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Maternal-Child Nursing,9780721606996

Maternal-Child Nursing

by
ISBN13:

9780721606996

ISBN10:
0721606997
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/30/2004
Publisher(s):
Saunders
List Price: $109.00

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Summary

Two books in one, Maternal-Child Nursing covers both the maternity and pediatrics portions of the nursing curriculum. A condensed format makes this book ideal for programs that teach this content in an extremely abbreviated time period. Written by expert educators in both arenas, this text provides a consistent level of depth and accuracy as well as a student-friendly writing style. Current issues and trends are addressed through the use of community nursing care plans, expanded health promotion content, enhanced communication tips, and parent/child teaching boxes. Want to Know boxes guide the student in teaching women, parents, and children about self-care and follow-up home care. Critical to Remember boxes alert the student to vital safety and care issues. Critical Thinking exercises challenge the student to apply learning to practice. Suggested answers and rationales appear at the end of chapters. Procedure boxes highlight step-by-step instructions for common clinical nursing tasks. Communication Cues offer tips for obtaining information from women, children, and parents, including probing questions and other practical examples. Nursing Care Plans guide the student through assessment, nursing diagnoses, expected outcomes, nursing interventions, rationales, and evaluation for specific maternity and pediatric conditions. Drug Guides provide a quick reference for common medications. Clinical Pathways summarize maternity care guidelines and illustrate the use of pathways as a means of organizing care. A Clinical Reference section opens pediatric Alterations chapters, providing an overview of anatomy and physiology, pediatric differences, and common lab and diagnostic tests. Pathophysiology boxes in the pediatric unit describe how diseases develop. Photo Stories in the pediatric unit offer a visual "how-to guide" to featured nursing functions. Companion CD-ROM reinforces learning with NCLEX® examination-style review questions, an audio glossary, and outlines of nursing skills. Pediatric Health Promotion boxes outline APA-recommended well-child visits, milestones for growth and development, health screening and immunizations, and anticipatory guidance. Pediatric health priorities, as identified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, are highlighted in Healthy People 2010 boxes to assist the student in formulating pediatric health promotion goals.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION TO MATERNAL-CHILD HEALTH NURSING
Foundations of Maternity and Child Health Nursing
1(25)
Historical Perspectives
2(3)
Maternity Nursing
2(1)
Current Settings for Childbirth
3(1)
Nursing of Children
4(1)
Current Trends in Maternity and Child Health Care
5(2)
Cost Containment
5(1)
Effects of Cost Containment
6(1)
Home Care
7(1)
Health Insurance
7(2)
Health Care Assistance Programs
9(1)
Statistics on Maternal, Infant, and Child Health
9(2)
Maternal and Infant Mortality
9(2)
Adolescent Pregnancy
11(1)
Childhood Mortality
11(1)
Morbidity
11(1)
Ethical Perspectives on Maternal and Child Nursing
11(4)
Ethics and Bioethics
11(1)
Ethical Dilemmas
11(1)
Ethical Issues in Reproduction
12(3)
Social Issues
15(3)
Poverty
15(1)
Homelessness
16(1)
Access to Health Care
16(1)
Prenatal Care in the United States
17(1)
Government Programs for Health Care: Medicaid
17(1)
Allocation of Health Care Resources
17(1)
Care versus Cure
17(1)
Health Care Rationing
18(1)
Violence
18(1)
Legal Issues
18(4)
Safeguards for Health Care
18(1)
Accountability
19(1)
Malpractice
19(3)
Current Trends and Their Legal and Ethical Implications
22(4)
Use of Unlicensed Assistive Personnel
22(1)
Concerns about Early Discharge
23(1)
Dealing with Early Discharge
23(3)
The Nurse's Role in Maternity and Pediatric Nursing
26(13)
The Role of the Professional Nurse
26(3)
Care Provider
27(1)
Teacher
27(1)
Collaborator
28(1)
Researcher
29(1)
Advocate
29(1)
Manager of Care
29(1)
Advanced Preparation for Maternity and Pediatric Nurses
29(1)
Certified Nurse-Midwives
29(1)
Nurse Practitioners
29(1)
Clinical Nurse Specialists
30(1)
Implications of Changing Roles for Nurses
30(4)
Therapeutic Communication
30(1)
Critical Thinking
31(3)
The Nursing Process in Maternity and Pediatric Care
34(2)
Assessment
35(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
35(1)
Planning
35(1)
Implementation
36(1)
Evaluation
36(1)
Collaborative Problems
36(1)
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
36(1)
Nursing Research
37(2)
The Childbearing and Child-Rearing Family
39(13)
The Family and Nursing Care
39(2)
Types of Families
40(1)
Characteristics of Healthy Families
41(1)
Factors That Interfere With Family Functioning
41(1)
High-Risk Families
41(1)
Healthy Versus Dysfunctional Families
42(1)
Coping With Stress
43(1)
Coping Strategies
43(1)
Cultural Influences on Maternity and Pediatric Nursing
43(4)
Implications of Cultural Diversity for Nurses
43(1)
Western Cultural Beliefs
44(1)
Cultural Influences on the Care of Specific Groups
45(1)
Cross-Cultural Health Beliefs
46(1)
Cultural Assessment
47(1)
Parenting
47(5)
Parenting Styles
47(1)
Parent-Child Relationship Factors
48(4)
Health Promotion for the Developing Child
52(26)
Overview of Growth and Development
52(2)
Definition of Terms
52(1)
Stages of Growth and Development
53(1)
Parameters of Growth
53(1)
Principles of Growth and Development
54(2)
Patterns of Growth and Development
54(1)
Critical Periods
55(1)
Factors Influencing Growth and Development
55(1)
Theories of Growth and Development
56(5)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
56(1)
Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development
56(3)
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
59(1)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
60(1)
Theories of Language Development
61(1)
Assessment of Growth
61(1)
Assessment of Development
61(2)
Newborn Assessment
62(1)
Pre-Screening Assessments
62(1)
Denver Developmental Screening Test II
62(1)
Nurse's Role in Promoting Optimal Growth and Development
63(1)
Developmental Assessment
63(5)
Interview
63(1)
Play
63(5)
Health Promotion
68(10)
Immunizations
68(3)
Nutrition and Activity
71(1)
Carbohydrates
72(1)
Fats
72(1)
Proteins
72(1)
Water
72(1)
Vitamins and Minerals
72(1)
Dietary Guidelines
72(2)
Energy, Calories, and Servings
74(1)
Physical Activity
74(1)
Cultural and Religious Influences on Diet
74(1)
Assessment of Nutritional Status
74(1)
Safety
75(3)
Health Promotion for the Infant
78(25)
Growth and Development of the Infant
78(11)
Physical Growth and Development
79(2)
Motor Development
81(1)
Cognitive Development
82(1)
Sensory Development
83(1)
Language Development
83(5)
Psychosocial Development
88(1)
Health Promotion for the Infant and Family
89(14)
Immunization
89(1)
Feeding and Nutrition
89(4)
Dental Care
93(1)
Sleep, Rest, and Crying
94(1)
The Infant with Colic
94(2)
Safety
96(5)
Play
101(2)
Health Promotion During Early Childhood
103(26)
Growth and Development During Early Childhood
103(11)
Physical Growth and Development
104(1)
Motor Development
105(1)
Cognitive and Sensory Development
106(2)
Language Development
108(1)
Psychosocial Development
109(5)
Health Promotion for the Toddler or Preschooler and Family
114(15)
Nutrition
114(1)
Dental Care
115(1)
Sleep and Rest
116(1)
Discipline
117(1)
Toddler Safety
118(2)
Preschooler Safety
120(2)
Selected Issues Related to the Toddler
122(2)
Selected Issues Related to the Preschooler
124(5)
Health Promotion for the School-Age Child
129(20)
Growth and Development of the School-Age Child
129(6)
Physical Growth and Development
130(1)
Motor Development
130(2)
Cognitive Development
132(1)
Sensory Development
133(1)
Language Development
133(1)
Psychosocial Development
133(1)
Spiritual and Moral Development
134(1)
Health Promotion for the School-Age Child and Family
135(14)
Nutrition During Middle Childhood
135(1)
Dental Care
136(2)
Sleep and Rest
138(1)
Discipline
138(1)
Safety
138(2)
Selected Issues Related to the School-Age Child
140(9)
Health Promotion for the Adolescent
149(18)
Adolescent Growth and Development
149(9)
Physical Growth and Development
150(1)
Psychosexual Development, Hormonal Changes, and Sexual Maturation
150(1)
Motor Development
151(2)
Cognitive Development
153(1)
Sensory Development
154(1)
Language Development
154(1)
Psychosocial Development
155(3)
Moral and Spiritual Development
158(1)
Health Promotion for the Adolescent and Family
158(9)
Nutrition During Adolescence
158(1)
Hygiene
159(1)
Dental Care
159(1)
Sleep and Rest
160(1)
Exercise and Activity
160(1)
Safety
161(2)
Selected Issues Related to the Adolescent
163(4)
Heredity and Environmental Influences on Development
167(17)
Hereditary Influences
167(8)
Structure of Genes and Chromosomes
168(1)
Transmission of Traits by Single Genes
169(2)
Patterns of Single-Gene Inheritance
171(2)
Chromosomal Abnormalities
173(2)
Multifactorial Disorders
175(1)
Characteristics of Multifactorial Disorders
176(1)
Risk for Occurrence
176(1)
Environmental Influences
176(2)
Teratogens
176(1)
Mechanical Disruptions to Fetal Development
177(1)
Genetic Counseling
178(1)
Availability
178(1)
Focus on the Family
178(1)
Process of Genetic Counseling
178(1)
Supplemental Services
179(1)
Nursing Care of Families Concerned About Birth Defects
179(5)
Nurses as Part of a Genetic Counseling Team
179(1)
Nurses in General Practice
179(5)
MATERNITY NURSING CARE
Management of Fertility and Infertility
184(32)
Role of the Nurse in Contraception
184(1)
Informed Consent
184(1)
Considerations When Choosing a Contraceptive Method
184(3)
Safety
186(1)
Protection from Sexually Transmissible Diseases
186(1)
Effectiveness
186(1)
Acceptability
186(1)
Convenience
186(1)
Education Needed
186(1)
Side Effects
187(1)
Benefits
187(1)
Interference with Spontaneity
187(1)
Availability
187(1)
Expense
187(1)
Preference
187(1)
Religious and Personal Beliefs
187(1)
Culture
187(1)
Adolescents
187(2)
Adolescent Knowledge
188(1)
Counseling Adolescents
188(1)
Perimenopausal Women
189(1)
Methods of Contraception
189(11)
Sterilization
189(1)
Hormonal Contraceptives
189(4)
Intrauterine Devices
193(1)
Barrier Methods
193(3)
Natural Family-Planning Methods
196(1)
Abstinence
196(3)
Least Reliable Methods of Contraception
199(1)
Role of the Nurse in Infertility Care
200(2)
Extent of Infertility
200(1)
Factors Contributing to Infertility
200(2)
Repeated Pregnancy Loss
202(1)
Evaluation of Infertility
202(4)
Preconception Counseling
203(1)
History and Physical Examination
203(2)
Diagnostic Tests
205(1)
Therapies to Facilitate Pregnancy
206(3)
Medications
206(1)
Ovulation Induction
206(1)
Surgical Procedures
206(1)
Therapeutic Insemination
206(1)
Egg Donation
206(1)
Surrogate Parenting
207(1)
Advanced Reproductive Techniques
207(2)
Responses to Infertility
209(7)
Assumption of Fertility
209(1)
Growing Awareness of a Problem
209(1)
Seeking Help for Infertility
209(1)
Reactions During Evaluation and Treatment
210(1)
Outcomes after Infertility Therapy
211(5)
Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
216(14)
Sexual Development
216(4)
Prenatal Development
216(1)
Childhood
217(1)
Sexual Maturation
217(2)
Decline in Fertility
219(1)
Female Reproductive Anatomy
220(4)
External Female Reproductive Organs
220(1)
Internal Female Reproductive Organs
220(3)
Support Structures
223(1)
Female Reproductive Cycle
224(2)
Ovarian Cycle
224(2)
Endometrial Cycle
226(1)
Changes in Cervical Mucus
226(1)
The Female Breast
226(1)
Structure
226(1)
Function
227(1)
Male Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
227(3)
External Male Reproductive Organs
227(1)
Internal Male Reproductive Organs
228(2)
Conception and Prenatal Development
230(21)
Gametogenesis
231(1)
Oogenesis
231(1)
Spermatogenesis
232(1)
Conception
232(2)
Preparation for Conception in the Female
233(1)
Release of the Ovum
233(1)
Ovum Transport
233(1)
Preparation for Conception in the Male
233(1)
Ejaculation
233(1)
Transport of Sperm in the Female Reproductive Tract
233(1)
Preparation of Sperm for Fertilization
233(1)
Fertilization
233(1)
Entry of One Spermatozoon into the Ovum
233(1)
Fusion of the Nuclei of Sperm and Ovum
234(1)
Pre-embryonic Period
234(1)
Initiation of Cell Division
234(1)
Entry of the Zygote into the Uterus
234(1)
Implantation in the Decidua
234(1)
Maintaining the Decidua
234(1)
Location of Implantation
234(1)
Mechanism of Implantation
235(1)
Embryonic Period
235(5)
Differentiation of Cells
235(5)
Fetal Period
240(2)
Weeks 9 Through 12
242(1)
Weeks 13 Through 16
242(1)
Weeks 17 Through 20
242(1)
Weeks 21 Through 24
242(1)
Weeks 25 Through 28
242(1)
Weeks 29 Through 32
242(1)
Weeks 33 Through 38
242(1)
Auxiliary Structures
242(6)
Placenta
242(4)
Fetal Membranes and Amniotic Fluid
246(1)
Fetal Circulation
246(2)
Multifetal Pregnancy
248(3)
Monozygotic Twinning
248(1)
Dizygotic Twinning
249(1)
Other Multifetal Gestations
249(2)
Physiologic Adaptations to Pregnancy
251(30)
Changes in Body Systems
252(7)
Reproductive System
252(1)
Cardiovascular System
253(2)
Respiratory System
255(1)
Gastrointestinal System
256(1)
Urinary System
256(1)
Integumentary System
257(1)
Musculoskeletal System
257(1)
Endocrine System
258(1)
Confirmation of Pregnancy
259(5)
Presumptive Indications of Pregnancy
263(1)
Probable Indications of Pregnancy
264(1)
Positive Indications of Pregnancy
264(1)
Antepartum Assessment and Care
264(17)
Preconception Visit
265(6)
Initial Visit
271(1)
Subsequent Assessments
271(1)
Multifetal Pregnancy
272(1)
Common Discomforts of Pregnancy
272(9)
Psychosocial Adaptations to Pregnancy
281(19)
Maternal Responses
281(4)
First Trimester
281(1)
Second Trimester
282(1)
Third Trimester
283(2)
Maternal Role Transition
285(2)
Transitions Experienced Throughout Pregnancy
285(1)
Steps in Maternal Role Taking
285(1)
Maternal Tasks of Pregnancy
285(2)
Paternal Adaptation
287(1)
Variations in Paternal Adaptation
287(1)
Developmental Processes
287(1)
Adaptation of Grandparents
288(1)
Age
288(1)
Number and Spacing of Other Grandchildren
288(1)
Perceptions of the Role of Grandparents
288(1)
Adaptation of Siblings
288(1)
Toddlers
288(1)
Older Children
289(1)
Adolescents
289(1)
Factors That Influence Psychosocial Adaptations
289(1)
Age
289(1)
Multiparity
289(1)
Social Support
289(1)
Socioeconomic Status
290(1)
Absence of a Partner
290(1)
Other Factors
290(1)
Barriers to Prenatal Care
290(1)
Cultural Influences on Childbearing
290(5)
Differences within Cultures
290(1)
Cultural Differences That Can Cause Conflict
291(1)
Culturally Competent Nursing Care
292(3)
Perinatal Education
295(5)
Providers of Education
295(1)
Class Participants
295(1)
Choices for Childbearing
295(1)
Setting
296(1)
Support Person
296(1)
Education
296(1)
Types of Classes Available
296(4)
Nutrition for Childbearing
300(23)
Weight Gain During Pregnancy
300(1)
Recommendations for Total Weight Gain
301(1)
Pattern of Weight Gain
301(1)
Maternal and Fetal Distribution
301(1)
Factors That Influence Weight Gain
301(1)
Nutritional Requirements During Pregnancy
301(9)
Dietary Reference Intakes
302(1)
Energy
302(1)
Protein
303(1)
Vitamins
303(1)
Folic Acid
303(3)
Minerals
306(2)
Nutritional Supplementation
308(1)
Water
308(1)
Food Guide Pyramid
308(2)
Factors That Influence Nutrition
310(1)
Culture
310(1)
Age
311(1)
Nutritional Knowledge
311(1)
Nutritional Risk Factors
311(5)
Socioeconomic Status
311(1)
Adolescence
312(1)
Vegetarianism
312(2)
Lactose Intolerance
314(1)
Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy
315(1)
Anemia
315(1)
Abnormal Prepregnancy Weight
315(1)
Eating Disorders
315(1)
Pica
315(1)
Multiparity
316(1)
Substance Use and Abuse
316(1)
Other Risk Factors
316(1)
Nutrition after Birth
316(7)
Nutrition for the Lactating Mother
316(1)
Nutrition for the Nonlactating Mother
317(6)
Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
323(17)
Indications for Prenatal Diagnostic Tests
324(1)
Ultrasonography
324(3)
Emotional Responses
324(1)
First Trimester
325(1)
Second and Third Trimesters
325(1)
Advantages
325(1)
Disadvantages
326(1)
Doppler Ultrasound Blood Flow Assessment
327(1)
Purpose
327(1)
Color Doppler
327(1)
Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening
327(1)
Purpose
327(1)
Procedure
328(1)
Advantages
328(1)
Limitations
328(1)
Triple-Marker Screening
328(1)
Chorionic Villus Sampling
328(1)
Purpose
328(1)
Indications
328(1)
Procedure
328(1)
Advantages
329(1)
Limitations
329(1)
Amniocentesis
329(2)
Purposes
329(1)
Procedure
330(1)
Advantages
331(1)
Disadvantages
331(1)
Risks
331(1)
Antepartum Fetal Surveillance
331(4)
Nonstress Test
331(1)
Contraction Stress Test
332(1)
Biophysical Profile
333(2)
Amniotic Fluid Index
335(1)
Modified Biophysical Profile
335(1)
Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling
335(1)
Procedure
335(1)
Risks
336(1)
Maternal Assessment of Fetal Movement
336(4)
Procedure
336(1)
Advantages
336(1)
Disadvantages
336(4)
Giving Birth
340(49)
Issues for New Nurses
341(1)
Pain Associated With Birth
341(1)
Inexperience or Negative Experiences
341(1)
Unpredictability
341(1)
Intimacy
341(1)
Physiologic Effects of the Birth Process
341(3)
Maternal Response
341(3)
Fetal Response
344(1)
Components of the Birth Process
344(7)
Powers
344(1)
Passage
344(1)
Passenger
344(7)
Psyche
351(1)
Interrelationships of the Components of Birth
351(1)
Normal Labor
351(6)
Theories of Onset
351(1)
Premonitory Signs
351(1)
True Labor and False Labor
352(1)
Mechanisms of Labor
352(1)
Stages and Phases of Labor
352(5)
Duration of Labor
357(1)
Nursing Care During Labor and Birth
357(19)
Admission to the Birth Center
357(1)
Nursing Responsibilities During Admission
357(19)
Nursing Care During the Late Intrapartum Period
376(13)
Responsibilities after Birth
377(12)
Intrapartum Fetal Surveillance
389(28)
Fetal Oxygenation
390(1)
Uteroplacental Exchange
390(1)
Fetal Circulation
390(1)
Regulation of Fetal Heart Rate
390(1)
Pathologic Influences on Fetal Oxygenation
391(1)
Risk Factors for Fetal Compromise
391(1)
Auscultation and Palpation
391(1)
Advantages
391(1)
Limitations
392(1)
Electronic Fetal Monitoring
392(1)
Advantages
392(1)
Limitations
392(1)
Electronic Fetal Monitoring Equipment
393(5)
Bedside Monitor Unit
393(1)
Paper Strip
393(2)
Remote Surveillance
395(1)
Devices for External Fetal Monitoring
395(2)
Devices for Internal Fetal Monitoring
397(1)
Evaluating Electronic Fetal Monitoring Strips
398(5)
Baseline Fetal Heart Rate
398(1)
Baseline Fetal Heart Rate Variability
399(1)
Periodic Patterns in the Fetal Heart Rate
400(2)
Uterine Activity
402(1)
Significance of Fetal Heart Rate Patterns
403(14)
Reassuring Patterns
403(1)
Nonreassuring Patterns
403(14)
Pain Management for Childbirth
417(25)
Unique Nature of Pain During Birth
417(1)
Adverse Effects of Excessive Pain
418(1)
Physiologic Effects
418(1)
Variables in Childbirth Pain
418(2)
Physical Factors
418(1)
Psychosocial Factors
419(1)
Nonpharmacologic Pain Management
420(4)
Advantages
420(1)
Limitations
420(1)
Preparation for Pain Management
420(1)
Application of Nonpharmacologic Techniques
420(4)
Pharmacologic Pain Management
424(18)
Special Considerations When Medicating a Pregnant Woman
424(1)
Regional Pain Management Techniques
425(5)
Systemic Drugs for Labor
430(1)
Vaginal Birth Anesthesia
431(1)
General Anesthesia
431(11)
Nursing Care During Obstetric Procedures
442(23)
Amniotomy
442(2)
Indications
442(1)
Risks
442(1)
Technique
443(1)
Nursing Considerations
443(1)
Induction and Augmentation of Labor
444(5)
Indications
444(1)
Contraindications
444(1)
Risks
445(1)
Technique
445(3)
Nursing Considerations
448(1)
Version
449(2)
Indications
449(1)
Contraindications
449(1)
Risks
449(1)
Technique
449(1)
Nursing Considerations
450(1)
Operative Vaginal Birth
451(2)
Indications
451(1)
Contraindications
452(1)
Risks
452(1)
Technique
452(1)
Nursing Considerations
453(1)
Episiotomy
453(1)
Indications
453(1)
Risks
453(1)
Technique
454(1)
Nursing Considerations
454(1)
Cesarean Birth
454(11)
Indications
455(1)
Contraindications
455(1)
Risks
456(1)
Technique
456(4)
Nursing Considerations
460(5)
Postpartum Adaptations
465(40)
Reproductive System
466(2)
Involution of the Uterus
466(1)
Cervix
467(1)
Vagina
467(1)
Perineum
468(1)
Cardiovascular System
468(1)
Cardiac Output
468(1)
Plasma Volume
469(1)
Blood Values
469(1)
Coagulation
469(1)
Gastrointestinal System
469(1)
Urinary System
469(1)
Physical Changes
469(1)
Chemical Changes
469(1)
Musculoskeletal System
470(1)
Muscles and Joints
470(1)
Abdominal Wall
470(1)
Integumentary System
470(1)
Neurologic System
470(1)
Endocrine System
471(1)
Resumption of Ovulation and Menstruation
471(1)
Lactation
471(1)
Weight Loss
471(1)
Postpartum Assessments
471(11)
Clinical Pathways
471(1)
Initial Assessments
471(5)
Chart Review
476(1)
Focused Assessments after Vaginal Birth
477(5)
Care in the Immediate Postpartum Period
482(1)
Providing Comfort Measures
482(1)
Promoting Bladder Elimination
483(1)
Providing Fluids and Food
483(1)
Preventing Thrombophlebitis
483(1)
Nursing Care after Cesarean Birth
483(6)
Assessment
483(1)
Interventions
484(5)
The Process of Becoming Acquainted
489(1)
Bonding
489(1)
Attachment
490(1)
Maternal Touch
490(1)
Verbal Behaviors
490(1)
The Process of Maternal Role Adaptation
490(4)
Puerperal Phases
490(2)
Maternal Role Attainment
492(2)
Postpartum Blues
494(1)
The Process of Family Adaptation
494(3)
Fathers
494(1)
Siblings
495(1)
Grandparents
495(1)
Factors Affecting Family Adaptation
495(2)
Cultural Influences on Adaptation
497(4)
Communication
497(1)
Health Beliefs
497(1)
Dietary Practices
498(3)
Postpartum Home Community Care
501(4)
Criteria for Discharge
501(1)
Home Care Services
501(4)
The Normal Newborn: Adaptation and Assessment
505(44)
Initiation of Respirations
506(1)
Development of the Lungs
506(1)
Causes of Respirations
506(1)
Continuation of Respirations
506(1)
Cardiovascular Adaptation: Transition from Fetal to Neonatal Circulation
506(2)
Ductus Arteriosus
506(1)
Pulmonary Blood Vessels
507(1)
Foramen Ovale
507(1)
Ductus Venosus
508(1)
Neurologic Adaptation: Thermoregulation
508(2)
Newborn Characteristics Leading to Heat Loss
508(1)
Methods of Heat Loss
508(1)
Nonshivering Thermogenesis
508(1)
Effects of Cold Stress
509(1)
Neutral Thermal Environment
510(1)
Hyperthermia
510(1)
Hematologic Adaptation
510(1)
Factors Affecting the Blood
510(1)
Blood Values
510(1)
Risk of Clotting Deficiency
511(1)
Gastrointestinal System
511(1)
Stomach
511(1)
Intestines
512(1)
Digestive Enzymes
512(1)
Stools
512(1)
Hepatic System
512(2)
Blood Glucose Maintenance
512(1)
Conjugation of Bilirubin
512(1)
Hyperbilirubinemia
513(1)
Blood Coagulation
514(1)
Iron Storage
514(1)
Metabolism of Drugs
514(1)
Urinary System
514(1)
Kidney Development
514(1)
Kidney Function
514(1)
Fluid Balance
515(1)
Acid-Base and Electrolyte Balance
515(1)
Immune System
515(1)
IgG
515(1)
IgM
515(1)
IgA
515(1)
Psychosocial Adaptation
516(1)
Periods of Reactivity
516(1)
Behavioral States
516(1)
Early Assessments
516(8)
Assessing for Anomalies
516(8)
Measurements
524(1)
Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Status
524(3)
Airway
524(2)
Color
526(1)
Heart Sounds
526(1)
Brachial and Femoral Pulses
527(1)
Blood Pressure
527(1)
Capillary Refill
527(1)
Assessment of Thermoregulation
527(1)
Assessment of Hepatic Function
527(2)
Blood Glucose
527(2)
Bilirubin
529(1)
Assessment of Body Systems
529(9)
Neurologic System
529(5)
Gastrointestinal System
534(1)
Genitourinary System
535(1)
Integumentary System
536(2)
Assessment of Gestational Age
538(7)
Assessment Tools
538(1)
Neuromuscular Characteristics
538(5)
Physical Characteristics
543(1)
Scoring
544(1)
Gestational Age and Infant Size
545(1)
Assessment of Behavior
545(4)
Periods of Reactivity
545(1)
Behavioral Changes
545(4)
The Normal Newborn: Nursing Care
549(25)
Clinical Pathways
549(1)
Early Care
549(9)
Administering Vitamin K
549(1)
Providing Eye Treatment
549(9)
Ongoing Assessments and Care
558(4)
Providing Skin Care
558(2)
Assisting with Feedings
560(1)
Positioning the Infant
561(1)
Protecting the Infant
561(1)
Circumcision
562(4)
Reasons for Choosing Circumcision
562(1)
Reasons for Rejecting Circumcision
563(1)
Pain Relief
563(1)
Methods
563(1)
Nursing Considerations
564(2)
Immunization
566(1)
Newborn Screening Tests
566(1)
Blood Tests
566(1)
Hearing Tests
566(1)
Discharge and Newborn Follow-Up Care
566(8)
Discharge
566(1)
Follow-up Care
566(8)
Newborn Feeding
574(19)
Nutritional Needs of the Newborn
574(1)
Calories
574(1)
Other Nutrients
575(1)
Water
575(1)
Breast Milk And Formula Composition
575(1)
Breast Milk
575(1)
Formulas
576(1)
Considerations in Choosing a Feeding Method
576(2)
Breastfeeding
576(1)
Formula Feeding
576(1)
Combination Feeding
577(1)
Factors Influencing Choice
577(1)
Normal Breastfeeding
578(5)
Breast Changes During Pregnancy
578(1)
Milk Production
578(1)
Hormonal Changes at Birth
578(1)
Continued Milk Production
578(1)
Preparation of Breasts for Breastfeeding
578(5)
Breastfeeding Concerns
583(7)
Infant Problems
583(4)
Maternal Concerns
587(3)
Formula Feeding
590(3)
The Childbearing Family with Special Needs
593(23)
Adolescent Pregnancy
593(7)
Incidence of Teenage Pregnancy
593(1)
Factors Associated With Teenage Pregnancy
594(1)
Sex Education
594(1)
Options When Pregnancy Occurs
594(1)
Socioeconomic Implications of Teenage Pregnancy
595(1)
Implications of Teenage Pregnancy for Maternal Health
595(1)
Implications of Teenage Pregnancy for Fetal-Neonatal Health
595(1)
The Teenage Expectant Father
595(1)
Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on Parenting
595(5)
Delayed Pregnancy
600(1)
Maternal and Fetal Implications of Delayed Pregnancy
600(1)
Advantages of Delayed Childbirth
600(1)
Disadvantages of Delayed Childbirth
601(1)
Nursing Considerations
601(1)
Substance Abuse
601(5)
Incidence of Substance Abuse
601(1)
Maternal and Fetal Effects of Substance Abuse
601(3)
Diagnosis and Management of Substance Abuse
604(2)
Birth of an Infant with Congenital Anomalies
606(2)
Factors Influencing Emotional Responses of Parents
606(1)
Grief and Mourning
607(1)
Nursing Considerations
607(1)
Pregnancy Loss
608(2)
Early Pregnancy Loss
608(1)
Concurrent Death and Survival in Multifetal Pregnancy
608(1)
Previous Pregnancy Loss
608(2)
Relinquishment for Adoption
610(1)
Intimate Partner Violence
610(6)
Factors That Promote Violence
610(1)
Characteristics of the Abuser
611(1)
Cycle of Violence
611(1)
Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse During Pregnancy
611(1)
Nurses' Role in Prevention of Abuse
611(5)
The Pregnant Woman with Complications
616(56)
Pregnancy-Related Complications
617(1)
Hemorrhagic Conditions of Early Pregnancy
617(7)
Spontaneous Abortion
617(3)
Ectopic Pregnancy
620(1)
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (Hydatidiform Mole)
621(3)
Hemorrhagic Conditions of Late Pregnancy
624(6)
Placenta Previa
624(1)
Abruptio Placentae
625(5)
Hyperemesis Gravidarum
630(1)
Etiology
630(1)
Therapeutic Management
630(1)
Nursing Considerations
630(1)
Hypertension During Pregnancy
631(10)
Preeclampsia
631(10)
Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, and Low Platelets Syndrome
641(1)
Chronic Hypertension
641(1)
Incompatibility Between Maternal and Fetal Blood
641(3)
Rh Incompatibility
641(2)
ABO Incompatibility
643(1)
Other Blood Group Incompatibility
644(1)
Concurrent Disorders During Pregnancy
644(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
644(10)
Pathophysiology
644(1)
Classification
645(1)
Preexisting Diabetes Mellitus
645(5)
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
650(4)
Cardiac Disease
654(3)
Incidence and Classification
654(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation of Cardiac Disease
655(1)
Therapeutic Management
655(2)
Nursing Considerations
657(1)
Anemias
657(2)
Iron Deficiency Anemia
657(1)
Folic Acid Deficiency (Megaloblastic) Anemia
658(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia
658(1)
Thalassemias
659(1)
Immune Complex Diseases
659(1)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
659(1)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome
659(1)
Hashimoto's Thyroid it is
660(1)
Seizure Disorders: Epilepsy
660(1)
Trauma in Pregnancy
660(1)
Blunt Force Injuries
660(1)
Penetrating Injuries
660(1)
Therapeutic Management
660(1)
Infections During Pregnancy
661(11)
Viral Infections
661(5)
Nonviral Infections
666(6)
The Woman with an Intrapartum Complication
672(30)
Dysfunctional Labor
673(8)
Problems of the Powers
673(2)
Problems with the Passenger
675(3)
Problems of the Passage
678(1)
Problems of the Psyche
679(1)
Abnormal Labor Duration
679(2)
Premature Rupture of the Membranes
681(2)
Etiology
681(1)
Complications
682(1)
Therapeutic Management
682(1)
Maternal Antibiotics
682(1)
Nursing Considerations
682(1)
Preterm Labor
683(11)
Associated Factors
683(1)
Manifestations
683(1)
Preventing Preterm Birth
683(2)
Therapeutic Management
685(9)
Prolonged Pregnancy
694(1)
Complications
694(1)
Therapeutic Management
694(1)
Nursing Considerations
695(1)
Intrapartum Emergencies
695(7)
Placental Abnormalities
695(1)
Prolapsed Umbilical Cord
695(2)
Uterine Rupture
697(1)
Uterine Inversion
698(1)
Anaphylactoid Syndrome
699(1)
Trauma
699(3)
The Woman with a Postpartum Complication
702(19)
Postpartum Hemorrhage
702(6)
Early Postpartum Hemorrhage
703(2)
Late Postpartum Hemorrhage
705(3)
Hypovolemic Shock
708(1)
Pathophysiology
708(1)
Manifestations
708(1)
Therapeutic Management
708(1)
Nursing Considerations
708(1)
Subinvolution of the Uterus
708(1)
Therapeutic Management
708(1)
Nursing Considerations
708(1)
Thromboembolic Disorders
709(2)
Incidence
709(1)
Etiology
709(1)
Superficial Venous Thrombosis
709(1)
Deep Venous Thrombosis
709(2)
Pulmonary Embolism
711(1)
Pathophysiology
711(1)
Manifestations
711(1)
Therapeutic Management
711(1)
Nursing Considerations
711(1)
Puerperal Infection
712(4)
Definition
712(1)
Pathophysiology
712(1)
Etiology
712(1)
Specific Infections
712(4)
Mood Disorders
716(5)
Postpartum Depression
716(3)
Postpartum Psychosis
719(2)
The High-Risk Newborn: Problems Related to Gestational Age and Development
721(24)
Care of High-Risk Newborns
722(1)
Preterm Infants
722(17)
Incidence and Etiology
722(1)
Characteristics of Preterm Infants
722(1)
Assessment and Care of Common Problems
722(6)
Clinical Pathways
728(11)
Additional Complications of Preterm Infants
739(1)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
739(1)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (Chronic Lung Disease)
739(1)
Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage
739(1)
Retinopathy of Prematurity
740(1)
Necrotizing Enterocolitis
740(1)
Postterm Infants
740(1)
Scope of the Problem
740(1)
Assessment
741(1)
Therapeutic Management
741(1)
Nursing Considerations
741(1)
Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants
741(1)
Etiology
741(1)
Scope of the Problem
741(1)
Characteristics of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants
741(1)
Therapeutic Management
742(1)
Nursing Considerations
742(1)
Large-for-Gestational-Age Infants
742(3)
Etiology
742(1)
Scope of the Problem
742(1)
Therapeutic Management
742(1)
Nursing Considerations
742(3)
The High-Risk Newborn: Acquired and Congenital Conditions
745(20)
Respiratory Complications
745(4)
Asphyxia
745(1)
Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (Retained Lung Fluid)
746(1)
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
746(3)
Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
749(1)
Hyperbilirubinemia (Pathologic Jaundice)
749(4)
Etiology
749(1)
Therapeutic Management
750(3)
Infection
753(3)
Transmission of Infection
753(1)
Sepsis Neonatorum
753(3)
Infant of a Diabetic Mother
756(2)
Scope of the Problem
756(1)
Characteristics of Infants of Diabetic Mothers
757(1)
Therapeutic Management
757(1)
Nursing Considerations
757(1)
Prenatal Drug Exposure
758(3)
Identification of Drug-Exposed Infants
758(1)
Therapeutic Management
758(1)
Nursing Considerations
759(2)
Polycythemia
761(1)
Causes
762(1)
Therapeutic Management
762(1)
Nursing Considerations
762(1)
Hypocalcemia
762(1)
Etiology
762(1)
Therapeutic Management
762(1)
Nursing Considerations
762(1)
Phenylketonuria
762(3)
Etiology
762(1)
Therapeutic Management
762(1)
Nursing Considerations
762(3)
Women's Health Care
765(30)
Health Maintenance
766(1)
Women's Health Initiative
766(5)
Health History
766(1)
Physical Assessment
766(1)
Preventive Counseling
766(1)
Screening Procedures
767(4)
Breast Disorders
771(4)
Benign Disorders of the Breast
771(1)
Malignant Tumors of the Breast
772(3)
Menstrual Cycle Disorders
775(5)
Amenorrhea
775(1)
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
776(1)
Pain Associated With the Menstrual Cycle
776(2)
Premenstrual Syndrome
778(2)
Medical Termination of Pregnancy
780(1)
Methods of Abortion
780(1)
Nursing Considerations Related to Induced Abortion
781(1)
Menopause
781(3)
Age at Menopause
781(1)
Physiologic Changes
781(1)
Psychological Responses
782(1)
Therapy for Menopause
782(1)
Nursing Considerations Related to Menopause
782(1)
Osteoporosis
782(2)
Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
784(2)
Vaginal Wall Prolapse
784(1)
Uterine Prolapse
784(2)
Disorders of the Reproductive Tract
786(2)
Benign Disorders
786(1)
Malignant Disorders
787(1)
Infectious Disorders of the Reproductive Tract
788(7)
Candidiasis
788(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
788(1)
Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
788(2)
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
790(1)
Toxic Shock Syndrome
791(4)
PEDIATRIC NURSING CARE
Communicating with Children and Families
795(15)
Components of Effective Communication
795(3)
Touch
795(1)
Physical Proximity and Environment
796(1)
Listening
796(1)
Visual Communication
797(1)
Tone of Voice
797(1)
Body Language
798(1)
Timing
798(1)
Family-Centered Communication
798(3)
Establishing Rapport
798(1)
Availability and Openness to Questions
798(1)
Family Education and Empowerment
799(1)
Effective Management of Conflict
799(1)
Feedback From Children and Families
800(1)
Spirituality
800(1)
Therapeutic Relationships: Developing and Maintaining Trust
801(5)
Communicating with Children with Special Needs
806(4)
The Child With a Visual Impairment
806(1)
The Child With a Hearing Impairment
807(1)
The Child Who Speaks Another Language
807(1)
The Child Who Is Aphonic
808(1)
The Child With a Profound Neurologic Impairment
808(2)
Physical Assessment of Children
810(42)
General Approaches to Physical Assessment
810(1)
Infants 1 to 6 Months
811(1)
Infants 6 to 12 Months
811(1)
Toddlers
811(1)
Preschoolers
811(1)
School-Age Children
811(1)
Adolescents
811(1)
Techniques for Physical Examination
811(4)
Inspection
815(1)
Palpation
815(1)
Percussion
815(1)
Auscultation
815(1)
Smell
815(1)
Sequence of Physical Examination
815(34)
General Appearance
815(1)
History Taking
816(1)
Recording Data
817(1)
Vital Signs
817(1)
Anthropometric Measurement
818(1)
Use of Growth Charts
819(1)
Skin, Hair, and Nails
820(1)
Lymph Nodes
821(1)
Head, Neck, and Face
822(1)
Nose, Mouth, and Throat
823(2)
Eyes
825(3)
Ears
828(1)
Thorax and Lungs
829(4)
Heart
833(4)
Peripheral Vascular System
837(1)
Breast
837(1)
Abdomen
837(2)
Male Genitalia
839(2)
Female Genitalia
841(1)
Musculoskeletal System
841(3)
Neurologic System
844(5)
Conclusion and Documentation
849(3)
Emergency Care of the Child
852(33)
General Guidelines for Emergency Nursing Care
853(2)
Growth and Development Issues in Emergency Care
855(1)
The Infant
855(1)
The Toddler
855(1)
The Preschooler
855(1)
The School-Age Child
855(1)
The Adolescent
855(1)
The Family of a Child in Emergency Care
855(2)
Emergency Assessment of Infants and Children
857(4)
Primary Assessment
857(3)
Secondary Assessment
860(1)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation of the Child
861(1)
Airway and Breathing
861(1)
Circulation
862(1)
The Child in Shock
862(5)
Etiology
862(2)
Manifestations
864(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
864(1)
Therapeutic Management
864(3)
Pediatric Trauma
867(4)
Mechanism of Injury
867(1)
Multiple Trauma
868(2)
Nursing Considerations
870(1)
Ingestions and Poisonings
871(4)
Incidence
871(1)
Manifestations
871(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
871(1)
Therapeutic Management
871(4)
Environmental Emergencies
875(6)
Animal, Human, and Snake Bites
875(2)
Submersion Injuries (Near Drowning)
877(3)
Heat-Related Illnesses
880(1)
Dental Emergencies
881(4)
Incidence and Etiology
881(1)
Therapeutic Management
881(1)
Nursing Considerations
881(4)
The Ill Child in the Hospital and Other Care Settings
885(21)
Settings of Care
885(4)
The Hospital
885(2)
School-Based Clinics
887(1)
Community Clinics
888(1)
Home Care
888(1)
Stressors Associated with Illness and Hospitalization
889(4)
The Infant and Toddler
889(1)
The Preschooler
890(1)
The School-Age Child
891(1)
The Adolescent
891(1)
Fear of the Unknown
892(1)
Regression
892(1)
Factors Affecting a Child's Response to Illness and Hospitalization
893(2)
Age and Cognitive Development
893(1)
Parental Response to Illness or Hospitalization
893(2)
Psychologic Benefits of Hospitalization
895(1)
Playrooms in Health Care Settings
895(2)
Therapeutic Play
895(1)
Emotional Outlet Play
895(1)
Teaching Through Play
896(1)
Enhancing Cooperation through Play
896(1)
Unstructured Play
897(1)
Evaluation of Play
897(1)
Admitting the Child to a Hospital Setting
897(3)
Taking the History
897(1)
Physical Examination
897(3)
The III Child's Family
900(6)
Parents
900(2)
Siblings
902(4)
The Child with a Chronic Condition or Terminal Illness
906(26)
Chronic Illness Defined
906(1)
The Family of the Child with Special Health Care Needs
907(2)
Impact on the Family
907(1)
The Grieving Process
908(1)
The Child with Special Health Care Needs
909(2)
Growth and Development Concerns
909(1)
Parental Responses to Developmental Issues
909(2)
The Child with a Chronic Illness
911(9)
Ongoing Care
911(1)
Care of the Parents
912(2)
Care of the Siblings
914(6)
The Terminally III or Dying Child
920(12)
The Child's Concept of Death
920(1)
Responses to Death and Dying
921(1)
Caring for the Dying Child
922(10)
Principles and Procedures for Nursing Care of Children
932(38)
Preparing Children for Procedures
932(2)
Explaining Procedures
932(2)
Consent for Procedures
934(1)
Holding and Transporting Infants and Children
934(1)
Using Restraints
935(2)
Preparing the Child and Family
936(1)
Documentation
937(1)
Infection Control
937(1)
Implementing Precautions
937(1)
Family Teaching
937(1)
Bathing Infants and Children
937(2)
Special Considerations
937(1)
Documentation
938(1)
Parent Teaching
938(1)
Oral Hygiene
939(1)
Feeding
939(1)
Special Considerations
939(1)
Documentation
940(1)
Parent Teaching
940(1)
Vital Signs
940(4)
Measuring Temperature
940(2)
Measuring Pulse
942(1)
Evaluating Respirations
942(1)
Measuring Blood Pressure
942(1)
Documentation of Vital Sign Measurement
943(1)
Preparing the Child and Family
943(1)
Parent Teaching
943(1)
Special Considerations: Cardiorespiratory Monitors
944(1)
Fever-Reducing Measures
944(2)
Description of Fever
944(1)
Medications and Environmental Management
944(2)
Commercial Cooling Blankets
946(1)
Specimen Collection
946(7)
Urine Specimens
946(2)
Stool Specimens
948(1)
Blood Specimens
949(2)
Sputum Specimens
951(1)
Throat and Nasopharyngeal Specimens
952(1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens
952(1)
Bone Marrow Aspirates
953(1)
Gavage and Gastrostomy
953(4)
Tube Route and Placement
953(1)
Tube Selection
953(1)
Safety Issues Related to Tube Placement
953(1)
Contraindications to Tube Placement
953(1)
Gastrostomy Feedings
953(4)
Enemas
957(1)
Enema Administration
957(1)
Solutions and Volumes
957(1)
Ostomies
957(1)
Oxygen Therapy
957(2)
Oxygen Delivery
957(2)
Documentation
959(1)
Parent Teaching
959(1)
Assessing Oxygenation
959(1)
Chest Physiotherapy
960(2)
Tracheostomy Care
962(4)
Suctioning
963(1)
Stoma Care
963(3)
Surgical Procedures
966(1)
Preparation for Surgery
966(1)
Preoperative Medication
966(1)
Postanesthesia Care
967(1)
Postoperative Care
967(1)
Additional Information
967(3)
Medicating Infants and Children
970(22)
Pharmacokinetics in Children
971(2)
Absorption
972(1)
Distribution
972(1)
Metabolism
973(1)
Excretion
973(1)
Concentration
973(1)
Psychologic and Developmental Factors
973(1)
Infants
974(1)
Toddlers and Preschoolers
974(1)
School-Age Children
974(1)
Adolescents
974(1)
Calculating Dosages
974(7)
Administration Procedures
974(1)
Administering Oral Medications
975(1)
Administering Injections
976(4)
Rectal Administration
980(1)
Vaginal Administration
980(1)
Ophthalmic Administration
980(1)
Otic Administration
980(1)
Nasal Administration
981(1)
Topical Administration
981(1)
Inhalation Therapy
981(7)
Intravenous Therapy
983(1)
Intravenous Catheter Insertion
983(1)
Intravenous Monitoring and Maintenance
984(2)
Infusion Rates and Methods
986(1)
Administering Intravenous Medications
986(1)
Venous Access Devices
987(1)
Administration of Blood or Blood Products
988(1)
Child and Family Education
989(3)
Pain Management for Children
992(19)
Definitions and Theories of Pain
993(1)
Gate-Control Theory
993(1)
Acute and Chronic Pain
993(1)
Research on Pain in Children
993(1)
Myths about Pain and Pain Management in Children
993(1)
Assessment of Pain in Children
994(6)
Assessment According to Developmental Level
994(3)
Assessment Tools
997(3)
Non-Pharmacologic and Pharmacologic Pain Interventions
1000(11)
Non-pharmacologic Interventions
1000(2)
Pharmacologic Interventions
1002(9)
The Child with an Infectious Disease
1011(34)
Review of Disease Transmission
1012(1)
Chain of Infection
1012(1)
Transmission of Pathogens
1012(1)
Epidemiologic Investigations
1012(1)
Infection and Host Defenses
1012(2)
Immunity
1014(1)
Viral Infections
1015(18)
Nursing Considerations for the Child with a Viral Exanthem Infection
1015(1)
Rubeola (Measles)
1015(8)
Rubella (3-Day Measles, German Measles)
1023(1)
Erythema Infectiosum (Parvovirus B19, Fifth Disease)
1024(1)
Roseola Infantum (Exanthem Subitum, Sixth Disease, 3-Day Fever)
1024(2)
Mumps
1026(1)
Varicella-Zoster Infections (Chickenpox, Shingles)
1027(2)
Smallpox (Variola)
1029(1)
Cytomegalovirus
1030(1)
Epstein-Barr Virus (Infectious Mononucleosis)
1031(1)
Poliomyelitis
1031(1)
Rabies
1032(1)
Bacterial Infections
1033(2)
Diphtheria
1033(1)
Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
1034(1)
Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina)
1035(1)
Rickettsial Infections
1035(2)
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
1037(1)
Borrelia Infections
1037(2)
Relapsing Fever
1037(1)
Lyme Disease
1038(1)
Helminths
1039(1)
Therapeutic Management
1039(1)
Nursing Considerations
1039(1)
Fungal Infections
1040(1)
Sexually Transmissible Diseases
1040(5)
Gonorrhea
1041(1)
Syphilis
1041(1)
Chlamydial Infection
1041(1)
Trichomoniasis
1042(1)
Human Papillomavirus
1042(1)
Herpes Simplex Virus
1042(3)
The Child with an Immunologic Alteration
1045(33)
Review of the Immune System
1046(4)
Nonspecific Immune Functions
1047(1)
Specific Immune Functions
1047(2)
Development of Immunity
1049(1)
Common Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests of Immune Function
1050(2)
Immunodeficiencies
1050(1)
Allergy
1050(2)
The Child with an Immunodeficiency
1052(1)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
1052(14)
Etiology
1052(1)
Incidence
1053(1)
Manifestations
1053(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1053(1)
Therapeutic Management
1054(12)
Corticosteroid Therapy
1066(4)
Incidence
1066(1)
Pathophysiology
1067(1)
Manifestations
1068(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1069(1)
Therapeutic Management
1069(1)
Immune Complex and Autoimmune Disorders
1070(1)
Immune Complex Disorders
1070(1)
Autoimmune Disorders
1070(1)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
1070(2)
Etiology
1070(1)
Incidence
1070(1)
Manifestations
1070(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1071(1)
Therapeutic Management
1071(1)
Allergic Reactions
1072(1)
Anaphylaxis
1073(5)
Etiology
1073(1)
Incidence
1073(1)
Manifestations
1073(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1074(1)
Therapeutic Management
1074(4)
The Child with a Fluid and Electrolyte Alteration
1078(21)
Review of Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances in Children
1079(1)
Alterations in Acid-Base Balance in Children
1080(5)
Dehydration
1085(4)
Etiology and Incidence
1086(1)
Manifestations
1086(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1086(1)
Therapeutic Management
1086(3)
Diarrhea
1089(7)
Etiology and Incidence
1089(1)
Manifestations
1090(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1090(1)
Therapeutic Management
1090(2)
Prognosis
1092(4)
Vomiting
1096(3)
Etiology
1096(1)
Manifestations
1096(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1096(1)
Therapeutic Management
1096(3)
The Child with a Gastrointestinal Alteration
1099(58)
Review of the Gastrointestinal System
1100(6)
Upper Gastrointestinal System
1100(1)
Lower Gastrointestinal System
1101(1)
Prenatal Development
1102(4)
Disorders of Prenatal Development
1106(13)
Cleft Lip and Palate
1106(7)
Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula
1113(2)
Upper Gastrointestinal Hernias
1115(1)
Other Developmental Disorders
1115(4)
Motility Disorders
1119(7)
Gastroesophageal Reflux
1119(1)
Constipation and Encopresis
1120(5)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
1125(1)
Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders
1126(11)
Ulcers
1126(2)
Infectious Gastroenteritis
1128(3)
Appendicitis
1131(3)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
1134(3)
Obstructive Disorders
1137(7)
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
1137(3)
Intussusception
1140(2)
Volvulus
1142(1)
Hirschsprung's Disease
1142(2)
Malabsorption Disorders
1144(4)
Lactose Intolerance
1144(1)
Celiac Disease
1145(3)
Hepatic Disorders
1148(9)
Viral Hepatitis
1148(3)
Biliary Atresia
1151(2)
Cirrhosis
1153(4)
The Child with a Genitourinary Alteration
1157(30)
Review of the Genitourinary System
1158(5)
Structure
1158(1)
Function
1159(4)
Enuresis
1163(1)
Etiology
1163(1)
Incidence
1163(1)
Manifestations
1163(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1163(1)
Therapeutic Management
1163(1)
Urinary Tract Infections
1164(4)
Etiology
1165(1)
Incidence
1165(1)
Manifestations
1165(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1166(1)
Therapeutic Management
1167(1)
Cryptorchidism
1168(2)
Incidence
1169(1)
Manifestations
1169(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1169(1)
Therapeutic Management
1169(1)
Hypospadias and Epispadias
1170(1)
Etiology and Incidence
1170(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1170(1)
Therapeutic Management
1170(1)
Miscellaneous Disorders and Anomalies of the Genitourinary Tract
1171(1)
Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
1171(4)
Etiology and Incidence
1172(1)
Manifestations
1172(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1173(1)
Therapeutic Management
1173(2)
Nephrotic Syndrome
1175(5)
Etiology
1175(1)
Incidence
1175(1)
Manifestations
1175(2)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1177(1)
Therapeutic Management
1177(3)
Acute Renal Failure
1180(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1180(1)
Manifestations
1180(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1181(1)
Therapeutic Management
1181(1)
Nursing Considerations
1182(1)
Chronic Renal Failure and End-Stage Renal Disease
1182(5)
Etiology
1182(1)
Incidence
1182(1)
Pathophysiology
1182(1)
Manifestations
1182(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1182(1)
Therapeutic Management
1182(5)
The Child with a Respiratory Alteration
1187(64)
Review of the Respiratory System
1188(2)
The Upper Airway
1188(1)
The Lower Airway
1189(1)
Prenatal Respiratory Development
1189(1)
Postnatal Respiratory Changes
1189(1)
Gas Exchange and Transport
1189(1)
Diagnostic Tests
1190(3)
Blood Gas Analysis
1190(1)
Pulmonary Function Tests
1190(1)
Pulse Oximetry
1190(1)
Transcutaneous Monitoring
1190(3)
Allergic Rhinitis
1193(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1193(1)
Manifestations
1193(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1194(1)
Therapeutic Management
1194(1)
Nursing Considerations
1194(1)
Sinusitis
1195(1)
Etiology and Incidence
1195(1)
Manifestations
1195(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1195(1)
Therapeutic Management
1195(1)
Nursing Considerations
1195(1)
Otitis Media
1196(4)
Etiology
1196(1)
Incidence
1196(1)
Manifestations
1196(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1196(1)
Therapeutic Management
1196(4)
Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis
1200(3)
Etiology
1200(1)
Incidence
1200(1)
Manifestations
1200(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1200(1)
Therapeutic Management
1201(1)
Nursing Considerations
1201(2)
Laryngomalacia (Congenital Laryngeal Stridor)
1203(1)
Manifestations
1203(1)
Therapeutic Management
1203(1)
Nursing Considerations
1203(1)
Croup
1204(6)
Etiology and Incidence
1204(1)
Manifestations
1204(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1205(1)
Therapeutic Management
1205(5)
Epiglottitis (Supraglottitis)
1210(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1210(1)
Manifestations
1210(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1210(1)
Therapeutic Management
1210(1)
Nursing Considerations
1210(2)
Bronchitis
1212(1)
Etiology and Incidence
1212(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1212(1)
Therapeutic Management
1212(1)
Nursing Considerations
1212(1)
Bronchiolitis
1213(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1213(1)
Manifestations
1214(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1214(1)
Therapeutic Management
1214(1)
Pneumonia
1215(3)
Foreign Body Aspiration
1218(1)
Etiology and Incidence
1219(1)
Manifestations
1219(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1219(1)
Therapeutic Management
1219(1)
Nursing Considerations
1219(1)
Pulmonary Noninfectious Irritation
1219(3)
Acute (Adult) Respiratory Distress Syndrome
1219(1)
Passive Smoking
1220(1)
Smoke Inhalation
1220(2)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
1222(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1222(1)
Manifestations
1223(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1223(1)
Asthma
1224(13)
Etiology
1224(1)
Incidence
1224(1)
Manifestations
1224(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1225(1)
Therapeutic Management
1225(12)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
1237(3)
Etiology
1237(1)
Incidence
1237(1)
Manifestations
1237(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1238(1)
Therapeutic Management
1238(1)
Nursing Considerations
1238(2)
Cystic Fibrosis
1240(5)
Etiology
1240(1)
Incidence
1240(1)
Manifestations
1240(2)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1242(1)
Therapeutic Management
1242(3)
Tuberculosis
1245(6)
Etiology
1245(1)
Incidence
1246(1)
Manifestations
1246(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1246(1)
Therapeutic Management and Nursing Considerations
1246(5)
The Child with a Cardiovascular Alteration
1251(50)
Review of the Heart and Circulation
1252(4)
Normal Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology
1252(1)
Fetal Circulation
1252(2)
Transitional and Neonatal Circulation
1254(2)
Assessment of the Child with a Cardiovascular Alteration
1256(2)
Cardiovascular Diagnosis
1258(1)
Cardiac Catheterization
1258(1)
Congenital Heart Disease
1259(1)
Classification of Congenital Heart Disease
1259(1)
Physiologic Consequences of Congenital Heart Disease in Children
1260(9)
Congestive Heart Failure
1260(2)
Pulmonary Hypertension
1262(5)
Cyanosis
1267(2)
Left-To-Right Shunting Lesions
1269(4)
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
1269(1)
Atrial Septal Defect
1270(1)
Ventricular Septal Defect
1271(1)
Atrioventricular Septal Defect (Endocardial Cushion Defect)
1272(1)
Obstructive or Stenotic Lesions
1273(2)
Pulmonary Stenosis
1273(1)
Aortic Stenosis
1273(1)
Coarctation of the Aorta
1274(1)
Cyanotic Lesions with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow
1275(3)
Tetralogy of Fallot
1276(1)
Tricuspid Atresia
1277(1)
Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum
1278(1)
Cyanotic Lesions with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow
1278(3)
Truncus Arteriosus
1278(1)
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
1279(1)
Transposition of the Great Arteries
1280(1)
The Child Undergoing Cardiac Surgery
1281(3)
Preoperative Preparation
1281(1)
Postoperative Management
1282(2)
Acquired Heart Disease
1284(10)
Infective Endocarditis
1284(2)
Rheumatic Fever
1286(3)
Kawasaki Disease
1289(2)
Hypertension
1291(3)
Cardiomyopathies
1294(1)
Dysrhythmias
1294(3)
Etiology
1294(1)
Incidence
1295(1)
Manifestations
1295(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1296(1)
Therapeutic Management
1296(1)
High Cholesterol in Children and Adolescents
1297(4)
Assessment of Children at Risk
1297(1)
Therapeutic Management
1298(1)
Nursing Considerations
1298(3)
The Child with a Hematologic Alteration
1301(27)
Review of the Hematologic System
1302(2)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
1304(3)
Etiology and Incidence
1304(1)
Manifestations
1304(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1304(2)
Therapeutic Management
1306(1)
Sickle-Cell Disease
1307(6)
Etiology
1307(1)
Incidence
1307(1)
Manifestations
1307(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1307(1)
Therapeutic Management
1307(6)
Beta-Thalassemia
1313(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1313(1)
Manifestations
1314(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1314(1)
Therapeutic Management
1314(1)
Hemophilia
1315(5)
Etiology and Incidence
1315(1)
Manifestations
1316(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1316(1)
Therapeutic Management
1316(4)
Von Willebrand's Disease
1320(1)
Etiology
1320(1)
Pathophysiology
1320(1)
Manifestations
1320(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1320(1)
Therapeutic Management
1320(1)
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
1321(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1321(1)
Pathophysiology
1321(1)
Manifestations
1321(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1321(1)
Therapeutic Management
1321(2)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
1323(1)
Etiology
1323(1)
Manifestations
1323(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1323(1)
Therapeutic Management
1323(1)
Nursing Considerations
1324(1)
Aplastic Anemia
1324(4)
Etiology and Incidence
1324(1)
Manifestations
1324(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1324(1)
Therapeutic Management
1325(3)
The Child with Cancer
1328(33)
The Child with Cancer
1332(4)
Incidence
1332(1)
Childhood Cancer and Its Treatment
1332(1)
Therapeutic Management
1332(4)
Leukemia
1336(2)
Etiology
1336(1)
Incidence
1336(1)
Manifestations
1336(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1337(1)
Therapeutic Management
1338(1)
Brain Tumors
1338(10)
Etiology
1338(6)
Incidence
1344(1)
Manifestations
1344(2)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1346(1)
Therapeutic Management
1347(1)
Malignant Lymphomas
1348(3)
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
1349(1)
Hodgkin's Disease
1350(1)
Neuroblastoma
1351(2)
Etiology
1351(1)
Incidence
1351(1)
Pathophysiology
1352(1)
Manifestations
1352(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1352(1)
Therapeutic Management
1352(1)
Osteosarcoma
1353(1)
Etiology
1353(1)
Incidence
1353(1)
Pathophysiology
1353(1)
Manifestations
1353(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1353(1)
Therapeutic Management
1353(1)
Ewing's Sarcoma
1354(1)
Etiology
1354(1)
Incidence
1354(1)
Pathophysiology
1355(1)
Manifestations
1355(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1355(1)
Therapeutic Management
1355(1)
Nursing Considerations
1355(1)
Rhabdomyosarcoma
1355(1)
Etiology
1355(1)
Incidence
1355(1)
Pathophysiology
1355(1)
Manifestations
1355(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1355(1)
Therapeutic Management
1355(1)
Nursing Considerations
1356(1)
Wilms' Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
1356(1)
Etiology
1356(1)
Incidence
1356(1)
Pathophysiology
1356(1)
Manifestations
1356(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1356(1)
Therapeutic Management
1356(1)
Retinoblastoma
1356(3)
Etiology
1357(1)
Incidence
1357(1)
Pathophysiology
1357(1)
Manifestations
1358(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1358(1)
Therapeutic Management
1358(1)
Rare Tumors of Childhood
1359(2)
The Child with an Integumentary Alteration
1361(41)
Review of the Integumentary System
1362(2)
Common Variations in the Skin of Newborns
1364(1)
Common Birthmarks
1364(1)
Etiology
1364(1)
Incidence
1364(1)
Manifestations
1364(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1364(1)
Therapeutic Management
1364(1)
Nursing Considerations
1365(1)
Infections of the Skin
1365(1)
Impetigo
1365(1)
Etiology
1365(1)
Incidence
1365(1)
Manifestations
1365(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1366(1)
Therapeutic Management
1366(1)
Cellulitis
1366(1)
Etiology and Incidence
1367(1)
Pathophysiology
1367(1)
Manifestations
1367(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1367(1)
Therapeutic Management
1367(1)
Candidiasis
1367(2)
Etiology
1368(1)
Incidence
1368(1)
Manifestations
1368(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1368(1)
Therapeutic Management
1368(1)
Tinea Infection
1369(3)
Etiology
1369(1)
Incidence
1369(1)
Manifestations
1369(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1369(1)
Therapeutic Management
1369(3)
Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
1372(2)
Etiology
1372(1)
Incidence
1372(1)
Manifestations
1372(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1373(1)
Therapeutic Management
1373(1)
Lice Infestation
1374(2)
Incidence
1374(1)
Manifestations
1374(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1374(1)
Therapeutic Management
1374(2)
Mite Infestation (Scabies)
1376(1)
Etiology
1376(1)
Incidence
1376(1)
Pathophysiology
1376(1)
Manifestations
1376(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1376(1)
Therapeutic Management
1376(1)
Nursing Considerations
1377(1)
Atopic Dermatitis
1377(3)
Etiology
1377(1)
Incidence
1377(1)
Manifestations
1377(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1377(1)
Therapeutic Management
1378(2)
Seborrheic Dermatitis
1380(1)
Contact Dermatitis
1381(1)
Etiology
1381(1)
Incidence
1381(1)
Manifestations
1381(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1381(1)
Therapeutic Management
1381(1)
Acne Vulgaris
1382(2)
Etiology
1382(1)
Incidence
1383(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1383(1)
Therapeutic Management
1383(1)
Miscellaneous Skin Disorders
1384(1)
Insect Bites or Stings
1384(4)
Burn Injuries
1388(10)
Etiology
1388(1)
Incidence
1389(1)
Pathophysiology
1389(1)
Manifestations
1390(1)
Therapeutic Management
1390(8)
Conditions Associated with Major Burn Injuries
1398(1)
Conditions Associated with Electrical Injury
1398(4)
Cardiac Arrest or Dysrhythmia
1398(1)
Tissue Damage
1398(1)
Myoglobinuria
1398(2)
Metabolic Acidosis
1400(1)
Other Complications
1400(2)
The Child with a Musculoskeletal Alteration
1402(46)
Review of the Musculoskeletal System
1403(4)
Skeletal System
1403(1)
Articular System
1403(1)
Muscular System
1404(1)
Cartilage
1404(3)
Casts, Traction, and Other Immobilizing Devices
1407(5)
Casts
1407(1)
Traction
1407(2)
External Fixation Devices
1409(1)
Nursing Considerations
1409(3)
Limb Defects
1412(2)
Etiology and Incidence
1412(1)
Pathophysiology
1413(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1413(1)
Therapeutic Management
1413(1)
Nursing Considerations
1413(1)
Clubfoot
1414(1)
Etiology and Incidence
1414(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1414(1)
Therapeutic Management
1414(1)
Nursing Considerations
1414(1)
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
1415(6)
Etiology
1415(1)
Incidence
1415(1)
Manifestations
1415(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1415(1)
Therapeutic Management
1416(5)
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
1421(2)
Etiology
1421(1)
Incidence
1421(1)
Manifestations
1422(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1422(1)
Therapeutic Management
1422(1)
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
1423(1)
Etiology and Incidence
1423(1)
Pathophysiology
1423(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1423(1)
Therapeutic Management and Nursing Considerations
1424(1)
Fractures
1424(3)
Etiology
1424(1)
Incidence
1425(1)
Manifestations
1425(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1425(1)
Therapeutic Management
1425(2)
Nursing Considerations
1427(1)
Soft Tissue Injuries: Sprains, Strains, and Contusions
1427(1)
Etiology
1427(1)
Incidence
1427(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1427(1)
Therapeutic Management
1428(1)
Nursing Considerations
1428(1)
Osgood-Schlatter Disease
1428(1)
Etiology, Incidence, and Pathophysiology
1428(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1429(1)
Therapeutic Management
1429(1)
Nursing Considerations
1429(1)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
1429(1)
Etiology
1429(1)
Manifestations
1429(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1429(1)
Therapeutic Management
1429(1)
Nursing Considerations
1430(1)
Osteomyelitis
1430(2)
Etiology
1430(1)
Incidence
1431(1)
Manifestations
1431(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1431(1)
Therapeutic Management
1431(1)
Juvenile Arthritis
1432(5)
Etiology
1433(1)
Incidence
1433(1)
Manifestations
1433(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1433(1)
Therapeutic Management
1433(4)
Muscular Dystrophies
1437(1)
Etiology
1438(1)
Incidence
1438(1)
Pathophysiology
1438(1)
Manifestations
1438(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1438(1)
Therapeutic Management
1438(1)
Nursing Considerations
1438(1)
Scoliosis
1438(2)
Etiology
1439(1)
Incidence
1439(1)
Manifestations
1439(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1439(1)
Therapeutic Management
1439(1)
Kyphosis
1440(5)
Etiology and Incidence
1440(4)
Manifestations
1444(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1444(1)
Therapeutic Management and Nursing Considerations
1444(1)
Lordosis
1445(3)
Etiology and Incidence
1445(1)
Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation
1446(1)
Therapeutic Management and Nursing Considerations
1446(2)
The Child with an Endocrine or Metabolic Alteration
1448(38)
Review of the Endocrine System
1449(1)
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
1450(2)
Phenylketonuria
1452(1)
Etiology
1452(1)
Incidence
1452(1)
Manifestations
1452(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation
1452(1)
Therapeutic Management
1452(1)
Nursing Considerations
1452(1)
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
1453(1)


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