9780312395056

Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and the Civil Rights Struggle of the 1950s and 1960s A Brief History with Documents

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780312395056

  • ISBN10:

    0312395051

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2/20/2004
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

The civil rights movement's most prominent leaders, Martin Luther King, Jr. (19291968) and Malcolm X (19251965), represent two wings of the revolt against racism: nonviolent resistance and revolution "by any means necessary." This volume presents the two leaders' relationship to the civil rights movement beyond a simplified dualism. A rich selection of speeches, essays, and excerpts from Malcolm X's autobiography and King's sermons shows the breadth and range of each man's philosophy, demonstrating their differences, similarities, and evolution over time. Organized into six topical groups, the documents allow students to compare the leaders' views on subjects including integration, the American dream, means of struggle, and opposing racial philosophies. An interpretive introductory essay, chronology, selected bibliography, document headnotes, and questions for consideration provide further pedagogical support.

Author Biography

DAVID HOWARD-PITNEY has taught American history and American studies at San Jose State University and the University of Wisconsin-River Falls. He is now professor and history department chair of De Anza College. He worked at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project at Stanford University in 1986 and from 2000 to 2002 was a commissioned scholar for the Public Influences of African American Churches Project of the Leadership Center at Morehouse College. A specialist on American civil religion and African-American leaders' thought and rhetoric, Howard-Pitney's publications include The African-American Jeremiad: Appeals for Justice in America.

Table of Contents

Foreword v
Preface vii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv
PART ONE Introduction: Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X in the African American Freedom Struggle of the 1950's and 1960's 1(30)
PART TWO The Documents: Words and Themes of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X 31(149)
1. Formative Influences and Ideas
33(24)
Martin Luther King Jr.
34(12)
An Autobiography of Religious Development, 1950
34(6)
Pilgrimage to Nonviolence, 1960
40(6)
Malcolm X
46(11)
From Nightmare to Salvation, 1965
47(10)
2. Social Ends: Racial Integration versus Separation
57(16)
Martin Luther King Jr.
58(9)
The Ethical Demands for Integration, 1963
58(9)
Malcolm X
67(6)
From The Black Revolution, 1963
67(3)
Independence, Not Separation, 1964
70(3)
3. Means of Struggle: Nonviolent Resistance versus "By Any Means Necessary"
73(29)
Martin Luther King Jr.
74(22)
Letter from Birmingham Jail, 1963
74(16)
From Nonviolence: The Only Road to Freedom, 1966
90(6)
Malcolm X
96(6)
From The Afro Americans Right to Self-Defense, 1964
96(3)
From On Revolution, 1963
99(3)
4. On America: Dream or Nightmare?
102(15)
Martin Luther King Jr.
103(4)
I Have a Dream, 1963
103(4)
Malcolm X
107(10)
The White Man Is a Devil: Statements on Whites, 1965
108(5)
From God's Judgment of White America, 1963
113(4)
5. Critiques of Rival Racial Programs and Philosophies
117(19)
Martin Luther King Jr.
118(9)
Three Responses of Oppressed Groups, 1958
118(3)
On Black Nationalists and Malcolm X, 1965
121(3)
The Nightmare of Violence: Regarding the Death of Malcolm X, 1965
124(3)
Malcolm X
127(9)
Black Bodies with White Heads! 1965
127(1)
From Message to the Grassroots, 1963
128(6)
King Is the White Man's Best Weapon, 1963
134(2)
6. Eras of Convergence
136(44)
Martin Luther King Jr.
137(19)
From Beyond Vietnam, 1967
138(9)
From Where Do We Go from Here? 1967
147(9)
Malcolm X
156
Press Conference on Return from Africa, 1964
157(3)
Sincere Whites (That Coed Again), 1964
160(2)
I'm Not a Racist, 1964
162(2)
America Can Have a Bloodless Revolution, 1964
164(1)
From The Ballot or the Bullet, 1964
165(11)
All of Us Should Be Critics of Each Other, 1964
176(2)
My Voice Helped Save America, 1965
178
APPENDIXES
A Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X Chronology (1925-1968)
180(12)
Questions for Consideration
192(2)
Selected Bibliography
194(7)
Index 201

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