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Mastering Public Speaking

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205467358

ISBN10:
0205467350
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $108.40

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Summary

Written in a casual, lively style and clearly organized, this edition of Mastering Public Speaking equips students with a firm grounding in the "hows" and "whys" of public speaking, providing an ideal balance of theory and skills while placing important emphases on critiquing, ethics, and critical thinking.Building on its previous success, the Sixth Edition retains its popular and distinctive emphasis on the ethical contract between speaker and listener and on the value of critiquing speeches to improve one's own skills. Full of student examples from both two- and four-year schools (some of which are included in video form on MySpeechLab), Mastering Public Speaking adds interest and relevance to all aspects of the speech-making process. New to This Edition . . . Theory into Practice, a boxed feature that appears in every chapter, helps students understand and apply concepts and strategies of public communication to enhance their speaking competence. Try This boxes, also in each chapter, engage students in specific assignments that will prepare them for speeches they give in- and outside of class. Students may self-select these activities or their instructors may assign them.. Selected sample speeches discussed in the book are available on MySpeechLab in video format, offering visual examples for students. A stunning new design will engage students while presenting content in a more user-friendly style. What your colleagues are saying . . ."I find a lot to like in this text since I have used it since 1993. The book is very readable . . . and the mix of theory, practice, example, and application is super for an intro speech course." ~ Kathy Lee Berggren, Cornell University"This text is undoubtedly the strongest public speaking textbook I have worked with . . . In fact, the next time a textbook review committee is formed for a standardized public speaking course, the Grice and Skinner text will be my first recommendation." ~ Marianne Palmisano, Glendale Community College

Table of Contents

Preface to the Student xix
Preface to the Instructor xxi
An Introduction to Public Speaking
1(18)
Why Study Public Speaking?
2(2)
Personal Benefits
3(1)
Professional Benefits
4(1)
TRY THIS Assessing the Importance of Communication
4(1)
Public Benefits
5(1)
Definitions of Communication
5(3)
Levels of Communication
8(3)
Intrapersonal Communication
8(1)
Interpersonal Communication
8(1)
Group Communication
9(1)
Public Communication
9(1)
Mass Communication
10(1)
Elements of Communication
11(3)
Speaker
11(1)
Message
11(1)
Listener
12(1)
Feedback
12(1)
Channel
13(1)
Environment
13(1)
Noise
13(1)
The Public Speaker as Critical Thinker
14(1)
Summary
15(1)
Theory Into Practice Thinking about Speaking
16(1)
Exercises
17(2)
The Ethics of Public Speaking
19(18)
Definition of Ethics
20(1)
Principles of Ethics
21(1)
TRY THIS Developing a Code of Ethics
22(1)
Ethical Speaking
23(3)
Speak Up about Topics You Consider Important
23(1)
Choose Topics That Promote Positive Ethical Values
23(1)
Speak to Benefit Your Listeners
24(1)
Use Truthful Supporting Material and Valid Reasoning
25(1)
Consider the Consequences of Your Words and Actions
25(1)
Strive to Improve Your Public Speaking
26(1)
Ethical Listening
26(3)
Seek Exposure to Well-Informed Speakers
26(1)
Avoid Prejudging Speakers or Their Ideas
27(1)
Evaluate the Speaker's Logic and Credibility
27(1)
Beware of the Consequences of Not Listening Carefully
27(2)
Fair Use Guidelines
29(1)
Plagiarism
30(3)
Theory Into Practice effective and Ethical Paraphrasing
33(1)
Summary
34(1)
Exercises
34(3)
Speaking Confidently
37(22)
Recognize That Speaker Nervousness Is Normal
38(1)
Control Speaker Nervousness
39(3)
Learn How to Build Speaker Confidence
42(1)
Know How You React to Stress
42(1)
Know Your Strengths and Weaknesses
43(1)
Ethical Decisions Being Yourself
43(1)
Know Speech Principles
44(1)
Know That It Always Looks Worse from the Inside
44(1)
Speaking With Confidence Bo'don Wilson
44(1)
TRY THIS Managing Nervous Energy
45(4)
Know Your Speech
45(1)
Believe in Your Topic
46(1)
View Speech Making Positively
46(1)
Visualize Success
47(1)
Project Confidence
47(1)
Test Your Message
48(1)
Practice Your Delivery
48(1)
Theory Into Practice Gaining Perspective
49(1)
Prepare Your First Speech
49(8)
Understand the Assignment
50(1)
Develop Your Speech Content
50(2)
Organize Your Speech
52(1)
Word Your Speech
53(1)
Practice Your Speech
54(1)
Deliver Your Speech
55(1)
Evaluate Your Speech
56(1)
Summary
57(1)
Exercises
57(2)
Responding to Speeches
59(26)
The Importance of Listening
60(1)
Listening versus Hearing
61(1)
Listening Is Intermittent
61(1)
Listening Is a Learned Skill
61(1)
Listening Is Active
62(1)
Listening Implies Using the Message Received
62(1)
The Process of Listening
62(1)
Receive
63(1)
Select
63(1)
Speaking With Confidence Julie Ruth
63(2)
Interpret
64(1)
Understand
64(1)
Evaluate
64(1)
Resolve
65(1)
Obstacles to Effective Listening
65(2)
Physical Distractions
65(1)
Physiological Distractions
66(1)
Psychological Distractions
66(1)
Factual Distractions
66(1)
Semantic Distractions
66(1)
Promoting Better Listening
67(4)
Desire to Listen
67(1)
Focus on the Message
67(1)
Listen for Main Ideas
68(1)
Understand the Speaker's Point of View
68(1)
Reinforce the Message
69(1)
Provide Feedback
70(1)
Listen with the Body
70(1)
Withhold Judgment
71(1)
Listen Critically
71(1)
Critiquing Speeches
71(5)
Begin with a Positive Statement
73(1)
Target a Few Areas for Improvement
74(1)
Organize Your Comments
74(1)
Be Specific
74(1)
Be Honest but Tactful
75(1)
Personalize Your Comments
75(1)
Reinforce the Positive
76(1)
Problem-Solve the Negative
76(1)
Ethical Decisions Right of Refusal
76(2)
Provide the Speaker with a Plan of Action
77(1)
End with a Positive Statement
77(1)
Theory Into Practice Critiquing a Classmate
78(2)
Acting on Criticism
80(1)
Focus on What Your Critics Say, Not How They Say It
80(1)
Seek Clear and Specific Feedback
80(1)
Evaluate the Feedback You Receive
81(1)
Develop a Plan of Action
81(1)
Try This Critiquing Yourself
81(1)
Summary
82(1)
Exercises
83(2)
Analyzing Your Audience
85(24)
Recognize the Value of Audience Diversity
87(1)
Analyze Your Audience before the Speech
88(2)
Analyze Audience Demographics
89(1)
Speaking With Confidence Krystal Graves
90(10)
Analyze Audience Psychographics
93(2)
Analyze Audience Needs
95(4)
Analyze Specific Speaking Situations
99(1)
Ethical Decisions Ghosting 101
100(2)
Theory Into Practice Using an Audience Questionnaire
102(1)
Analyze Your Audience during the Speech
103(1)
Analyze Your Audience after the Speech
104(1)
TRY THIS Incorporating Questionnaire Results
105(1)
Summary
105(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating a Speaker's Audience Analysis
106(1)
Exercises
107(2)
Selecting Your Speech Topic
109(20)
Generate Ideas
110(3)
Self-Generated Topics
112(1)
Speaking With Confidence Bryan McClure
113(6)
Audience-Generated Topics
114(1)
Occasion-Generated Topics
115(2)
Research-Generated Topics
117(2)
Theory Into Practice Selecting Your Topic
119(1)
TRY THIS Using a Group to Select Your Topic
120(1)
Focus Your Topic
120(1)
Ethical Decisions Should Instructors Censor?
121(1)
Determine Your General Purpose
122(1)
Speeches to Inform
122(1)
Speeches to Persuade
123(1)
Speeches to Entertain
123(1)
Formulate Your Specific Purpose
123(1)
Word Your Thesis Statement
124(1)
Develop Your Speech Title
125(1)
Summary
126(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating Titles
127(1)
Exercises
127(2)
Researching Your Topic
129(24)
Assess Your Personal Knowledge
131(1)
Develop Your Research Plan
132(1)
Theory Into Practice Developing Personal Speech Resources
133(1)
Collect Your Information
134(3)
Magazines and Journals
136(1)
TRY THIS Comparing Online Searches
137(5)
Newspapers
138(1)
Government Documents
139(1)
Books
139(1)
Reference Works
139(2)
Television and Radio
141(1)
Speaking With Confidence Traci Futrell
142(4)
Interviews
142(3)
Calling, Writing, and Emailing for Information
145(1)
Ethical Decisions The Privacy of Public Information
146(1)
Record Your Information
146(2)
What to Record
146(1)
How to Record Information
147(1)
Conclude Your Search
148(2)
Summary
150(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating Research
150(1)
Exercises
151(2)
Supporting Your Speech
153(24)
Purposes of Supporting Materials
154(2)
Clarity
154(1)
Vividness
155(1)
Credibility
155(1)
Types of Supporting Materials
156(9)
Examples
156(2)
Definition
158(2)
Narration
160(1)
Comparison
161(1)
Contrast
162(1)
Statistics
162(2)
Testimony
164(1)
Tests of Evidence
165(3)
Is the Evidence Quoted in Context?
165(1)
Is the Source of the Evidence an Expert?
165(2)
Is the Source of the Evidence Unbiased?
167(1)
Is the Evidence Relevant to the Point Being Made?
167(1)
Is the Evidence Specific?
167(1)
Is the Evidence Sufficient to Prove the Point?
168(1)
Is the Evidence Timely?
168(1)
Ethical Decisions Biased Sources: To Use or Not to Use
168(1)
Evaluating Electronic Information
169(1)
Purpose
169(1)
Expertise
169(1)
Objectivity
170(1)
Accuracy
170(1)
TRY THIS Evaluating Internet Sources
170(1)
Timeliness
171(1)
Citing Your Sources
171(1)
Speaking With Confidence Elisabeth Pallante
172(1)
Theory Into Practice Information for Oral Footnotes
173(1)
Summary
173(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating Evidence
174(1)
Exercises
174(3)
Organizing the Body of Your Speech
177(20)
Formulate an Organizing Question
178(1)
Divide the Speech into Key Ideas
179(3)
Topical Division
180(1)
Chronological Division
181(1)
Spatial Division
181(1)
Speaking With Confidence Corey Town
182(4)
Causal Division
182(1)
Pro-Con Division
182(2)
Mnemonic or Gimmick Division
184(1)
Problem-Solution Division
185(1)
Need-Plan Division
185(1)
Develop the Key Ideas
186(4)
Signpost the Idea
186(1)
State the Idea
187(2)
Support the Idea
189(1)
Summarize the Idea
189(1)
Theory Into Practice Applying the ``4 S's''
190(1)
Connect the Key Ideas
191(2)
Ethical Decisions Crunch Time
193(1)
TRY THIS Developing One Key Idea
193(1)
Summary
194(1)
Practice Critique evaluating Organization
194(1)
Exercises
195(2)
Introducing and Concluding Your Speech
197(18)
Organize the Introduction of the Speech
198(2)
Get the Attention of Your Audience
199(1)
Speaking With Confidence Jacquine Stenz
200(5)
State Your Topic
204(1)
Ethical Decisions Revealing versus Concealing Your Purpose
205(3)
Establish the Importance of Your Topic
205(1)
Establish Your Credibility to Speak on Your Topic
206(1)
Preview Your Key Ideas
206(1)
Put It All Together
207(1)
Organize the Conclusion of the Speech
208(1)
TRY THIS Developing Introductions
208(4)
Summarize Your Key Ideas
209(1)
Activate Audience Response
209(1)
Provide Closure
210(1)
Put It All Together
211(1)
Summary
212(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating Introductions
212(1)
Exercises
212(1)
Theory Into Practice Outward Method of Speech Development
213(2)
Outlining Your Speech
215(18)
Functions of Outlining
216(2)
Tests Scope of Content
216(1)
Tests Logical Relation of Parts
217(1)
Tests Relevance of Supporting Ideas
217(1)
Checks Balance of Speech
218(1)
Serves as Delivery Notes
218(1)
Principles of Outlining
218(2)
Singularity
219(1)
Consistency
219(1)
Speaking With Confidence Alana Kwst
220(1)
Adequacy
220(1)
Uniformity
220(1)
Parallelism
220(1)
Stages of Outlining
221(2)
The Working Outline
221(2)
Theory Into Practice Visual Brainstorming
223(1)
TRY THIS Developing a Working Outline
223(7)
The Formal Outline
224(3)
The Speaking Outline
227(3)
Summary
230(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating a Speech Outline
231(1)
Exercises
231(2)
Wording Your Speech
233(22)
Functions of Language
235(2)
Communicate Ideas
235(1)
Send Messages about User
235(1)
Strengthen Social Bonds
235(1)
Serve as Instrument of Play
236(1)
Speaking With Confidence Suzanne L. Hamilton
237(1)
Check Language Use
237(1)
Principles of effective Language Use
238(3)
Use Language Correctly
238(1)
Use Language Clearly
239(2)
Use Language Vividly
241(1)
Ethical Decisions Doublespeak or Clearspeak
241(8)
Use Language Inclusively
247(1)
Use Oral Style
248(1)
TRY THIS Becoming an Inclusive Speaker
249(1)
Theory Into Practice Keys to Effective Oral Style
250(1)
Summary
251(1)
Practice Critique Analyzing Language Use in a Powerful Speech
252(1)
Exercises
252(3)
Delivering Your Speech
255(20)
Principles of Nonverbal Communication
256(1)
Speaking With Confidence Michael Gino
257(1)
Methods of Delivery
258(3)
Speaking Impromptu
258(1)
Speaking from Memory
258(1)
Speaking from Manuscript
259(1)
Speaking Extemporaneously
259(2)
Qualities of Effective Delivery
261(1)
Elements of Vocal Delivery
262(6)
Rate and Pause
262(2)
Volume
264(1)
Pitch and Inflection
265(1)
Voice Quality
266(1)
Articulation and Pronunciation
266(2)
Elements of Physicial Delivery
268(1)
Appearance
268(1)
Theory Into Practice Dressing for Address
269(3)
Posture
269(1)
Facial Expression
270(1)
Eye Contact
270(1)
Movement
271(1)
Gestures
271(1)
TRY THIS Practicing Your Delivery
272(1)
Summary
273(1)
Practice Critique Pairing Gestures and Movements with Words
273(1)
Exercises
273(2)
Using Presentational Aids
275(20)
The Importance of Using Presentational Aids
277(1)
Increases Message Clarity
277(1)
Reinforces Message Impact
277(1)
Increases Speaker Dynamism
277(1)
Enhances Speaker Confidence
278(1)
Speaking With Confidence Joanie Klingel
278(1)
Types of Presentational Aids
279(6)
Objects
279(1)
Graphics
279(6)
Theory Into Practice Designing Transparencies and Slides
285(1)
Ethical Decisions Fair Use or Copyright Infringement
286(2)
Film and Video
286(1)
Handouts
287(1)
Audio and Other Aids
287(1)
Strategies for Using Presentational Aids
288(3)
Before the Speech
288(2)
During the Speech
290(1)
TRY THIS Planning Presentational Aids for the Classroom
291(1)
Summary
292(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating Presentational Aids
293(1)
Exercises
293(2)
Speaking to Inform
295(22)
Characteristics of a Speech to Inform
296(2)
Informative Speech Topics
298(1)
Speeches about People
298(8)
Speaking With Confidence Patty Pak
299(1)
Speeches about Objects
300(1)
Speeches about Places
300(2)
Speeches about Activities and Events
302(1)
Speeches about Processes
303(1)
Speeches about Concepts
303(1)
Speeches about Conditions
304(1)
Speeches about Issues
305(1)
TRY THIS Targeting an Informative Topic
306(1)
Theory Into Practice Organizing Informative Speeches
307(1)
Guidelines for Speaking to Inform
308(3)
Stress Your Informative Purpose
308(1)
Be Objective
308(1)
Be Specific
309(1)
Be Clear
309(1)
Be Accurate
309(1)
Limit Your Ideas and Supporting Materials
310(1)
Be Relevant
310(1)
Use Appropriate Organization
310(1)
Use Appropriate Forms of Support
310(1)
Use Effective Delivery
310(1)
Ethical Decisions Managing Bias in an Informative Speech
311(1)
Annotated Sample Speech The Amish: Seeking to Lose the Self
311(3)
Summary
314(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating and Comparing Two Informative Student Speeches
314(1)
Exercises
315(2)
The Strategy of Persuasion
317(22)
The Importance of Persuasion
318(1)
A Definition of Persuasion
319(1)
Types of Influence
320(1)
Change
321(1)
Instill
321(1)
Intensify
321(1)
Types of Persuasive Speeches
321(1)
Theory Into Practice The Pyramid of Persuasion
322(1)
Speeches to Convince
322(1)
Speeches to Actuate
323(1)
Speeches to Inspire
323(1)
Persuasive Speaking Strategies
323(3)
Establish Your Credibility
324(2)
Speaking With Confidence Gene Fox
326(2)
TRY THIS Assessing and Building Your Credibility
328(5)
Focus Your Goals
329(1)
Connect with Your Listeners
330(2)
Organize Your Arguments
332(1)
Support Your Ideas
333(1)
Ethical Decisions Dynamism: Masking or Making Credibility
333(3)
Enhance Your Emotional Appeals
334(2)
Summary
336(1)
Practice Critique Analyzing Persuasive Appeals in a Powerful Speech
337(1)
Exercises
337(2)
The Structure of Persuasion
339(30)
Making and Refuting Arguments
340(2)
Steps of an Argument
340(2)
Refuting and Argument
342(1)
Speaking With Confidence Brian Davis
342(1)
Types of Argument
343(7)
Argument by Example
343(2)
Argument by Analogy
345(1)
Argument by Cause
345(2)
Argument by Deduction
347(2)
Argument by Authority
349(1)
Theory Into Practice Testing Your Arguments
350(1)
Fallacies of Argument
351(6)
Hasty Generalization
351(1)
False Analogy
352(1)
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
353(1)
Slippery Slope
353(1)
Red Herring
354(1)
Appeal to Tradition
355(1)
False Dilemma
355(1)
False Authority
356(1)
Bandwagon
356(1)
Ad Hominem
357(1)
Selecting Propositions for Persuasive Speeches
357(3)
Characteristics of Propositions
358(1)
Types of Propositions
359(1)
TRY THIS Formulating Your Persuasive Proposition
360(1)
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
361(2)
Annotated Sample Speech Sustainable Giving
363(2)
Summary
365(1)
Practice Critique Identifying a Claim and Evaluating Evidence
366(1)
Exercises
366(3)
Speaking on Special Occasions
369(20)
The Speech of Introduction
371(1)
The Speech of Presentation
372(2)
The Acceptance Speech
374(1)
Ethical Decisions How (and Whether) to Polish a Bad Apple
374(2)
The Speech of Tribute
376(1)
The Speech to entertain
377(2)
The Impromptu Speech
379(1)
The Question-Answer Period
380(2)
TRY THIS Anticipating and Answering Listeners' Questions
382(1)
The Videotaped Speech
382(2)
Summary
384(1)
Theory Into Practice Appearing on Video
385(1)
Practice Critique Evaluating a Speech of Tribute
386(1)
Exercises
386(3)
Speaking in and as a Group
389(20)
Small-Group Communication and Public Speaking
390(1)
Small Groups Defined
391(1)
Types of Groups
392(1)
TRY THIS Analyzing Your Group
393(1)
Group Discussion and Decision Making
394(7)
Principles of Group Decision Making
394(1)
The Process of Group Decision Making
395(3)
The Responsibilities of Group Members
398(1)
The Responsibilities of Group Leaders
399(2)
Ethical Decisions Leader and Member Responses When Groups Fail
401(1)
The Group Presentation
402(3)
Formats for the Presentation
402(1)
Preparing a Group Presentation
402(3)
Speaking With Confidence Cynthia Opakunle
405(1)
Theory Into Practice Developing a Presentational Style
406(1)
Summary
406(1)
Practice Critique Analyzing a Group's Interactions
407(1)
Exercises
408(1)
Appendix: Sample Speeches
409(14)
Renaissance Fairs: The New Vaudeville
409(1)
Melissa Janoske
Steganography: Hidden Messages
410(2)
Tiffanie K. Petrin
A Sign of the Times
412(3)
Jared J. Johnston
How Old Is He Anyway? Aging the Whitetail Buck
415(1)
Darla Goodrich
Persuasive Speech
416(2)
Gene Fox
Speech of Tribute to Charles M. Schulz
418(1)
Edwin C. Anderson, Jr.
I Have a Dream
419(4)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Endnotes 423(8)
Name Index 431(4)
Subject Index 435


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