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J. Charles Sterin is an award-winning documentary filmmaker, investigative television journalist, and screenwriter. Over the course of his thirty-year career, Sterin has co-produced a national media project with ten of the world’s leading humanist thinkers (including anthropologist Margaret Mead, psychologist Carl Rogers, and anthropologist Ashley Montagu) and was selected by the Poynter Institute to produce its seminal PBS documentary series NewsLeaders on the leading figures of American news media.
Sterin is fascinated with the future of media technologies, especially the evolution of the Internet, mass media convergence, and artificial intelligence based expert systems. He has developed innovative approaches to producing short-form documentary videos in integrated content delivery platforms for “blended” online training and higher education. In 2001, Sterin joined the faculty of the University of Maryland University College – a world leader in web-enhanced and online college programs – where he has applied his interests in the evolution of mass media and media-based blended learning applications to the creation of a number of UMUC’s mass communication courses. Through these popular courses, Sterin has introduced thousands of students across the country and around the world to the study of mass media. Today, he continues to develop innovative approaches to connect and communicate with a diverse body of students in multimedia-enhanced face-to-face and online teaching environments, as well as pursing his work as a documentary filmmaker, screenwriter and author.
Table of Contents
I PAVING THE WAY TO TODAY’S MASS MEDIA
1 Introduction to the Mass Media Revolution
This chapter lays out the book’s approach to the study of mass media in the digital millennium, as well as gives a broad overview of the historical and theoretical context necessary for understanding mass media from a critical perspective.
The Style and Approach of the Mass Media Revolution
<VIDEO> A Sneak Peek at MMR
View this movie trailer of things to come as you experience Mass Media Revolution.
Studying the Mass Media
<VIDEO> Marshall McLuhan, Explorations
In this 1960 broadcast, mass media theorist Marshall McLuhan predicts where the future of mass media communication and technologies are headed.
Culture and Mass Media: Sharing What We Know
From My Village to the Global Village
Convergence: Understanding Mass Media in the Digital Age
Audience Trends: What the Consumers Want
Why Are Audiences Always Being Researched?
<VIDEO> How Ratings Work
Conclusion: Understanding New Mass Media from a Critical Perspective
2 Mass Media: A Brief Historical Narrative
This chapter offers a brief survey of the roots of mass media, moving from the earliest storytellers through the dawning of the Digital Age.
The Visual Artists
The Printers and the Publishers
The Radio Broadcasters
<VIDEO> The History of Radio
Following three decades of Marconi’s attempt to monopolize the international wireless communication business, and a maze of competing innovations, patent battles and competitions between rival governments, radio at last moved beyond point-to-point communications.
The Television Producers
<VIDEO> News Stories
Again and again during times of national and international crisis, television news, as established by Edward R. Murrow, plays an essential role.
The Dawning of the Digital Age
Conclusion: Mass Media Converge
3 Media Technologies and the Dynamics of Change
This chapter covers the evolution of mass media—its vast and wide-ranging content and the constantly evolving technological platforms that deliver it.
The Stages of Technological Innovation
<VIDEO> Media Technology Format Wars
A closer look at the causes and industry effects of the HDDVD and Blu-Ray format wars.
Hurtling into the Future: The Effects of Technology on Mass Media
<VIDEO> Paul Levinson on the Future of Mass Media
A modern communication and media professor's insight into the future of mass media—after McLuhan’s global village.
The Life or Death of the Printed Word?
<VIDEO> World Digital Library Project
The LOC’s World Digital Library Project comes to fruition.
Conclusion: Adapting to Change
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives
II THE EVOLUTION OF MEDIA CONTENT AND PLATFORMS
4 Print Media
This chapter traces the history and evolution of the three primary forms of print media: newspapers, magazines and books, as well as explores how advanced media technologies may have altered these media forever. In addition, the chapter examines two contemporary forms of print media—comic books and graphic novels—and the impact they have had on other media industries.
Early American Newspaper Publishing
The Rise of Magazine Publishing
The Evolution of the Book Industry
Technologies Extend the Print Media
The Birth of Publishing Dynasties
<VIDEO> Otis Chandler, L.A. Times
The late Otis Chandler, former publisher of the L.A. Times, discusses the influence of newspapers and publishing dynasties on American culture and politics.
Print Media Go Visual
The Comic Book Industry
The Graphic Novel
The Newspaper Industry in the 20th Century
<VIDEO> Al Neuharth, USA Today
Al Neuharth, founder of USA Today offers an in-depth analysis of the success and popularity of his paper.
The Magazine Industry in the 20th Century
<VIDEO> Rob Covey, National Geographic
Rob Covey, Managing Editor and Creative Director of National Geographic Online, offers insight
into how the publication and the magazine industry overall is coping with the migration of content to the Web.
The Book Industry in the 20th Century
Conclusion: Will Printed Media Survive the Digital Revolution?
5 Music and Radio
In this chapter we will explore the history, evolution and interconnection of the music recording and radio broadcasting industries.
<VIDEO> Matt & Kim
Popular indie rock group Matt & Kim recount their story of going up against the major record labels.
The Cultural Influence of Music and Sound Recording
The Birth of the Radio Broadcasting Industry
<VIDEO> The Development of Early Radio
Watch this to learn about the battle between the early pioneers of radio.
<VIDEO> FM Radio
Armstrong invents FM radio and changes the future of commercial radio.
Popular Music: The First Cultural Shift
New Sounds, Old Sounds
The Music of Revolution: The Second Cultural Shift
Looking back on the Woodstock Festival on its 40th anniversary.
Musical Styles Diversify
MTV and the Birth of Music Videos
Alternative and Independent Music
The Grunge Alternative
The Hip-Hop Movement
Music and Radio Transition into the Digital Age
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) File Sharing Revolutionizes Music
Conclusion: Music and Radio Converge—and Endure
6 Film and Television
This chapter describes the interconnected development of the film and television industries and the challenges and opportunities created by an empowered audience in the Digital Age.
Narrative in Film
An overview on the significance of mise-en-scène in filmic storytelling.
The Early Innovators of Film
<VIDEO> A Trip to the Moon
View the special effects—spectacular for its time—of Méliès’ A Trip to the Moon.
<VIDEO> The Great Train Robbery
Porter's cross-cutting editing technique made it possible for films to display action happening in multiple locations.
The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System
Hollywood ’s Golden Age
The Big Five Start to Lose Power
The Influence of International Cinema Styles
<VIDEO> The Maltese Falcon
John Huston's The Maltese Falcon (1941) adopted the French film noir style.
The Motion Pictures Rating System of 1968
The Rise of the Independent Film Movement
The Magic of Special Effects
<VIDEO> Special Effects
Audiences love special effects, as depicted in this short video history.
The Film Industry in the Digital Age
Narrative in Television
The Evolution of Television
<VIDEO> Anatomy of a TV Show: The Young and the Restless
Take a look behind the scenes of a popular daytime drama in the making.
Cable Television Innovates Content
Conflicting Visions of the Future of Television
Conclusion: The Audience Drives the Future of Film and Television
7 New Media
This chapter explains what new media is and explores the highlights in its evolution, its contrast to what we now call old media, and new media’s impact on society and culture in the 21st century.
What Are the New Media and Where Did They Originate?
Innovators and Visionaries of the Internet
Rediscovering Text: E-mail and Text Messaging
<VIDEO> The Language of Texting
Investigative report detailing the explosion of text messaging among high school students.
The Dynamic New Media
Media Convergence: The Current Wave
Linking Up: The 21st-Century Phenomenon of Social Networking
Follow My Twitter
The New Media Politics: Grassroots to Mainstream
<VIDEO> Politics in Cyberspace
New media pioneer Robert Greenwald looks at the impact of new media journalism on politics and democracy.
The Gaming Generation
<VIDEO> The History of Video Games
A tour of some of the highlights of the evolution of video games.
Virtual Worlds: Playing in Alternate Realities
Conclusion: New New Media and the Impact on Society and Culture
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives
III MEDIA BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND
8 Advertising and Public Relations
Learn about the allied fields of advertising and public relations in this chapter, and discover how they influence the public’s attitudes and beliefs about everything from products and brands, to political leaders, to government policies and the media.
Tracing the History of American Advertising
Advertising Is All Around Us
This video montage of Mobius Award–winning commercials illustrates how successful advertising draws us into the story, despite how impractical or unreasonable it may be.
Product Affinity: Making Us Want It
<VIDEO> Ejector Pew
Provocative religious commercials, such as this one, can cast religious messages using trendy and even humorous imagery.
<VIDEO> Suspend Reality
Commercial advertising asks us to suspend reality and accept that we can be part of the story it is presenting.
Narrowcasting: Connecting Consumers and Products
Product Placement: Advertising Without Advertising
Breaking the Rules: Advertising in the 21st Century
Humor is an effective way of engaging audience attention or “capturing eyeballs.”
The Influences of Commercial Advertising
<VIDEO> Dove Evolution
Dove brand produced a series of commercials that, rather than promote artificial beauty, encouraged young women to embrace and nurture their natural beauty, body and self esteem.
Political Advertising: Making Us Vote for It
<VIDEO> Johnson Daisy Girl
Sometimes negative messages are far from subtle, as depicted in this 1964 Lyndon Johnson ad, which played on the Cold War fears of most Americans at the time.
<VIDEO> Kerry Swift Boat Vets
The Republican political action group called the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, created a series of television ads questioning the actions of 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry.
<VIDEO> Clinton 3 A.M.
When then Senator Barack Obama tenaciously held on to the lead in the closely contested Democratic primary race, then Senator Hillary Clinton came out with this ad spot.
Public Relations: Building and Managing Image
Tracing the History of American Public Relations
Public Relations Today
Developing Public Interest: Paparazzi and Promoters
Developing Public Trust: PR Ethics
Raising Social Awareness: The PSA
<VIDEO> Sample PSAs
Anti-drinking and anti-smoking ads, such as the ones shown in this video, reinforce the health and safety risks of alcohol and tobacco use, especially to younger audiences.
Facilitating Communication: Diversity in New PR
Conclusion: Selling Ideas, Framing Perceptions
9 Media Industry
In this chapter we take a look inside the fascinating and often complex world of the business and economics of the media industry and the forces and challenges driving the industry in the 21st century.
Tracing American Media Ownership
Content Control from the Boardroom
<VIDEO> Corporate Influence on the News
An excerpt from Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism, highlighting public concerns over corporate control over news.
The Economics of Media: Three Models
<VIDEO> Arianna Huffington
The Huffington Post’s successful business model is helping to drive the migration of newspapers and news organizations onto the Web.
The Federal Communication Commission
The Business of Music and Sound Recording
The Business of Radio
The Business of Television and Film
The Audience Is “King”
Empowering the Passive Media Consumer
The Effects of Media Globalization
Conclusion: Surviving the Business of Mass Media in the Digital Age
10 Media Bias
This chapter explores why some media outlets show specific bias and identifies the different forms of bias that exist; it also takes a critical look at the audience’s role in driving bias in the media.
The Building Blocks of Bias
<VIDEO> Catherine Crier on Media Bias
Catherine Crier, former State Supreme Court judge, author, and TV host discusses media bias.
Are the Media Always Biased?
Packaging Media Bias
Types of Media Bias
<VIDEO> Perspectives on Media Bias
Multiple perspectives on bias in the media from top personalities in the field.
The Economics of Media Bias
Bias in Films and Television
Bias in Blogs
Are Mainstream Media Liberally Biased?
Drawing the Line Between Fact and Opinion
<VIDEO> REM, “Bad Day”
Michael Stipe’s satirical musical commentary on the 24/7 news cycle.
Conclusion: What Is the Impact of Bias in American Media?
11 Mass Media Law and Ethics
This chapter explores the inextricable links between mass media, law, and the advance of technological innovation, as well as how we should define media ethics in our rapidly evolving global culture.
Brief History of Mass Media Law
<VIDEO> Robert Wuhl, Assume the Position
Excerpts from the HBO series Assume the Position with Robert Wuhl.
Defamation: Libel and Slander
Media and Privacy
<VIDEO> Privacy in Public Places
The widespread use of security monitoring technology in public places is challenging previous legal limitations on the protection of individual privacy.
Mass Media Law and National Security
Historical Roots of Copyright Law
<VIDEO> Lawrence Lessig on Copyright History
Stanford University Law Professor Lawrence Lessig explores the historic roots and present 21st-century challenges of U.S. Copyright Law.
Fair Use Doctrine
Copyright and Ownership of Digital Properties
<VIDEO> Copyright Basics
An animated quick tutorial on how copyright works.
<VIDEO> Creative Commons
Introduction to the Creative Commons alternative to traditional copyright law.
Enforcing Copyright Law on a Global Playing Field
Confidentiality in Newsgathering
Pornography: Free Expression or Obscenity?
Ethics and Mass Media
<VIDEO> Journalistic Ethics
Former White House correspondent Lee Thornton on journalistic ethics and the Jayson Blair case.
The Ethical Challenges of a Converged World
Conclusion: We Are Legally and Ethically Responsible
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives
IV THE MEDIA EXPERIENCE, CULTURE AND YOU
12 The Power of Photography in Mass Media
This chapter concentrates on photography as a visual mass medium and how technological advances in photography have contributed to a more active media-consumer culture.
Visual Communication in Mass Media
Finding Meaning in Visual Media
Photography and Modern Culture
<VIDEO> History of Photography—Part I
Learn how photography throughout its over 150-year history has played an important role in helping to define our sense of culture.
<VIDEO> History of Photography—Part II
Watch this segment on the impact of photography on major events in American history from the late 19th century forward.
Photojournalism: The Image as a Mass Medium
<VIDEO> History of Photography—Part III
A look at the work and influence of some of America’s photography masters.
Photography in the Digital Age
Conclusion: The Mass Media Effects of the Photographic Image
13 Journalism in the Digital Millennium
In this chapter we will explore New Journalism and the special trends and challenges facing journalists in the
21st century and the new skill sets required to meet these new challenges.
Reinventing Journalism for the Digital Millennium
Journalism in the Online World: Alternative Forms and Methods
The New World of Reporting, Writing and Editing the News
<VIDEO> Penniman on News for the Web
American News Project’s Nick Penniman on the unique nature of video news stories produced directly for the Web.
Backpack Journalism: Delivering More with Fewer Resources
<VIDEO> Penniman on Backpack Journalism
View how the American News Project applies backpack-style journalism to muckrake (investigative) reporting.
<VIDEO> Gentile on Backpack Journalism
Backpack journalism pioneer Bill Gentile shares his experiences working as an embedded journalist on the frontlines.
Unique Ethical Challenges of New Journalism
Conclusion: The Mission of Journalism Remains the Same
14 Media Impact on the Global Stage
This chapter looks at how mass media have led to the growth of democracies, and the role mass media systems have played on societies and cultures throughout the world in the 21st century.
The Role of Mass Media
Global Mass Media Systems
Mass Media Systems in Development
<VIDEO> Women on the Frontlines
Jeanine Nahigombeye, director of Radio Isanganiro, explains her sometimes risky efforts, and the efforts of other women like her, to present fair and balanced journalism promoting peace in civil-war torn Burundi.
<VIDEO> Arthur C. Clarke
Clarke’s groundbreaking work continues to serve as a model for the important role mass media technology plays in social and cultural development.
Mass Media and Cultural Context
Media Cultures Compete for Survival
<VIDEO> Culture Conflict
Excerpt from Hollywood and the Muslim World, a film by Charles C. Stuart, which features a Muslim perspective of how American media are affecting the Muslim cultural identity.
<VIDEO> Blaming American Media
Another excerpt from Hollywood and the Muslim World that features students from American University in Cairo expressing their views on how American culture has deeply influenced Arabs’ self identity.
Media Dominance and the Global Marketplace
<VIDEO> Al Jazeera
Charles C. Stuart explores the heart of the controversial Al Jazeera Network from Doha, Qatar.
Mass Media and Global Diplomacy
Equalizing the Global Community Through Media Technology
Conclusion: The Transformative Power of Mass Media
15 Stories of Diversity in American Media
In this chapter we will explore the sometimes conflicting roles that the media play to advance the cause of ethnic, racial, cultural and sexual diversity, and follow the stories of pioneering figures who have used the media to push against cultural barriers and move into the mainstream.
Pioneers of Latino Media in America
<VIDEO> The Emergence of Latino TV
Univision’s Maria Elena Salinas explores the impact of Univision and Latino Television on today’s Latin American communities.
Pioneers of Black Media in America
<VIDEO> John Sengstacke and the Chicago Defender
Groundbreaking black newspaper publisher John Sengstacke, tells the story of the role of the ChicagoDefender in the Great Migration of Blacks to the North.
Pioneering Women in Early American Media
<VIDEO> Women Stereotypes
A critical look at historical and contemporary portrayals of women in the media, particularly through film.
<VIDEO> The Impact of Women in Media
Filmmaker and author Patricia Melton explores the global impact of women on television.
Pioneers of Asian American Media
Pioneers of Gay and Lesbian American Media
Conclusion: On the Path Toward Greater Future Diversity
16 Working in the Mass Media in the Digital Age
This chapter talks about the multiple career opportunities one can pursue in the mass media field; videos feature days in the lives of various media professionals.
Employment Trends in Mass Media
Survey of Selected Media Industries
<VIDEO> Newspaper Editor
Loretta Harring, the managing editor of one of the oldest continually-published regional newspapers in America, discusses what she looks for when hiring recent journalism school graduates and the important roles still played by regional and local newspapers.
<VIDEO> TV Sports Anchor
Joe Fonzi, sports reporter and anchor at San Francisco television station KTVU, shares the challenges and excitement of working as a broadcast sports reporter.
<VIDEO>NPR Radio News Host
Michel Martin, talk radio host of the NPR news program “Tell Me More,” explains how she decides the day’s agenda, which includes carefully selecting the most important news stories of the day.
<VIDEO> Documentary Film Producer, MTV
Cheryl Horner Sirulnick, founder and executive producer ofGigantic! Productions for MTV, describes the creative andtechnical process of developing documentary projects.
<VIDEO> Entertainment Public Relations Agent
Marcus Bass, of Spelling Communications, describes his career and his experiences working as an entertainment public relations professional in Hollywood.
<VIDEO> Radio DJ
Sam Diggedy, popular radio DJ at KDON Top-40 radio in Northern California describes what it is like to be a popular radio DJ.
<VIDEO> Magazine Photo Editor, National Geographic
Elizabeth Krist, senior photo editor at National Geographic, describes the fairly involved and complex process of developing a photographic narrative to accompany an approved story.
<VIDEO> Video Game Developer
The founder of a leading video game company gives a tour of the process of video gave development and a glimpse inside what it is really like to work on a video game development team.
Achieving Success in the Media Industry
Conclusion: Make the Industry Want You
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives