9780130144119

Marketing Research

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780130144119

  • ISBN10:

    0130144118

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-12-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Summary

Appropriate for introductory undergraduate business and marketing courses in Marketing Research. Constructed around a logical 11-step model or framework for market research activities, the book presents a comprehensive introduction to the basics of market research. This is the only text to integrate SPSS throughoutincludes CD-ROM with SPSS tutorial, SPSS Student Edition for Windows, Student assistant, and data sets.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
The Nature of Marketing Research
2(22)
Marketing
4(3)
The Marketing Concept
4(1)
Marketing Strategy
4(3)
Marketing Research Defined
7(1)
The Role of Marketing Research: Information to Aid in Decision Making
7(6)
Characteristics of Marketing Research
13(2)
Applied or Basic Research?
13(1)
Sometimes Inaccurate
13(1)
Shaped by Budget and Time Constraints
14(1)
Types of Marketing Research Studies
15(1)
The Marketing Information System
16(4)
Components of an MIS
16(4)
The Future of Marketing Research
20(1)
Summary
20(1)
Key Terms
21(1)
Review Questions/Applications
21(3)
The Industry: Structure, Evaluation, and Ethics
24(44)
Historical Perspectives of Marketing Research
26(2)
The Pre-Marketing Research Era
26(1)
The Early Development Era
26(1)
The questionnaire Era
27(1)
The Quantitative Era
27(1)
The Organizational Acceptance Era
27(1)
The Technological Era
27(1)
The Structure of the Marketing Research Industry
28(14)
Internal Suppliers: How Do They Organize the Research Function?
29(1)
External Suppliers
30(12)
How Has the Marketing Research Industry Performed?
42(2)
Suggested Remedy for the Future: Certification
43(1)
Ethical Issues Facing the Marketing Research Industry
44(12)
Systems of Philosophical Belief: Deontology versus Teleology
44(4)
The Ethical Issues Confronting the Marketing Research Industry
48(8)
Summary
56(1)
Key Terms
57(1)
Review Questions/Applications
57(5)
Appendix 2: A Career in the Marketing Research Industry
62(6)
The Marketing Research Process
68(28)
Steps in the Marketing Research Process
70(14)
Establish the Need for Marketing Research
72(2)
Define the Problem
74(1)
Establish Research Objectives
75(1)
Determine Research Design
75(3)
Identify Information Types and Sources
78(1)
Determine Methods of Accessing Data
79(1)
Design Data Collection Forms
80(1)
Determine Sample Plan and Size
80(1)
Collect Data
81(1)
Analyze Data
82(2)
Prepare and Present the Final Research Report
84(1)
Marketing Research in Action: KFC's ``Family Feast'' Introduction in the United Kingdom
84(8)
Establish the Need for Marketing Research
84(1)
Define the Problem
85(1)
Establish Research Objectives
86(1)
Determine Research Design
87(1)
Identify Information Types and Sources
87(1)
Determine Methods of Accessing Data
87(1)
Design Data Collection Forms
88(1)
Determine Sample Plan and Size
88(1)
Collect Data
88(1)
Analyze the Data and Prepare the Final Research Report
88(4)
Summary
92(1)
Key Terms
93(1)
Review Questions/Applications
93(3)
Defining the Problem and Determining Research Objectives
96(30)
Define the Marketing Manager's Problem
97(3)
Differences between Managers and Researchers
98(1)
Guidelines to Resolve Differences between Managers and Researchers
98(2)
Decide When Marketing Research is Warranted
100(1)
Define the Marketing Management and Research Problems
100(9)
Assess the Background of the Company, Product, and Market
102(1)
Understand the Decision Maker's Circumstances, Objectives, and Resources
102(1)
Clarify the Symptoms of the Problem
103(1)
Pinpoint Suspected Causes of the Problem
104(2)
Specify Actions That May Alleviate the Problem
106(1)
Speculate on Anticipated Consequences of the Actions
107(1)
Identify the Manager's Assumptions about the Consequences
108(1)
Assess the Adequacy of Information on Hand
108(1)
Putting it all Together: What the Researcher Needs to Define the Marketing Management Problem
109(1)
Formulate the Marketing Research Problem
110(4)
Specify Constructs and Operational Definitions
111(1)
Identify Relationships
112(1)
Decide on a Model
113(1)
Specify Marketing Research Objectives
114(1)
An Example of the Formulation of a Marketing Research Problem
114(2)
The Formal Research Proposal
116(2)
Define the Marketing Management Problem
117(1)
Specify the Research Objectives
117(1)
Detail the Proposed Research Method
117(1)
Select a Marketing Research Company
118(1)
Summary
119(1)
Key Terms
119(1)
Review Questions/Applications
120(3)
Appendix 4: A Marketing Research Proposal for Surgi-Center of New Haven
123(3)
Research Design
126(32)
Research Design
129(1)
The Significance of Research Design
129(1)
Three Types of Research Designs
129(11)
Research Design: A Caution
129(1)
Exploratory Research
130(1)
Uses of Exploratory Research
131(1)
Methods of Conducting Exploratory Research
132(2)
Descriptive Research
134(1)
Classification of Descriptive Research Studies
134(5)
Casual Research
139(1)
Experiments
140(8)
Experimental Design
141(1)
After-Only Design
141(1)
One-Group, Before-After Design
142(1)
Before-After with Control Group
143(1)
After-Only with Control Group
144(1)
How Valid Are Experiments?
145(1)
Types of Experiments
146(2)
Test Marketing
148(5)
Types of Test Markets
148(2)
Consumer versus Industrial Test Markets
150(1)
``Lead Country'' Test Markets
150(1)
Selecting Test Market Cities
150(1)
Pros and Cons of Test Marketing
150(3)
Summary
153(1)
Key Terms
154(1)
Review Questions/Applications
154(4)
Secondary Data Sources
158(32)
Sources of Secondary Data
159(7)
Databases
162(4)
Advantages/Disadvantages of Secondary Data
166(2)
Evaluating Secondary Data
168(3)
What Was the Purpose of the Study?
168(1)
Who Collected the Information?
169(1)
What Information Was Collected?
169(1)
How Was the Information Obtained?
170(1)
How Consistent Is the Information with Other Information?
171(1)
Locating Secondary Data Sources
171(5)
Key Sources of Secondary Data For Marketers
176(10)
Census of the Population
177(3)
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
180(2)
``Survey of Buying Power''
182(1)
Creating a Customized BPI
183(3)
Worldwide Availabilty of Secondary Data
186(1)
Summary
187(1)
Key Terms
187(1)
Review Questions/Applications
188(2)
Syndicated Services
190(38)
Understanding Syndicated Services
193(4)
Advantages/Disadvantages of Syndicated Services
197(1)
Application Areas of Syndicated Data Services
197(23)
Measuring Consumer Attitudes and Opinion Polls
198(1)
Defining Market Segments
198(2)
Conducting Market Tracking
200(13)
Monitoring Media Usage and Promotion Effectiveness
213(7)
Single-Source Data
220(2)
The Future of Syndicated Services
222(1)
Summary
222(1)
Key Terms
223(1)
Review Questions/Applications
224(4)
Observation, Focus Groups, and Other Qualitative Methods
228(34)
Qualitative, Quantitative, and Pluralistic Research
230(2)
Observation Techniques
232(5)
Types of Observation
232(3)
Appropriate Conditions for the Use of Observation
235(1)
Advantages of Observational Data
236(1)
Limitations of Observational Data
236(1)
Focus Groups
237(14)
Some Objectives of Focus Groups
238(3)
Operational Questions about Focus Groups
241(3)
The Focus Group Moderator's Role and Responsibilities
244(1)
Reporting and Use of Focus Group Results
245(1)
Advantages of Focus Groups
246(2)
Disadvantages of Focus Groups
248(2)
The Future of Focus Groups
250(1)
Other Qualitative Research Techniques
251(6)
Depth Interviews
251(1)
Protocol Analysis
252(1)
Projective Techniques
252(4)
Physiological Measurement
256(1)
Summary
257(1)
Key Terms
258(1)
Review Questions/Applications
258(4)
Survey Data Collection Methods
262(40)
Advantages of Surveys
264(2)
Standardization
264(1)
Ease of Administration
264(1)
Ability to Tap the ``Unseen''
265(1)
Suitability to Tabulation and Statistical Analysis
265(1)
Sensitivity to Subgroup Differences
266(1)
Three Alternative Data Collection Modes
266(4)
Person-Administered Surveys
268(1)
Computer-Administered Surveys
268(1)
Self-Administered Surveys
269(1)
Descriptions of Representative Data Collection Modes
270(17)
Person-Administered Interviews
273(6)
Computer-Administered Interviews
279(3)
Self-Administered Surveys
282(5)
Factors Determining the Choice of A Particular Survey Method
287(9)
Researcher's Resources and Objectives
289(2)
Respondent Characteristics
291(4)
Characteristics of Questions Asked by Researchers
295(1)
Selecting a Survey Mode
296(1)
Summary
296(1)
Key Terms
297(1)
Review Questions/Applications
298(4)
Measurement in Marketing Research
302(40)
Basic Question-Response Formats
304(2)
Open-Ended Response Format Questions
304(1)
Closed-Ended Response Format Questions
305(1)
Scaled-Response Questions
306(1)
Considerations in Choosing a Question-Response Format
306(3)
Nature of the Property Being Measured
307(1)
Previous Research Studies
307(1)
Data Collection Mode
307(1)
Ability of the Respondent
307(2)
Scale Level Desired
309(1)
Basic Concepts in Measurement
309(1)
Scale Characteristics
310(2)
Description
310(1)
Order
310(1)
Distance
311(1)
Origin
311(1)
Levels of Measurement of Scales
312(3)
Nominal Scales
312(1)
Ordinal Scales
312(2)
Interval Scales
314(1)
Ratio Scales
315(1)
Why the Measurement Level of a Scale is Important
315(1)
Scaled-Response Question Forms
316(13)
The Modified Likert Scale
318(1)
The Life-Style Inventory
319(2)
The Semantic Differential Scale
321(4)
Composite Scales
325(3)
Issues in the Use of Sensitivity Scales
328(1)
Other Scaled-Response Question Formats
329(1)
Reliability of Measuremnts
329(3)
Test-Retest Reliability
330(1)
Equivalent Forms Reliability
330(1)
Split-Half Reliability
331(1)
How to Develop Reliable Measures
331(1)
Validity of Measuremnts
332(4)
Face Validity
333(1)
Predictive Validity
333(1)
Convergent Validity
334(1)
Discriminant Validity
334(1)
How to Develop Valid Measures
334(2)
Summary
336(1)
Key Terms
337(1)
Review Questions/Applications
337(5)
Desinging Data Collection Forms
342(40)
The Functions of a Questionnaire
344(1)
The Questionnaire Development Process
345(2)
Developing Questions
347(10)
The Five ``Shoulds'' of Question Wording
347(5)
The Eleven ``Should Nots'' of Question Wording
352(5)
Questionnaire Organization
357(7)
The Introduction
357(2)
Typical Question Sequence
359(5)
Precoding the Questionnaire
364(2)
Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design
366(4)
Features of Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design Systems
366(4)
Performing the Pretest of the Questionnaire
370(1)
Designing Observation Forms
371(2)
Structuring Observational Studies
371(1)
Build-Up and Break-Down Approaches
372(1)
Summary
373(1)
Key Terms
373(1)
Review Questions/Applications
374(8)
Determining the Sample Plan
382(38)
Basic Concepts in Sample and Sampling
384(3)
Population
384(1)
Sample and Sample Unit
385(1)
Census
386(1)
Sampling Error
386(1)
Sample Frame and Sample Frame Error
386(1)
Reasons for Taking a Sample
387(1)
Two Basic Sampling Methods: Probability Versus Nonprobability
388(20)
Probability Sampling Methods
389(13)
Nonprobability Sampling Methods
402(6)
Developing a Sample Plan
408(5)
Define the Relevant Population
408(1)
Obtain a ``Listing'' of the Population
409(1)
Design the Sample Plan (Size, Method)
410(1)
Access the Population
411(1)
Draw the Sample
411(2)
Validate the Sample
413(1)
Resample, If Necessary
413(1)
Summary
413(1)
Key Terms
414(1)
Review Questions/Applications
414(6)
Determining the Size of a Sample
420(32)
Methods of Determining Sample Size
423(13)
Arbitrary Approach
423(1)
Conventional Approach
424(1)
Cost Basis Approach
425(2)
Statistical Analysis Approach
427(1)
Confidence Interval Approach
427(6)
The Notion of a Sampling Distribution
433(3)
Computing Sample Size Using the Confidence Interval Approach
436(4)
Determing Sample Size Using a Percentage
437(2)
Determing Sample Size Using a Mean
439(1)
Practical Considerations in Sample Size Determination
440(4)
How to Estimate Variability in the Population
440(2)
How to Determine the Amount of Precision Desired
442(1)
How to Calculate the Level of Confidence Desired
443(1)
Special Sample Size Determination Situations
444(1)
Sampling from Small Populations
444(1)
Sample Size Using Nonprobability Sampling
445(1)
Summary
445(1)
Key Terms
446(1)
Review Questions/Applications
446(6)
Data Collection in the Field, Nonresponse Error, and Questionnaire Screening
452(34)
Nonsampling Error in Marketing Research
454(1)
Possible Errors in Field Data Collection
454(8)
International Fieldworker Errors
455(1)
Unintentional Fieldworker Errors
456(2)
Intentional Respondent Errors
458(2)
Unintentional Respondent Errors
460(2)
Field Data Collection Quality Controls
462(4)
Control of Intentional Fieldworker Error
462(1)
Control of Unintentional Fieldworker Error
463(1)
Control of Intentional Respondent Error
464(1)
Control of Unintentional Respondent Error
465(1)
Final Comment on the Control of Data Collection Errors
466(1)
Nonresponse Error
466(7)
Refusals to Participate in the Survey
467(1)
Break-Offs during the Interview
467(1)
Refusals to Answer Specific Questions (Item Omission)
468(1)
Measuring Nonresponse Error in Surveys
468(2)
Completed Interview
470(3)
Reducing Nonresponse Error
473(1)
Adjusting Results to Reduce Nonresponse Error
474(2)
Weighted Averages
475(1)
Oversampling
475(1)
Preliminary Questionnaire Screening
476(3)
Unsystematic and Systematic Checks of Completed Questionnaires
477(1)
What to Look for in Questionnaire Inspection
477(2)
Summary
479(1)
Key Terms
479(1)
Review Questions/Applications
480(6)
Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics
486(34)
Coding Data and the Data Code Book
488(1)
Data Reduction
489(4)
Four Functions of Data Reduction
490(3)
Types of Statistical Analyses Used in Marketing Research
493(3)
Descriptive Analysis
494(1)
Inferential Analysis
494(1)
Differences Analysis
495(1)
Associative Analysis
495(1)
Predictive Analysis
496(1)
Understanding Data Via Descriptive Analysis
496(10)
Measures of Central Tendency
498(1)
Measures of Variability
499(4)
Other Descriptive Measures
503(3)
When to Use a Particular Descriptive Measure
506(2)
Cellular One: Obtaining Descriptive Statistics with SPSS for Windows
508(5)
Obtaining a Frequency Distribution and the Mode with SPSS for Windows
510(2)
Finding the Median with SPSS
512(1)
Finding the Mean, Range, and Standard Deviation with SPSS for Windows
512(1)
Summary
513(1)
Key Terms
514(1)
Review Questions/Applications
514(6)
Inferring Sample Findings to the Population and Testing for Differences
520(48)
Statistics Versus Parameters
523(1)
The Concepts of Inference and Statistical Inference
523(2)
Parameter Estimation
525(6)
Sample Statistic
525(1)
Standard Error
526(2)
Confidence Intervals
528(2)
How to Interpret an Estimated Population Mean or Percentage Range
530(1)
Pampo's Swimwear: How to Obtain a Confidence Interval for a Mean with SPSS for Windows
531(2)
Hypothesis Testing
533(8)
Test of the Hypothesized Population Parameter Value
535(4)
Directional Hypotheses
539(1)
How to Interpret Hypothesis Testing
540(1)
How to Use SPSS for Windows to Test a Hypothesis for a Mean
541(1)
Testing for Significant Differences Between Two Groups
542(6)
Differences between Percentages or Means with Two Groups (Independent Samples)
542(4)
Differences between Two Means within the Same Sample (Paired Sample)
546(1)
Small Sample Sizes: The Use of a t Test
546(2)
Lipton Packaged Dinners: How to Perform an Independent Samples Significance of Differences Between Means Test with SPSS for Windows
548(4)
How to Perform a Paired Samples Significance of Differences between Means Test with SPSS for Windows
551(1)
Testing for Significant Differences in Means Among More Than Two Groups: Analysis of Variance
552(8)
Basic Logic in Analysis of Variance
552(2)
The Three Types of Variation in ANOVA
554(1)
Determining Statistical Significance in ANOVA
554(1)
An Example of How ANOVA Works
554(4)
The Computed F Value and F Distribution
558(1)
Determining Specific Statistically Significant Differences between Group Means
559(1)
How to Run Analysis of Variance on SPSS for Windows
560(2)
n-Way ANOVA
561(1)
n-Way ANOVA with SPSS for Windows
562(1)
Summary
562(1)
Key Terms
563(1)
Review Questions/Applications
563(5)
Determining and Interpreting Associations between Two Variables
568(42)
Types of Relationships Between Two Variables
571(4)
Nonmonotonic Relationships
571(1)
Monotonic Relationships
572(2)
Linear Relationships
574(1)
Curvilinear Relationships
575(1)
Characterizing Relationships Between Variables
575(3)
Presence
575(1)
Direction
576(1)
Strength of Association
576(2)
Cross-Tabulations
578(3)
Chi-Square Analysis
581(5)
Observed and Expected Frequencies
582(1)
The Computed χ2 Value
583(1)
The Chi-Square Distribution
584(2)
How to Interpret a Chi-Square Result
586(1)
Michelob Light Beer: Analyzing Cross-Tabulations for Significant Associations by Performing Chi-Square Analysis with SPSS for Windows
586(5)
Correlation Coefficients and Convariation
591(3)
Graphing Covariation Using Scatter Diagrams
592(2)
The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
594(3)
Basic Procedure in Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis
595(2)
Burroughs Corporation: How to Obtain Pearson Product Moment Correlation(s) with SPSS for Windows
597(2)
Special Considerations in Linear Correlation Procedures
598(1)
The Rank Order Correlation Coefficient
599(2)
Spearman Rank Order Correlation and Kendall's Tau Rank Correlation with SPSS for Windows
601(2)
Concluding Comments on Associative Analyses
603(1)
Summary
604(1)
Key Terms
604(1)
Review Questions/Applications
605(5)
Predictive Analysis in Marketing Research
610(36)
Defining Prediction
613(3)
Two General Approaches to Prediction
614(1)
How to Determine the ``Goodness'' of Your Predictions
614(2)
Bivariate Regression Analysis
616(4)
Basic Procedure in Bivariate Regression Analysis
617(3)
Burroughs Corporation: Bivariate Regression Output with SPSS for Windows
620(7)
Testing for Statistical Significance of the Intercept and the Slope
621(1)
Making a Prediction and Accounting for Error
622(3)
Two Warnings Regarding Regression Analysis
625(2)
Multiple Regression Analysis
627(2)
Basic Assumptions in Multiple Regression
627(2)
Vitality Pharmaceuticals: Multiple Regression with SPSS for Windows
629(7)
How to Run Multiple Regression Analysis of SPSS for Windows
629(3)
Using Results to Make a Prediction
632(2)
Special Uses of Multiple Regression Analysis
634(2)
Stepwise Multiple Regression
636(2)
How to Avoid Multicollinearity in Stepwise Regression
637(1)
Wendy's: An SPSS Example of Stepwise Multiple Regression
638(2)
Final Comments on Regression Analysis
640(1)
Summary
640(1)
Key Terms
641(1)
Review Questions/Applications
641(5)
Presenting the Research Results
646(31)
Importance of the Research Report
648(1)
Organization of the Written Report
648(11)
Front Matter
648(7)
Body
655(4)
End Matter
659(1)
Guidelines and Principles for the Written Report
659(2)
Form and Format
659(1)
Style
660(1)
Guidelines for the Use of Visuals: Tables and Figures
661(6)
Tables
664(1)
Pie Charts
665(1)
Bar Charts
666(1)
Line Graphs
666(1)
An Accurate and Ethical Visual
667(4)
Oral Presentations
671(1)
Summary
672(1)
Key Terms
673(1)
Review Questions/Applications
673(4)
ENDNOTES 677(13)
CREDITS 690(2)
INDEX 692(1)
Names
692(1)
Subjects
692

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