2)
Rituals of the Mandarins (Ru)
201(2)
Neo-Confucianism
203(1)
Confucian Moral and Social Values
204(1)
Daoism (Taoism)
204(11)
Fundamentals of Daoism
204(2)
Laozi and the Dao De Jing
206(4)
The Development of Philosophical Daoism
210(2)
Religious Daoism
212(3)
Buddhism in China
215(3)
Religion in Traditional China---A Syncretistic Practice
218(2)
Religion in the People's Republic of China
220(3)
Women in Chinese Religion
223(9)
Women in Classical Confucianism
223(3)
Women in Daoism (Taoism)
226(2)
The ``Golden Lotuses''---Footbinding in China
228(3)
Chinese Women in Buddhism
231(1)
Women in the People's Republic of China
231(1)
The Influence of Daoism in America
232(2)
Religion in Japan
234(1)
Shinto
234(5)
Four Affirmations
234(2)
Shinto Worship
236(1)
The Kami and Their Myths
237(2)
Shinto as a State Cultus
239(1)
Buddhism in Japan
239(5)
Tendai and Shingon
240(1)
The Kamakura Reformation: Pure Land, Nichiren, and Zen
240(4)
Confucianism in Japan
244(1)
The Japanese ``New Religions''
245(1)
Women in Japanese Religion
246(3)
Religion in Korea
249(1)
Religion in Vietnam
250(1)
Summary
251(1)
Questions for Review
252(1)
Suggested Readings on East Asian Religion
253(5)
Suggested Websites
258(2)
One God, Many Words and Wonders
The Family of the Three Great Monotheistic Religions and Zoroastrianism
260(1)
Chapter Objectives
260(1)
The Nature of Monotheistic Religion
261(5)
Zoroastrianism
266(4)
Questions for Review
270(1)
Suggested Readings on Zoroastrianism
270(1)
Suggested Websites
270(1)
Keeping Covenant with God in History
The Unique Perspective of Judaism
271(1)
Chapter Objectives
271(1)
Jewish Uniqueness
272(1)
The Ancient Story of Judaism
273(5)
From the Second Temple to the Talmud
278(2)
Medieval and Modern Judaism
280(3)
Judaism in America
283(1)
Jewish Beliefs
284(2)
Jewish Life
286(3)
Festivals and Practices
289(3)
Women in Judaism
292(7)
Women in Traditional Judaism
292(4)
Jewish Women Today---Modernity and Feminism
296(3)
Summary
299(1)
Questions for Review
300(1)
Suggested Readings on the Hebrew Scriptures and Judaism
300(3)
Suggested Websites
303(1)
Spreading the Word of God in the World
The Growth of Christianity
304(1)
Chapter Objectives
304(1)
The Scope of Christianity
305(1)
Jesus
306(2)
The Early Jesus Movement
308(2)
Paul
310(1)
Christianity in the Roman World
311(5)
The Christian Triumph
316(1)
The Foundations of Medieval Christianity
317(5)
Medieval Christendom
322(2)
The Reformation and Martin Luther
324(3)
Calvin
327(2)
The English Reformation
329(1)
Radical Reform
330(4)
The Catholic Reformation
334(1)
Christian Mysticism and Devotion
335(3)
Eastern Orthodoxy
338(3)
Roman Catholicism
341(4)
Protestantism
345(2)
Christianity in America: A Wellspring of Denominationalism
347(6)
The Modern Expansion of Christianity
353(4)
The New Face of World Christianity
357(3)
Women in Christianity
360(16)
Women in the Early Jesus Movement
360(2)
Christian Dualism, the Medieval Vision, and their Impact on Attitudes toward Women
362(2)
Christian Women in Europe during the Middle Ages: Wives, Nuns, Charismatics, and Heretics
364(4)
Women and Reform
368(1)
Christianity and Women in America before the Twentieth Century
369(4)
The ``Woman Question'' in American Christianity in the Twentieth Century and Beyond
373(3)
Christianity in the World Today
376(1)
Summary
377(2)
Questions for Review
379(1)
Suggested Readings on Christianity
380(5)
Suggested Websites
385(2)
Submitting to the Will of God
The Building of the House of Islam
387(1)
Chapter Objectives
387(1)
The Meaning of Islam
388(1)
Muhammad
389(3)
The Qur'an
392(4)
The Five Pillars of Islam
396(4)
Prayers and Mosques
400(4)
Historic Islam
404(1)
Features of Classic Islamic Civilization
405(6)
Urban Settings and Family Life
405(1)
Law, Religion, Trade, and the Development of Islamic Culture
406(1)
The Role of Nonrepresentational Art, Calligraphy, and Literature in Islamic Culture
406(3)
Philosophy, Science, and the Intellectual Life of Islam
409(1)
Rationalism and Mysticism in the Development of Islamic Thought
410(1)
Sunni Islam
411(2)
Shi'a Islam
413(5)
Islamic Mysticism
418(4)
Islam in the World Today
422(7)
Islam in America
429(1)
Women in Islam
430(10)
Islam and the Question of Women's Role
430(2)
Early Islam after Muhammad: The Continuation of Patriarchal Patterns
432(4)
Muslim Women: Leaders, Saints, and Practitioners
436(2)
Today's Middle Eastern Muslim Women and the Winds of Change
438(2)
Summary
440(2)
Questions for Review
442(1)
Suggested Readings on Islam
443(3)
Suggested Websites
446(1)
Spirits Rising
New Religious Movements
447(1)
Chapter Objectives
447(1)
The World of New Religions
448(1)
Types of New Religions
449(8)
New Religions Around the World
457(2)
Features of New Religious Movements
459(2)
Summary
461(1)
Questions for Review
462(1)
Suggested Readings on New Religious Movements
462(2)
Suggested Websites
464(1)
Looking Over the Spiritual Horizon
Religion Today and Tomorrow
465(1)
Chapter Objectives
465(1)
Things Old and New
466(1)
Challenges for Religion Today
466(9)
Science
466(2)
Technology and the Internet
468(1)
Globalization
469(2)
The Environmental Crisis
471(2)
Overpopulation
473(1)
Women's Inequality
474(1)
Sexual Orientation
475(1)
Religious Trends Today
475(3)
Liberalism
475(1)
Traditionalism, Conservativism, and Fundamentalism
476(1)
Secularization
477(1)
Religious Futures
478(1)
New Religions and New Religious Founders
478(1)
Secularism or Religious Revival?
478(1)
Syncretism
478(1)
Pluralism
479(1)
Religion's Future
479(1)
Questions for Review
480(1)
Suggested Readings
480(1)
Suggested Websites
481(1)
APPENDIX STUDYING WORLD RELIGIONS
482(6)
I. Writing a Term Paper
482(2)
II. Writing a Religious Visit Paper
484(1)
III. Internet Research Guide
485(3)
Notes 488(23)
Glossary 511(15)
Index 526

Excerpts

For three decades this introduction to the world's religions,Many Peoples, Many Faiths,has endeavored in various ways to combine factual information with empathetic writing that tries to convey something of the flavor of our planet's diverse religions and cultures. While striving for accuracy and depth, it is neither an encyclopedic compilation of data nor a survey of alternative philosophies. Instead, it us seeks to present something of the total human experience, made up as it is of an inseparable mingling of conceptual, worship, and social factors of religious life from past to present. The authors hope that their efforts will implant in many readers a sense of the richness and fascination of the areas of scholarship that lie behind the presentation of this experience, and that it will inspire at least some to explore these areas more deeply. Barbara McGraw, Associate Professor, St. Mary's College of California, joined with the original writer, Robert Ellwood, Emeritus Professor, University of Southern California, as coauthor for the sixth edition ofMany Peoples, Many Faithsand continues to have a large part in the rewriting of all sections of the subsequent editions of the book. In particular, Professor McGraw has contributed nearly all of the material that was added in the sixth and seventh editions on women in the world religions. The growing interest in this issue and its own intrinsic importance have led both of us to believe that world religions textbooks must give substantial amounts of space and detail to the role and experience of women in religion to more fully reflect the total human experience of religion's influence on the cultures of the world. In general, this eighth edition ofMany Peoples, Many Faithsseeks to continue the balanced, empathetic, yet critical, approach to the religions of the world toward which previous versions have striven. Additions made to earlier editions have been maintained and, where appropriate, updated. For example, in the sixth edition new material was added throughout on the presence of the world religions in the United States. Further, it was previously recognized that in a world increasingly faced with very difficult choices and with a growing awareness of current injustices, no human institution, religion included, can avoid challenge and criticism. New material was previously added to the introductory chapter on critical approaches to religion, and a new final chapter was then appended on religion in the context of present and future crises, and the first and last chapters have been substantially revised for the eighth edition. Readers will be challenged to think about how religion has responded to present developments in science, technology, globalization, the environment, and other trends, and what possible futures for religion there may be in light of them. The glossary was substantially expanded in the seventh edition and has been updated for the eighth edition so that it can be used effectively as a teaching and learning tool. The authors suggest that students be instructed to use the glossary as a study guide for each chapter. In addition, updated material has been added throughout the book, including the addition of recent books to the lists of suggested readings at the end of each chapter. As before, it must be emphasized that these lists are by no means exhaustive. In many of the categories, there are hundreds, even thousands, of valuable books. What we have tried to do is suggest a few books in each subject area, not so much for advanced research as for broader familiarization with the area. Most, therefore, are books written at a level accessible to beginning or middle-level students. Many are textbooks with good further bibliographies. Books footnoted in the text but not cited in the reading lists are generally recommended too. In many cases, the books in the suggested reading lists have gone through a number of editions; the


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