PREFACE 

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CHAPTER 1 NUMBER SENSE 

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Cluster 1 Introduction to Problem Solving with Whole Numbers 



Activity 1.1 The Bookstore 


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1. Practice communication skills. 





3. Write a solution in sentences. 



4. Develop problemsolving skills. 



Activity 1.2 The Classroom 


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2. Develop problemsolving strategies. 









3. Communicate problemsolving ideas. 



Activity 1.3 Problem Solving and Your Calculator 


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1. Identify and use the commutative property in calculations. 



2. Use the distributive property to evaluate arithmetic expressions. 



3. Use order of operations to evaluate arithmetic expressions. 



4. Identify and use the properties of exponents in calculation. 



5. Convert numbers to and from scientific notation. 



6. Identify, understand, and use formulas. 



7. Use the order of operations in formulas involving whole numbers. 



Project Activity 1.4 The Class Schedule 


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1. Use algorithms to solve problems. 




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Cluster 2 Problem solving with Fractions and Decimals (Rational Numbers) 


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Activity 1.5 Delicious Recipes 


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1. Add and subtract fractions. 



2. Multiply and divide fractions. 



Activity 1.6 Course Grades and Your GPA 


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1. Solve problems using fractions and decimals. 



2. Recognize and calculate a weighted average. 



Project Activity 1.7 Income and Expenses 


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1. Solve problems with fractions and decimals. 




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Cluster 3 Comparisons and Proportional Reasoning 


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Activity 1.8 Everything Is Relative 


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1. Distinguish between absolute and relative measure. 



2. Write ratios in fraction, decimal, and percent formats. 



3. Determine equivalence of ratios. 



Activity 1.9 The Devastation of AIDS in Africa 


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1. Use proportional reasoning to apply a known ratio to a given piece of information. 



2. Write a proportion and then solve the resulting proportion. 



Activity 1.10 Who Really Did Better? 


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1. Define actual and relative change. 



2. Distinguish between actual and relative change. 



3. Calculate relative change as a percent increase or percent decrease. 



Activity 1.11 Going Shopping 


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2. Determine growth factors from percent increases. 



3. Apply growth factors to problems involving percent increases. 





5. Determine decay factors from percent decreases. 



6. Apply decay factors to problems involving percent decreases. 



Activity 1.12 Take an Additional 20% Off 


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1. Define consecutive growth and decay factors. 



2. Determine a consecutive growth or decay factor from two or more consecutive percent changes. 



3. Apply consecutive growth and/or decay factors to solve problems involving percent changes. 



Activity 1.13 Fuel Economy 


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1. Apply rates directly to solve problems. 



2. Use proportion equations to solve problems involving rates. 



3. Use unit or dimensional analysis to solve problems that involve consecutive rates. 



Project Activity 1.14 Take It To Heart 


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1. Solve problems involving percents, formulas, and proportional reasoning. 




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Cluster 4 Problem Solving with Signed Numbers 


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Activity 1.15 Celsius Thermometers 


107  (13) 



1. Identify signed numbers. 



2. Use signed numbers to represent quantities in realworld situations. 



3. Compare signed numbers. 



4. Calculate the absolute value of numbers. 



5. Identify and use properties of addition and subtraction of signed numbers. 



6. Add and subtract signed numbers using absolute value. 



Activity 1.16 Shedding the Extra Pounds 


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1. Multiply and divide signed numbers. 



Activity 1.17 Order of Operations Revisited 


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1. Use the order of operations to evaluate expressions involving signed numbers. 



2. Evaluate expressions that involve negative exponents. 



3. Distinguish between 54 and (54). 



4. Write very small numbers in scientific notation. 




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155  (6) 
CHAPTER 2 VARIABLE SENSE 

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Cluster 1: Interpreting and Constructing Tables and Graphs 


161  (40) 

Activity 2.1 BloodAlcohol Levels 


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1. Identify input and output in situations involving two variable quantities. 



2. Use a table to numerically represent a relationship between two variables. 



3. Represent a relationship between two variables graphically. 



4. Identify trends in data pairs that are represented numerically and graphically. 



Activity 2.2 Earth's Temperature 


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1. Construct a graph of data pairs using an appropriately scaled and labeled rectangular coordinate system. 



2. Determine the coordinates of a point on a graph. 



3. Construct a table of data pairs using the data points on a graph. 



4. Identify points that lie in a given quadrant or on a given axis. 



Activity 2.3 College Expenses 


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1. Identify input variables and output variables. 



2. Determine possible replacement values for the input. 



3. Write verbal rules that represent relationships between input and output variables. 



4. Construct tables of input/output values. 



5. Construct graphs from input/output tables. 



Activity 2.4 The Write Way to Learn Algebra 


188  (6) 



1. Translate verbal phrases into symbolic (algebraic) expressions. 



2. Distinguish between a factor and a term in an algebraic expression. 



3. Evaluate algebraic expressions for specified input values. 



Lab Activity 2.5 How Many Cups Are in That Stack? 


194  (1) 



1. Collect input/output data. 



2. Represent input/output data numerically in tables. 



3. Construct tables of data pairs for graphing. 



4. Graph input/output data pairs. 



Project Activity 2.6 Body Parts 


195  (1) 



1. Collect input/output data. 



2. Represent input/output data numerically in a table. 



3. Construct graphs from tables of data pairs. 




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Cluster 2: Solving Equations Numerically, Graphically, and Algebraically 


201  (60) 


201  (11) 



1. Translate verbal rules (statements using words) to symbolic rules (equations). 



2. Distinguish an algebraic expression from an equation and from a symbolic rule. 



3. Solve an equation numerically and graphically. 



4. Distinguish between a graph of distinct points and a graph of a continuous line. 



Activity 2.8 Let's Go Shopping 


212  (9) 



1. Translate verbal rules into symbolic rules. 



2. Solve an equation of the form ax = b for x using an algebraic approach. 



3. Solve an equation of the form x + a = b for x using an algebraic approach. 



Activity 2.9 Are They the Same? 


221  (8) 



1. Translate verbal rules into symbolic (algebraic) rules. 



2. Write algebraic expressions that involve grouping symbols. 



3. Evaluate algebraic expressions containing two or more operations. 



4. Identify equivalent algebraic expressions by examining their outputs. 



Activity 2.10 Sherlock Holmes 


229  (2) 



1. Recognize the conceptual basis for solving equations algebraically. 



Activity 2.11 Leasing a Copier 


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1. Model contextual situations with symbolic rules of the form y = ax + b,a not equal to 0. 



2. Solve equations of the form ax + b = c, a not equal to 0. 



Activity 2.12 How Long Can You Live? 


240  (5) 



1. Represent sets of data by a regression equation of the form y = ax + b,a not equal to 0. 



2. Solve equations of the form ax + b = c, a not equal to 0. 



3. Solve problems involving equations of the form ax + b = c, a not equal to 0. 



Activity 2.13 The Algebra of Weather 


245  (9) 



1. Evaluate formulas for specified input values. 



2. Solve a formula for a specified variable. 




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Cluster 3: Mathematical Modeling and Problem Solving 


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Activity 2.14 Do It Two Ways 


261  (7) 



1. Apply the distributive property. 



2. Use areas of rectangles to interpret the distributive property geometrically. 



3. Identify equivalent expressions. 



Activity 2.15 Ring It Up! 


268  (8) 



1. Identify the greatest common factor in an expression. 



2. Factor out the greatest common factor in an expression. 





4. Simplify an expression by combining like terms. 



Lab Activity 2.16 Math Magic 


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1. Recognize an algebraic expression as a code of instruction. 



2. Simplify algebraic expressions. 



Activity 2.17 Comparing Energy Costs 


283  (13) 



1. Translate verbal rules into symbolic rules. 



2. Write and solve equations of the form ax + b = cx + d. 



3. Use the distributive property to solve equations involving grouping symbols. 



4. Develop mathematical models to solve problems. 



5. Solve formulas for a specified variable. 



Project Activity 2.18 Summer Job Opportunities 


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1. Use critical thinking skills to make decisions based on solutions of systems of two linear equations. 




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315  (10) 
CHAPTER 3 FUNCTION SENSE AND LINEAR FUNCTIONS 

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Activity 3.1 Graphs Tell Stories 


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1. Describe in words what a graph tells you about a given situation. 



2. Sketch a graph that best represents a situation that is described in words. 



3. Identify increasing, decreasing, and constant parts of a graph. 



4. Identify minimum and maximum points on a graph. 





6. Use the vertical line test to determine whether a graph represents a function. 



Activity 3.2 Course Grade 


335  (10) 



1. Represent functions numerically, graphically, and symbolically. 



2. Determine the symbolic rule that defines a function. 



3. Use function notation to represent functions symbolically. 



4. Identify the domain and range of a function. 



5. Identify the practical domain and range of a function. 



Activity 3.3 How Fast Did You Lose? 


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1. Determine the average rate of change of an output variable with respect to the input variable. 




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Cluster 2 Introduction to Linear Functions 


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Activity 3.4 The Snowy Tree Cricket 


363  (11) 



1. Identify linear functions by a constant rate of change of the output variable with respect to the input variable. 



2. Determine the slope of the line drawn through two points. 



3. Identify increasing linear functions using slopes. 



Activity 3.5 Descending in an Airplane 


374  (13) 



1. Identify lines having negative, zero, or undefined slopes. 



2. Identify a decreasing linear function from its graph or slope. 



3. Determine horizontal and vertical intercepts of a linear function from its graph. 



4. Interpret the meaning of horizontal and vertical intercepts of a line. 



Activity 3.6 Charity Event 


387  (9) 



1. Determine a symbolic rule for a linear function from contextual information. 



2. Identify the practical meanings of the slope and intercepts of a linear function. 



3. Determine the slopeintercept form of a linear function. 



4. Identify functions as linear by numerical, graphical, and algebraic characteristics. 



Activity 3.7 Software Sales 


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1. Identify the slope and vertical intercept from the equation of a line written in slopeintercept form. 



2. Write an equation of a line in the slopeintercept form. 



3. Use the yintercept and the slope to graph a linear function. 



4. Determine horizontal intercepts of linear functions using an algebraic approach. 



5. Use intercepts to graph a linear function. 




408  (1) 


409  (7) 

Cluster 3 Problem Solving with Linear Functions 


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Activity 3.8 Predicting Population 


416  (7) 



1. Write an equation for a linear function given its slope and yintercept. 



2. Write linear functions in slopeintercept form. 



3. Determine the relative error in a measurement or prediction using a linear model. 



4. Interpret the slope and yintercept of linear functions in contextual situations. 



5. Use the slopeintercept form of linear equations to solve problems. 



Activity 3.9 Housing Prices 


423  (9) 



1. Determine the slope and yintercept of a line algebraically and graphically. 



2. Determine the equation for a linear function that includes any two given points. 



3. Interpret the slope and yintercept of a linear function in contextual situations. 



Activity 3.10 Oxygen for Fish 


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1. Construct scatterplots from sets of data. 



2. Recognize when patterns of points in a scatterplot are approximately linear. 



3. Estimate and draw a line of best fit through a set of points in a scatterplot. 



4. Use a graphing calculator to determine a line of best fit by the leastsquares method. 



5. Estimate the error of representing a set of data by a line of best fit. 




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Cluster 4 Systems of Two linear Equations 


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Activity 3.11 Business Checking Account 


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1. Solve a system of two linear equations numerically. 



2. Solve a system of two linear equations graphically. 



3. Solve a system of two linear equations symbolically by the substitution method. 



4. Recognize the connections between the three methods of solution. 



5. Interpret the solution to a system of two linear equations in terms of the problem's content. 



Activity 3.12 Healthy Lifestyle 


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1. Solve a system of two linear equations algebraically using the substitution method and the addition method. 



2. Solve equations containing parentheses. 



Activity 3.13 Modeling a Business 


469  (7) 



1. Solve a system of two linear equations by any method. 



2. Determine the breakeven point of a linear system algebraically and graphically. 



3. Interpret breakeven points in contextual situations. 



Activity 3.14 How Long Can You Live? 


476  (9) 



1. Use properties of inequalities to solve linear inequalities algebraically. 



2. Solve compound inequalities algebraically and graphically. 



3. Solve linear inequalities graphically. 




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486  (5) 


491  (3) 


494  (15) 
CHAPTER 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO NONLINEAR PROBLEM SOLVING 

509  

Cluster 1 Mathematical Modeling Involving Polynomials 


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Activity 4.1 Fatal Crashes 


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1. Identify polynomials and polynomial functions. 



2. Classify a polynomial as a monomial, binomial, or trinomial. 



3. Determine the degree of a polynomial. 



4. Simplify a polynomial by identifying and combining like terms. 



5. Add and subtract polynomials. 



6. Evaluate and interpret polynomials. 



Activity 4.2 Volume of a Storage Tank 


521  (13) 



1. Use properties of exponents to simplify expressions and combine powers that have the same base. 



2. Use the distributive property and properties of exponents to write an expression as an equivalent expression in expanded form. 



3. Identify the greatest common factor (GCF) in an algebraic expression. 



4. Factor algebraic expressions completely. 



5. Use the distributive property to check factored algebraic expressions. 



Activity 4.3 Room for Work 


534  (10) 



1. Expand and simplify the product of two binomials. 



2. Expand and simplify the product of any two polynomials. 



3. Recognize and expand the product of conjugate binomials: difference of squares. 



4. Recognize and expand the product of identical binomials: perfectsquare trinomials. 




544  (2) 


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Cluster 2: Problem Solving with Quadratic Equations 


550  (46) 

Activity 4.4 The Amazing Property of Gravity 


550  (12) 



1. Evaluate functions of the form y = axe. 



2. Graph functions of the form y = ax2. 



3. Interpret the coordinates of points on the graph of y = axe in context. 



4. Solve an equation of the form axe = c graphically. 



5. Solve an equation of the form axe = c algebraically by taking square roots. 



6. Solve an equation of the form (x + a)2 = c algebraically by taking square roots. 



Activity 4.5 What Goes Up, Comes Down 


562  (8) 



1. Evaluate quadratic functions of the form y = axe + bx. 



2. Graph functions of the form y = axe + bx. 



3. Identify the xintercepts of y = axe + bx graphically and algebraically. 



4. Interpret the xintercepts of a function in context. 



5. Factor a binomial of the form axe + bx. 



6. Solve an equation of the form axe + bx = 0 using the zeroproduct rule. 



Activity 4.6 How High Did It Go? 


570  (11) 



1. Recognize and write a quadratic equation in standard form, ax2 + bx + c = 0. 



2. Factor trinomials of the form x2 + bx + c. 



3. Solve a factorable quadratic equation of the form x2 + bx + c = 0 using the zeroproduct rule. 



4. Identify a quadratic function from its algebraic form. 



Activity 4.7 More Ups and Downs 


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1. Use the quadratic formula to solve quadratic equations. 



2. Identify the solutions of a quadratic equation with points on the corresponding graph. 




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Cluster 3 Other Nonlinear Functions 


596  


596  (9) 



1. Recognize an exponential function as a rule for applying a growth factor or a decay factor. 



2. Graph exponential functions from numerical data. 



3. Recognize exponential functions from symbolic rules. 



4. Graph exponential functions from symbolic rules. 



Activity 4.9 Diving Under Pressure, or Don't Hold Your Breath 


605  (8) 



1. Recognize functions of the form y = k/x as nonlinear. 



2. Recognize equations of the form xy = k as inverse variation. 



3. Graph an inverse relationship from symbolic rules. 



4. Solve equations of the form a/k = b. 




613  (8) 



1. Recognize functions of the form y = a square root of x as nonlinear. 



2. Evaluate and solve equations that involve square roots. 



3. Graph square root functions from numerical data. 



4. Graph square root functions from symbolic rules. 




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APPENDIXES 



A1  


A9  

Appendix C: Algebraic Extensions 


A17  

Appendix D: Getting Started with the TI83 Plus 


A25  

Appendix E: Learning Math Opens Doors: Twelve Keys to Success 


A39  


A53  


A65  


A71  