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Mastering the World of Psychology,9780205358687

Mastering the World of Psychology

by ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205358687

ISBN10:
0205358683
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $78.80

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    Mastering the World of Psychology




Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology 2(30)
An Introduction
4(2)
The Scientific Method
5(1)
The Goals of Psychology
5(1)
Critical Thinking
6(1)
Descriptive Research Methods
6(2)
Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation
6(1)
The Case Study Method
7(1)
Survey Research
7(1)
The Experimental Method
8(4)
Independent and Dependent Variables
9(1)
Experimental and Control Groups
9(1)
Generalizing Experimental Findings
10(1)
Potential Problems in Experimental Research
11(1)
Advantages and Limitations of the Experimental Method
12(1)
The Correlational Method
12(1)
The Correlation Coefficient
12(1)
Correlation and Prediction
12(1)
Psychological Tests
13(1)
Participants in Psychological Research
13(3)
Ethics in Research
13(2)
Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research
15(1)
The Use of Animals in Research
16(1)
Exploring Psychology's Roots
16(2)
The Founding of Psychology
17(1)
Functionalism
17(1)
Women and Minorities
18(1)
Schools of Thought in Psychology
18(3)
Behaviorism
19(1)
Psychoanalysis
19(1)
Humanistic Psychology
19(1)
Cognitive Psychology
20(1)
Current Trends in Psychology
21(3)
Evolutionary Psychology
21(1)
Biological (Physiological) Psychology
21(1)
Sociocultural Approach
22(1)
Psychological Perspectives
22(2)
Psychologists at Work
24(1)
Summarize It!
25(2)
Surf It!
27(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 1!
28(4)
Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior 32(30)
The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters
34(5)
The Neurons
34(2)
Neurotransmitters
36(1)
The Effects of Drugs on Neural Transmission
37(1)
The Variety of Neurotransmitters
37(2)
The Central Nervous System
39(9)
The Spinal Cord
39(1)
The Brainstem
40(1)
The Cerebellum
40(1)
The Midbrain
41(1)
The Thalamus and Hypothalamus
41(1)
The Limbic System
41(1)
The Cerebral Hemispheres
42(6)
Discovering the Brain's Mysteries
48(2)
The EEG and the Microelectrode
48(1)
The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
49(1)
The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques
49(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System
50(2)
The Endocrine System
52(3)
Summarize It!
55(2)
Surf It!
57(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 2!
58(4)
Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception 62(32)
The Process of Sensation
64(1)
The Absolute Threshold
64(1)
The Difference Threshold
65(1)
Sensory Adaptation
65(1)
Vision
65(5)
The Eye
66(2)
Color Vision
68(2)
Hearing
70(2)
Sound
70(1)
The Ear
71(1)
Theories of Hearing
72(1)
Smell and Taste
72(3)
Smell
72(2)
Taste
74(1)
The Other Senses
75(3)
The Skin Senses
75(1)
Pain
76(1)
Psychological and Cultural Influences on the Experience of Pain
76(1)
The Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses
77(1)
Perception
78(7)
The Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization
78(1)
Perceptual Constancy
78(2)
Depth Perception
80(1)
Extraordinary Perceptions
81(2)
Cultural Differences in the Perception of Visual Illusions
83(2)
Additional Influences on Perception
85(1)
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing
85(1)
Perceptual Set
85(1)
Summarize It!
85(2)
Surf It!
87(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 3!
88(6)
Chapter 4. States of Consciousness 94(24)
What Is Consciousness?
96(1)
Circadian Rhythms
96(1)
Jet Lag and Shift Work
96(1)
Sleep
97(6)
NREM and REM Sleep
97(1)
Sleep Cycles
98(1)
Variations in Sleep
99(1)
The Functions of Sleep
99(1)
Sleep Deprivation
100(1)
Dreaming
100(1)
Interpreting Dreams
101(1)
Parasomnias
102(1)
Major Sleep Disorders
102(1)
Altering Consciousness through Concentration and Suggestion
103(3)
Meditation
103(1)
Hypnosis
104(1)
Culture and Altered States of Consciousness
105(1)
Altered States of Consciousness and Psychoactive Drugs
106(6)
Substance Abuse
106(1)
Drug Dependence
107(1)
Types of Psychoactive Drugs and Their Effects
108(4)
Summarize It!
112(1)
Surf It!
113(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 4!
114(4)
Chapter 5 Learning 118(30)
Classical Conditioning
120(4)
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
120(3)
John Watson, Little Albert, and Peter
123(1)
Contemporary Views of Classical Conditioning
124(3)
The Cognitive Perspective
124(1)
Biological Predispositions
125(1)
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
125(2)
Operant Conditioning
127(10)
Thorndike and the Law of Effect
127(1)
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
128(2)
Reinforcement
130(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
131(1)
Punishment
132(2)
Making Punishment More Effective
134(1)
Culture and Punishment
134(1)
Escape and Avoidance Learning
135(1)
Applications of Operant Conditioning
136(1)
Cognitive Learning
137(4)
Insight and Latent Learning
137(1)
Observational Learning
138(3)
Summarize It!
141(2)
Surf It!
143(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 5!
144(4)
Chapter 6 Memory 148(28)
Remembering
150(5)
The Three Processes in Memory
150(1)
The Three Memory Systems
150(3)
The Levels-of-Processing Model
153(1)
Three Kinds of Memory Tasks
154(1)
The Nature of Remembering
155(4)
Memory as a Reconstruction
155(1)
Eyewitness Testimony
156(1)
Recovering Repressed Memories
157(1)
Flashbulb Memories
158(1)
Memory and Culture
158(1)
Factors Influencing Retrieval
159(2)
The Serial Position Effect
159(1)
Environmental Context and Memory
159(1)
The State-Dependent Memory Effect
160(1)
Biology and Memory
161(2)
Brain Damage
161(1)
Neuronal Changes in Memory
161(1)
Hormones and Memory
162(1)
Forgetting
163(3)
Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting
163(1)
The Causes of Forgetting
163(3)
Improving Memory
166(4)
Summarize It!
170(1)
Surf It!
171(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 6!
172(4)
Chapter 7 Cognition, Language, and Creativity 176(36)
Imagery and Concepts
178(1)
Decision Making
179(2)
The Additive Strategy
179(1)
Heuristics
180(1)
Framing
181(1)
Problem Solving
181(4)
Impediments to Problem Solving
183(1)
Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
184(1)
Language
185(5)
The Structure of Language
185(1)
Animal Language
186(1)
Language and Thinking
187(1)
Bilingualism
188(2)
Language and the Brain
190(1)
The Nature of Intelligence
190(2)
The Search for a Useful Definition of Intelligence
190(2)
Measuring Intelligence
192(4)
Requirements of Good Tests
194(1)
The Range of Intelligence
194(2)
Intelligence and Neural Processing Speed
196(1)
The IQ Controversy
196(7)
The Heritability of IQ Scores
197(2)
Environmental Effects on IQ
199(2)
Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities
201(1)
Cultural Beliefs, Expectations, Effort, and Academic Achievement
201(2)
Emotional Intelligence
203(1)
Creativity
204(2)
Summarize It!
206(2)
Surf It!
208(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 7!
209(3)
Chapter 8 Human Development 212(42)
Issues in Developmental Psychology
214(1)
Stage Theories of Development
214(9)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
214(3)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
217(4)
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
221(2)
Heredity and Prenatal Development
223(3)
The Mechanism of Heredity: Genes and Chromosomes
223(1)
The Stages of Prenatal Development
224(1)
Negative Influences on Prenatal Development
224(2)
Infancy
226(4)
Perceptual Development
226(1)
Learning and Motor Development
227(1)
Temperament
227(2)
Attachment
229(1)
Early and Middle Childhood
230(5)
Language Development
230(2)
Socialization
232(1)
Gender-Role Development
233(1)
The Influence of Television
234(1)
Adolescence
235(2)
Puberty
235(1)
Sexuality and Adolescence
236(1)
Teenage Pregnancy
236(1)
Adolescent Thought
237(1)
Social Relationships In Adolescence
237(1)
Early and Middle Adulthood
237(2)
Physical Changes
238(1)
Intellectual Capacity
238(1)
Careers
238(1)
Personality and Social Development
239(1)
Later Adulthood
239(7)
Physical Changes
239(2)
Cognitive Changes
241(1)
Alzheimer's Disease and Other Types of Dementia
242(1)
Social Adjustment
242(1)
Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly
243(1)
Death and Dying
244(2)
Summarize It!
246(3)
Surf It!
249(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 8
250(4)
Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion 254(32)
What is Motivation?
256(5)
Defining Motivation
256(1)
Instinct Theory
257(1)
Drive-Reduction Theory
257(1)
Arousal Theory
258(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
259(2)
Hunger
261(4)
Internal and External Cues
261(1)
Explaining Variations in Body Weight
262(1)
Dieting
263(1)
Eating Disorders
263(2)
Sexual Motives
265(3)
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior
265(1)
Sexual Desire and Arousal
266(2)
Sexual Orientation
268(3)
Determinants of Sexual Orientation
269(1)
The Developmental Experiences of Gay Men and Lesbians
270(1)
The What and Why of Emotions
271(3)
Explaining the Components of Emotions
271(2)
Emotion and the Brain
273(1)
The Expression of Emotion
274(5)
The Rang of Emotion
274(1)
Facial Expressions
275(1)
Cultural Rules fro Displaying Emotion
275(1)
The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
276(2)
Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion
278(1)
Summarize It!
279(2)
Surf It!
281(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 9!
282(4)
Chapter 10 Health and Stress 286(26)
Sources of Stress
288(6)
Holmes and Rahe's Social Readjustment Rating Scale
288(1)
Daily Hassles
288(2)
Making Choices
290(1)
Unpredictability and Lack of Control
290(1)
Stress in the Workplace
291(1)
Catastrophic Events
292(1)
Racism and Stress
293(1)
Responding to Stress
294(2)
Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome
294(1)
Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stress
295(1)
Coping Strategies
295(1)
Health and Illness
296(7)
Two Approaches to Health and Illness
296(1)
Coronary Heart Disease
297(1)
Cancer
298(1)
The Immune System
299(2)
Stress and the Immune System
301(1)
Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness
302(1)
Lifestyle and Health
303(4)
Smoking and Health
303(1)
Alcohol Abuse
304(1)
Exercise
305(2)
Summarize It!
307(1)
Surf It!
308(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 10!
309(3)
Chapter 11 Personality Theory and Assessment 312(26)
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
314(4)
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious
314(1)
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego
314(1)
Defense Mechanisms
315(1)
The Psychosexual Stages of Development
315(3)
Evaluating Freud's Contribution
318(1)
The Neo-Freudians
318(2)
Learning Theories and Personality
320(1)
Humanistic Personality Theories
321(1)
Trait Theories
322(3)
Early Trait Theories
322(1)
Factor Models of Personality
323(1)
The Situation-versus-Trait Debate
324(1)
Nature, Nurture, and Personality
325(2)
Personality and Culture
326(1)
Personality Assessment
327(6)
Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales
327(1)
Personality Inventories
328(2)
Projective Tests
330(3)
Summarize It!
333(1)
Surf It!
334(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 11!
335(3)
Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders 338(28)
What Is Abnormal?
340(3)
Defining Mental Disorders
340(1)
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
341(1)
Perspectives on the Causes, Treatment, and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
341(2)
Schizophrenia
343(4)
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
344(1)
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
345(1)
Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenics
345(1)
Types of Schizophrenia
346(1)
The Causes of Schizophrenia
346(1)
Gender and Schizophrenia
347(1)
Mood Disorders
347(4)
Depressive Disorders
347(1)
Culture, Gender, and Depression
348(1)
Bipolar Disorder
349(1)
Causes of Mood Disorders
349(1)
Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age
350(1)
Anxiety Disorders
351(4)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
351(1)
Panic Disorder
352(1)
Phobias
353(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
354(1)
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
355(1)
Somatoform Disorders
355(1)
Dissociative Disorders
355(1)
Other Psychological Disorders
356(4)
Gender Identity and Sexual Disorders
356(2)
Personality Disorders
358(2)
Summarize It!
360(1)
Surf It!
361(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 12!
362(4)
Chapter 13 Therapies 366(26)
Insight Therapies
368(2)
Psychodynamic Therapies
368(1)
Humanistic Therapies
369(1)
Gestalt Therapy
369(1)
Relationship Therapies
370(1)
Interpersonal Therapy
370(1)
Couple and Family Therapy
370(1)
Group Therapy
370(1)
Behavior Therapies
371(4)
Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning
371(2)
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning
373(1)
Exposure and Response Prevention
373(1)
Aversion Therapy
374(1)
Participant Modeling
375(1)
Cognitive Therapies
375(2)
Rational-Emotive Therapy
375(1)
Cognitive Therapy
375(2)
Biological Therapies
377(3)
Drug Therapy
377(1)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
377(3)
Psychosurgery
380(1)
Evaluating the Therapies
380(3)
Culturally Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy
383(2)
Summarize It!
385(2)
Surf It!
387(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 13!
388(4)
Chapter 14 Social Psychology 392(33)
Social Perception
394(2)
Impression Formation
394(1)
Attribution
395(1)
Attraction
396(3)
Factors Influencing Attraction
396(1)
Physical Attractiveness
396(1)
Romantic Attraction and Mating
397(1)
Sternberg's Theory of Love
398(1)
Social influence
399(2)
Conformity
399(1)
Obedience
400(1)
Compliance
400(1)
Group Influence
401(3)
Social Facilitation
401(1)
Social Loafing
402(1)
Group Polarization and Groupthink
403(1)
Social Roles
403(1)
Attitudes and Attitude Change
404(2)
Attitudes
404(1)
Persuasion
405(1)
Prosocial Behavior
406(2)
Reasons for Helping
407(1)
The Bystander Effect
407(1)
Aggression
408(3)
Biological Factors in Aggression
408(1)
Aggression in Response to Frustration and Aversive Events
409(1)
The Social Learning Theory of Aggression
410(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination
411(5)
The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination
411(2)
Discrimination in the Workplace
413(1)
Is Prejudice Increasing or Decreasing?
414(2)
Summarize It!
416(2)
Surf It!
418(1)
Study Guide for Chapter 14!
419(6)
Appendix: Statistical Methods 425(8)
Answers to Study Guide Questions 433(4)
References 437(40)
Glossary 477(16)
Name Index 493(10)
Subject Index 503(14)
Credits 517(4)
Practice Tests 521


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