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Measurement By The Physical Educator: Why and How,9780072973037
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Measurement By The Physical Educator: Why and How

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780072973037

ISBN10:
007297303X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/2/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Summary

Providing a solid foundation in measurement and evaluation, this text helps your students learn how to measure physical performance, construct and select tests, and grade the results. Students also get hands-on experience in practicing with statistical techniques, using the computer, choosing the appropriate test, and designing a new test.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Measurement, Evaluation, Assessment, and Statistics
1(4)
Reasons for Measurement, Evaluation, and Assessment by the Physical Educator
2(2)
Motivation
2(1)
Diagnosis
2(1)
Classification
3(1)
Achievement
3(1)
Evaluation of Instruction and Programs
3(1)
Prediction
3(1)
Research
4(1)
Why Statistics?
4(1)
Analyze and Interpret Data
4(1)
Interpret Research
4(1)
Standardized Test Scores
4(1)
Determine the Worth (Validity and Reliability) of a Test
4(1)
Chapter Review Questions
4(1)
Describing and Presenting a Distribution of Scores
5(30)
Statistical Terms
5(1)
Scales of Measurement
6(2)
Nominal Scale
6(1)
Ordinal Scale
7(1)
Interval Scale
7(1)
Ratio Scale
7(1)
Normal Distribution
8(1)
Analysis of Ungrouped Data
9(5)
Score Rank
10(1)
Measures of Central Tendency
10(4)
Which Measure of Central Tendency Is Best for Interpretation of Test Results?
14(9)
Measures of Variability
15(3)
Relationship of Standard Deviation and Normal Curve
18(3)
Which Measure of Variability Is Best for Interpretation of Test Results?
21(1)
Percentiles and Percentile Ranks
22(1)
Review Problems
23(1)
Analysis of Grouped Data
23(5)
Measures of Central Tendency
26(1)
Measures of Variability
27(1)
Review Problems
28(1)
Graphs
28(1)
Standard Scores
28(4)
z-Scores
29(1)
T-Scores
30(1)
Percentiles
31(1)
Statistics Software
32(1)
Review Problem
32(1)
Chapter Review Questions
32(3)
Investigating the Relationship Between Scores
35(10)
Linear Correlation
35(4)
Scattergram
36(1)
Spearman Rank-Difference Correlation Coefficient
37(1)
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
38(1)
Interpretation of the Correlation Coefficient
39(2)
Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
39(2)
Coefficient of Determination
41(1)
Negative Correlation Coefficients
41(1)
Correlation, Regression, and Prediction
41(1)
Review Problems
42(1)
Chapter Review Questions
43(2)
Investigating the Difference in Scores
45(18)
Testing for Significant Difference Between Two Means
45(6)
Dependent and Independent Variables
46(1)
The Null Hypothesis
46(1)
Degrees of Freedom
46(1)
Level of Significance
47(1)
Standard Error of the Mean
47(1)
Standard Error of the Difference Between Means
48(1)
t-Test for Independent Groups
48(2)
t-Test for Dependent Groups
50(1)
Review Problems
51(1)
Testing for Significant Difference Among Three or More Means
52(7)
Special Terms and Symbols
52(1)
Analysis of Variance for Independent Groups
52(1)
Post Hoc Test
53(2)
Analysis of Variance for Repeated Measures
55(2)
Post Hoc Test
57(1)
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient
58(1)
Nonparametric Analysis
58(1)
Review Problems
59(2)
Chapter Review Questions
61(2)
What Is a Good Test?
63(12)
Criterion-Referenced Measurement
63(1)
Norm-Referenced Measurement
64(1)
Validity
64(4)
Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests
65(2)
Validity of Criterion-Referenced Tests
67(1)
Factors Affecting Validity
68(1)
Reliability
68(3)
Reliability of Norm-Referenced Tests
69(1)
Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Tests
70(1)
Factors Affecting Reliability
70(1)
Objectivity
71(1)
Administrative Feasibility
71(1)
Review Problems
72(1)
Chapter Review Questions
72(3)
Construction of Knowledge Tests
75(14)
Steps in Construction of a Test
75(6)
Test Planning
75(2)
Test Item Construction
77(1)
Test Administration
78(1)
Item Analysis
78(3)
Item Revision
81(1)
Objective Test Items
81(3)
True-False Items
81(2)
Multiple-Choice Items
83(1)
Stem Construction
83(1)
Response Construction
83(1)
Short-Answer and Completion Items
84(2)
Matching Items
85(1)
Essay Test Items
86(2)
Guidelines for Constructing Essay Items
87(1)
Guidelines for Scoring Essay Items
87(1)
Examples of Essay Items
87(1)
Review Problems
88(1)
Chapter Review Questions
88(1)
Assessing and Grading the Students
89(16)
Characteristics of Authentic Assessment
90(3)
Formal Record Keeping
90(1)
Natural Surroundings
90(1)
Formative and Summative Assessment
90(1)
Technique (Form) and End Result
90(1)
Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment
91(1)
Portfolio Assessment
92(1)
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)
93(1)
Grading
93(1)
Use of Grades
93(1)
Students
93(1)
Parents
94(1)
Teachers
94(1)
Administrators
94(1)
Factors Used in Grading
94(3)
Affective Factors
94(1)
Cognitive Factors
95(1)
Psychomotor Factors
95(2)
Criteria for Grades
97(1)
Methods of Grading
97(4)
Norm-Referenced Grading
98(2)
Criterion-Referenced Grading
100(1)
Percentage Correct Method
101(1)
Which Method of Grading Is Best?
101(1)
Weighting of Factors
101(1)
Reporting of Final Grades
102(1)
Review Problem
103(1)
Chapter Review Questions
103(2)
Construction and Administration of Psychomotor Tests
105(8)
Test Construction Guidelines
105(4)
Know What Is Required of a Good Test
105(1)
Define the Performance to Be Measured
105(1)
Analyze the Performance
106(1)
Review the Literature
106(1)
Devise the Test Items
106(1)
Prepare the Directions
106(1)
Have the Test Reviewed by Your Peers
107(1)
Administer the Test to a Small Group of Students
107(1)
Determine the Validity, Reliability, and Objectivity
107(1)
Develop the Norms
107(1)
Determine Intercorrelations
107(2)
Test Administration Responsibilities
109(1)
Pre-test Responsibilities
109(1)
Testing Responsibilities
109(1)
Post-test Responsibilities
110(1)
Types of Psychomotor Tests
110(1)
Review Problem
111(1)
Chapter Review Questions
111(2)
Agility
113(8)
Why Measure Agility?
113(1)
Tests of Agility
114(4)
Activities to Develop Agility
118(2)
Changes in the Height of the Body in Jumps
118(1)
Changes in Distance
119(1)
Changes in Direction
119(1)
Other Agility Activities
120(1)
Review Problems
120(1)
Chapter Review Questions
120(1)
Balance
121(8)
Why Measure Balance?
121(1)
Tests of Balance
122(4)
Static Balance Tests
122(2)
Dynamic Balance Tests
124(2)
Activities to Develop Balance
126(1)
Static Balance Activities
126(1)
Dynamic Balance Activities
126(1)
Recapturing Balance Activities
126(1)
Review Problems
126(1)
Chapter Review Questions
127(2)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
129(16)
Why Measure Cardiorespiratory Fitness?
129(1)
Pre-Test/Pre-Activity Screening
130(1)
Tests of Cardiorespiratory Fitness
130(12)
Development of Cardiorespiratory Fitness
142(1)
Review Problems
142(1)
Chapter Review Questions
143(2)
Flexibility
145(14)
Why Measure Flexibility?
145(1)
Tests of Flexibility
146(8)
Exercises to Develop Flexibility
154(2)
Neck
155(1)
Shoulder and Upper Chest
155(1)
Upper Back
155(1)
Lower Back
155(1)
Trunk
155(1)
Posterior Hip, Upper Leg, and Lower Back
156(1)
Anterior Hip and Thigh
156(1)
Groin Area
156(1)
Posterior Lower Leg
156(1)
Foot and Ankle
156(1)
Review Problems
156(1)
Chapter Review Questions
157(2)
Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power
159(20)
Why Measure Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power?
159(1)
Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance
160(14)
Tests with Weight-Training Equipment
160(3)
Tests Requiring Limited Equipment
163(11)
Muscular Power
174(2)
Exercises to Develop Muscular Strength and Endurance
176(1)
Posterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, Chest, and Upper Back
176(1)
Anterior Upper Arms, Shoulders, Chest, and Upper Back
176(1)
Abdomen
176(1)
Lateral Trunk
177(1)
Lower Back and Buttocks
177(1)
Lateral Hips and Thighs
177(1)
Upper Legs
177(1)
Lower Legs
177(1)
Review Problems
177(1)
Chapter Review Questions
178(1)
Anthropometry and Body Composition
179(20)
Why Measure Body Structure and Composition?
180(1)
Body Type Classification (Somatotyping)
181(1)
Height-Weight Tables
181(4)
Elbow Breadth
184(1)
Ankle Girth
184(1)
Body Composition
185(1)
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
185(1)
Air Displacement Plethysmography (BOD POD)
185(1)
Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
185(1)
Underwater Weighing
185(1)
Skinfold Tests
186(9)
Estimating Percent Body Fat
190(5)
Optimal Percent Body Fat and Desirable Body Weight
195(1)
Cooper Method for Determining Ideal Weight
196(1)
Body Mass Index (BMI)
196(1)
Fat Distribution
196(1)
Weight-Loss Programs
197(1)
Review Problems
198(1)
Chapter Review Questions
198(1)
Physical Fitness
199(26)
Why Measure Physical Fitness?
200(1)
Guidelines for the Administration and Use of Fitness Tests
200(1)
Norm-Referenced Standards Versus Criterion-Referenced Standards
200(1)
Tests of Health-Related Physical Fitness
201(13)
Tests of Skill-Related Physical Fitness
214(9)
Development of Health-Related and Skill-Related Physical Fitness
223(1)
Review Problems
223(1)
Chapter Review Questions
224(1)
Older Adult
225(14)
Why Measure Functional Fitness?
225(1)
Testing Guidelines
226(1)
Tests of Functional Fitness
226(10)
Physical Activity for the Older Adult
236(1)
Activity
237(1)
Frequency
237(1)
Duration
237(1)
Intensity
237(1)
Review Problems
237(1)
Chapter Review Questions
237(2)
Special-Needs Populations
239(14)
Why Measure Special-Needs Populations?
239(2)
Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced Tests?
241(1)
Perceptual-Motor Performance Tests
241(1)
Motor Performance Tests
242(3)
Physical Fitness Tests
245(6)
Review Problems
251(1)
Chapter Review Questions
251(2)
Sports Skills
253(28)
Why Measure Sports Skills?
253(1)
Individual and Dual Sports
254(10)
Archery
254(1)
Badminton
254(2)
Golf
256(2)
Handball
258(1)
Racquetball
259(1)
Tennis
260(4)
Team Sports
264(14)
Basketball
264(2)
Field Hockey
266(1)
Football
267(2)
Soccer
269(1)
Softball
270(4)
Volleyball
274(4)
Review Problems
278(1)
Chapter Review Questions
278(1)
Sources of Additional Sports Skills Tests
278(3)
Archery
278(1)
Badminton
278(1)
Basketball
278(1)
Bowling
278(1)
Field Hockey
278(1)
Football
278(1)
Golf
279(1)
Handball
279(1)
Racquetball
279(1)
Soccer
279(1)
Softball
279(1)
Swimming
279(1)
Tennis
279(1)
Volleyball
280(1)
Affective Behavior
281(24)
Why Measure Affective Behavior?
282(1)
Uses for Groups
282(1)
Uses for Individuals
282(1)
Categories of Measures
283(1)
Types of Items
283(2)
Likert Scale
283(1)
Semantic Differential
283(1)
Rating Scale
284(1)
Questionnaire
284(1)
Instruments for Measurement of Affective Behavior
285(18)
Social Behavior
285(1)
Attitudes
285(8)
Sportsmanship
293(1)
Leadership
294(2)
Competition Anxiety
296(2)
Other Measures
298(5)
Review Problems
303(1)
Chapter Review Questions
304(1)
Sources of Additional Instruments for Measurement of Affective Behavior
304(1)
Attitudes
304(1)
Body Image
304(1)
Self-Esteem
304(1)
Sportsmanship
304(1)
APPENDIXES
305(10)
A Square Root Example
305(1)
B Values of the Correlation Coefficient (r)
306(1)
C Critical Values of t (Two-Tailed Test)
307(1)
D F-Distribution
308(4)
E Values of the Studentized Range (q)
312(3)
References and Additional Reading 315(8)
Index 323


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