

1  (1) 

Chapter Opener: The Evolution of the Braille Reading Code 


1  (58) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


2  (1) 



Identification Numbers and Check Digits 


3  (1) 


3  (2) 

General Identification Numbers 


5  (1) 


6  (1) 


6  (3) 


9  (9) 

Modular Arithmetic and CheckDigit Schemes 


18  (19) 


19  (2) 

The Division Algorithm for Integers 


21  (2) 


23  (1) 


24  (2) 

Modular CheckDigit Schemes 


26  (4) 

Summary of Common CheckDigit Schemes 


30  (7) 


37  (22) 


37  (3) 


40  (4) 

Manufacturer Numbers and Product Numbers in UPC Bar Codes 


44  (1) 

UPC Codes on Retail Items 


44  (2) 


46  (10) 


56  (1) 


57  (2) 


59  (82) 

Chapter Opener: Can a Soccer Ball Glow? 


59  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


60  (1) 




61  (25) 


62  (3) 


65  (1) 


66  (2) 


68  (4) 


72  (3) 


75  (11) 

Symmetry, Rigid Motions, and Escher Patterns 


86  (26) 

Strip Patterns and Symmetry 


86  (2) 

TwoDimensional Patterns and Symmetry 


88  (2) 

Definitions of Rigid Motions 


90  (7) 

Rigid Motions and the Basic Strip Patterns 


97  (2) 


99  (13) 

Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden MeanShapes in Nature 


112  (29) 


112  (3) 


115  (2) 

Fibonacci Numbers in Nature 


117  (1) 


118  (2) 


120  (1) 

Golden Rectangles and the Golden Ratio 


121  (2) 

A Final Look at Fibonacci Sequences 


123  (12) 


135  (2) 


137  (4) 


141  (64) 

Chapter Opener: Coach Decides It's Best Not to Win 


141  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


142  (1) 




143  (20) 


144  (1) 


145  (1) 

Plurality with Elimination Method 


146  (3) 

Pairwise Comparison Method 


149  (3) 


152  (11) 

Flaws of the Voting Systems 


163  (20) 


163  (2) 

The HeadtoHead Criterion 


165  (1) 

The Monotonicity Criterion 


166  (2) 

The IrrelevantAlternatives Criterion 


168  (2) 

Summary of the Criteria and Various Voting Methods 


170  (1) 


171  (12) 


183  (22) 


183  (2) 


185  (2) 

Dictators, Dummies, and Voters with Veto Power 


187  (1) 


188  (1) 


189  (12) 


201  (1) 


202  (3) 


205  (80) 

Chapter Opener: Legislator Wants State to Get Bigger Cut of Video Poker Profit 


205  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


206  (1) 



Divide and Choose Methods 


207  (28) 

FairDivision Problems: Definitions and Assumptions 


207  (2) 

Fair Division for Two Players 


209  (4) 

Fair Division for Three Players 


213  (3) 

Fair Division for Three or More Players 


216  (19) 

Discrete and Mixed Division Problems 


235  (21) 

The Method of Sealed BidsDiscrete Fair Division 


235  (3) 

The Method of PointsDiscrete Division 


238  (6) 

The AdjustedWinner ProcedureMixed Fair Division 


244  (12) 


256  (29) 


256  (25) 


281  (1) 


282  (3) 


285  (54) 

Chapter Opener: Some Think It's the Pits at HighTech Heaven 


285  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


286  (1) 



The Apportionment ProblemQuota Methods 


287  (19) 


288  (1) 

The Standard Divisor and The Standard Quota 


288  (3) 


291  (2) 

Quota Rule and Quota Method 


293  (1) 


293  (13) 

The Apportionment ProblemDivisor Methods 


306  (16) 


307  (3) 


310  (12) 

Flaws of the Apportionment Methods 


322  (17) 


322  (1) 


323  (2) 


325  (1) 


326  (2) 

Seeking a Perfect Apportionment Method 


328  (7) 


335  (1) 


336  (3) 


339  (70) 

Chapter Opener: Internet Fashion Show Swamps Network 


339  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


340  (1) 




341  (19) 

Graphs, Vertices, and Edges 


341  (3) 


344  (2) 


346  (2) 


348  (1) 


349  (11) 


360  (18) 


361  (1) 


362  (2) 


364  (1) 


365  (13) 

The TravelingSalesperson Problem 


378  (31) 

Hamiltonian Paths and Circuits 


378  (2) 


380  (3) 

The TravelingSalesperson Problem 


383  (3) 


386  (18) 


404  (1) 


405  (4) 


409  (66) 

Chapter Opener: Emergency Bridge Repair Speeded by Good Planning and Scheduling 


409  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


410  (1) 



Basic Concepts of Scheduling 


411  (21) 

Projects, Tasks, and Precedence Relations 


411  (3) 


414  (2) 


416  (4) 


420  (1) 

Finishing Time of a Project 


421  (11) 

The ListProcessing Algorithm and the DecreasingTime Algorithm 


432  (20) 


432  (3) 


435  (1) 

The ListProcessing Scheduling Algorithm 


435  (7) 


442  (10) 

The CriticalPath Algorithm 


452  (23) 

Finishing Times and Critical Paths 


452  (3) 

CriticalPath Priority Lists 


455  (5) 

The CriticalPath Scheduling Algorithm 


460  (11) 


471  (1) 


472  (3) 

Descriptive StatisticsData and Patterns 


475  (88) 

Chapter Opener: Action Proposed to Fight the Bloated Budget 


475  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


476  (1) 



Organizing and Picturing Data 


477  (26) 


477  (1) 


478  (1) 


479  (1) 


480  (3) 


483  (3) 


486  (1) 


487  (1) 

Choosing an Appropriate Graph 


487  (16) 


503  (24) 

Double StemandLeaf plots 


503  (1) 


504  (1) 


505  (1) 


506  (1) 


507  (2) 


509  (1) 

Choosing an Appropriate Graph 


509  (18) 

Enhancement, Distraction, and Distortion 


527  (36) 

Scaling and Axis Manipulation 


528  (4) 


532  (2) 

ThreeDimensional Effects 


534  (2) 


536  (5) 


541  (1) 


542  (12) 


554  (1) 


555  (8) 

Collecting and Interpreting Data 


563  (68) 

Chapter Opener: Literary Digest Poll Shows Landslide Victory for Landon over Roosevelt 


563  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


564  (1) 



Populations, Samples, and Data 


565  (13) 


565  (2) 


567  (2) 


569  (9) 


578  (16) 


578  (2) 


580  (1) 


581  (1) 


582  (1) 


583  (2) 


585  (9) 

Measures of Central Tendency and Variability 


594  (37) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


595  (8) 


603  (5) 

Variance and Standard Deviation 


608  (17) 


625  (2) 


627  (4) 


631  (68) 

Chapter Opener: Run That Ball! 


631  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


632  (1) 



Computing Probabilities in Simple Experiments 


633  (19) 


633  (1) 


634  (1) 


635  (1) 


636  (3) 

Mutually Exclusive Events 


639  (1) 


640  (2) 

Properties of Probability 


642  (10) 

Computing Probabilities in Multistage Experiments 


652  (21) 


652  (1) 

Fundamental Counting Principle 


653  (3) 

Probability Tree Diagrams and Their Properties 


656  (6) 

Applying Properties of Probability Tree Diagrams 


662  (11) 

Conditional Probability, Expected Value, and Odds 


673  (26) 


674  (6) 


680  (2) 


682  (2) 


684  (10) 


694  (1) 


695  (4) 


699  (52) 

Chapter Opener: P&G to Cut Spending on Local Television Advertising 


699  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


700  (1) 




701  (14) 

Distributions of Large Data Sets 


701  (2) 


703  (1) 

The Standard Normal Distribution 


704  (2) 

Areas under the Standard Normal Distribution Curve 


706  (2) 

Symmetry and Tables for the Normal Distribution 


708  (7) 

Applications of Normal Distributions 


715  (14) 

The Relationship among Normal Distributions 


715  (2) 

The 689599.7 Rule for Normal Distributions 


717  (2) 


719  (2) 

Computing with Normal Distributions 


721  (8) 

Confidence Intervals and Reliable Estimation 


729  (22) 


729  (1) 

Distribution of Sample Proportions 


730  (3) 


733  (1) 

Confidence Intervals and the Margin of Error 


734  (3) 

Confidence Intervals and Quality Control 


737  (9) 


746  (1) 


747  (4) 


751  (48) 

Chapter Opener: Growing Enrollment at White Oaks Elementary School Outstrips Budget 


751  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


752  (1) 



Malthusian Population Growth 


753  (16) 


753  (4) 


757  (3) 


760  (2) 


762  (7) 

Population Decrease, Radioactive Decay 


769  (11) 


769  (1) 


770  (1) 

HalfLife of a Radioactive Substance 


771  (4) 


775  (5) 

Logistic Population Models 


780  (19) 

Logistic Population Models 


781  (3) 


784  (2) 


786  (10) 


796  (1) 


797  (2) 

Consumer MathematicsBuying and Saving 


799  (52) 

Chapter Opener: Analyst Predicts Stock Market Perfectly 


799  (1) 

The Human Side of Mathematics 


800  (1) 



Simple and Compound Interest 


801  (16) 


801  (1) 


802  (2) 


804  (1) 


804  (2) 

Formula for Compound Interest 


806  (3) 

Effective Annual RateThe Effect of the Compounding Period 


809  (8) 


817  (18) 


817  (3) 


820  (1) 

Charting the History of an Amortized Loan 


820  (1) 

Calculating the Monthly Payment for an Amortized Loan 


821  (1) 

Using an Amortization Table 


822  (3) 


825  (1) 

Using Financial Software for Online Calculator 


826  (1) 


826  (9) 


835  (16) 


835  (1) 


836  (1) 


837  (1) 


838  (3) 


841  (6) 


847  (2) 


849  (2) 
Appendices 

851  (12) 
Answers to OddNumbered Problems and Chapter Review Problems 

863  (78) 
Index 

941  