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Mechanical Measurements

by ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780201847659

ISBN10:
0201847655
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/7/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

In the field of mechanical measurements, Mechanical Measurements continues to set the standard. With an emphasis on precision and clarity, the authors have consistently crafted a text that has helped thousands of students grasp the fundamentals of the field. Mechanical Measurements 6th edition gives students a methodical, well thought-out presentation that covers fundamental issues common to all areas of measurement in Part One, followed by individual chapters on applied areas of measurement in Part Two. This modular format fits several different course formats and accommodates a wide variety of skill levels.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
I Fundamentals of Mechanical Measurement 1(363)
1 The Process of Measurement: An Overview
2(13)
1.1 Introduction
2(1)
1.2 The Significance of Mechanical Measurement
3(1)
1.3 Fundamental Methods of Measurement
4(1)
1.3.1 Direct Comparison
4(1)
1.3.2 Using a Calibrated System
4(1)
1.4 The Generalized Measuring System
5(3)
1.4.1 First, or Sensor-Transducer, Stage
5(1)
1.4.2 Second, or Signal-Conditioning, Stage
5(1)
1.4.3 Third, or Recording-Readout, Stage
6(2)
1.5 Types of Input Quantities
8(2)
1.5.1 Time Dependence
8(1)
1.5.2 Analog and Digital Signals
8(2)
1.6 Measurement Standards
10(1)
1.7 Calibration
10(1)
1.8 Uncertainty: Accuracy of Results
11(1)
1.9 Reporting Results
12(1)
1.9.1 Laboratory Note or Technical Memo
12(1)
1.9.2 Full Report
13(1)
1.9.3 Technical Paper
13(1)
1.10 Final Remarks
13(2)
2 Standards and Dimensional Units of Measurement
15(349)
2.1 Introduction
15(1)
2.2 Historical Background of Measurement in the United States
16(1)
2.3 The SI System
17(3)
2.3.1 Establishment of the SI System
17(2)
2.3.2 Metric Conversion in the United States
19(1)
2.4 The Standard of Length
20(1)
2.4.1 Relationship of the Meter to the Inch
20(1)
2.5 The Standard of Mass
21(1)
2.6 Time and Frequency Standards
21(1)
2.7 Temperature Standards
22(3)
2.8 Electrical Standards
25(1)
2.9 Conversions Between Systems of Units
26(4)
2.10 Summary
30(4)
3 Assessing and Presenting Experimental Data
34(73)
3.1 Introduction
34(1)
3.2 Common Types of Error
35(7)
3.2.1 Classification of Errors
36(5)
3.2.2 Terms Used in Rating Instrument Performance
41(1)
3.3 Introduction to Uncertainty
42(1)
3.4 Estimation of Precision Uncertainty
43(3)
3.4.1 Sample versus Population
43(2)
3.4.2 Probability Distributions
45(1)
3.5 Theory Based on the Population
46(5)
3.6 Theory Based on the Sample
51(12)
3.6.1 An Example of Sampling
52(2)
3.6.2 Confidence Intervals for Large Samples
54(1)
3.6.3 Confidence Intervals for Small Samples
55(6)
3.6.4 Hypothesis Testing for a Single Mean for a Small Sample Size (n less than or = to 30) 59
3.6.5 Hypothesis Testing for a Single Mean for a Large Sample Size (n > or = to 30)
61(1)
3.6.6 The t-Test Comparison of Sample Means
62(1)
3.7 The Chi-Square (χ²) Distribution
63(8)
3.7.1 Goodness of Fit Based on the Gaussian Distribution
67(4)
3.8 Statistical Analysis by Computer
71(1)
3.9 Bias and Single-Sample Uncertainty
71(2)
3.9.1 Single-Sample Precision Uncertainty
73(1)
3.10 Propagation of Uncertainty
73(2)
3.11 Examples of Uncertainty Analysis
75(7)
3.11.1 Rating Resistors
75(3)
3.11.2 Expected Uncertainty for Flowmeter Calibration
78(4)
3.12 Minimizing Error in Designing Experiments
82(1)
3.13 Graphical Presentation of Data
82(10)
3.13.1 General Rules for Making Graphs
83(2)
3.13.2 Choosing Coordinates and Producing Straight Lines
85(7)
3.14 Line Fitting and the Method of Least Squares
92(5)
3.14.1 Least Squares for Line Fits
92(2)
3.14.2 Uncertainty in Line Fits
94(1)
3.14.3 Software for Curve Fitting
94(3)
3.15 Summary
97(10)
4 The Analog Measurand: Time-Dependent Characteristics
107(33)
4.1 Introduction
107(1)
4.2 Simple Harmonic Relations
107(2)
4.3 Circular and Cyclic Frequency
109(1)
4.4 Complex Relations
110(12)
4.4.1 Beat Frequency and Heterodyning
117(1)
4.4.2 Special Waveforms
118(1)
4.4.3 Nonperiodic or Transient Waveforms
118(4)
4.5 Amplitudes of Waveforms
122(1)
4.6 Frequency Spectrum
122(2)
4.7 Harmonic, or Fourier, Analysis
124(11)
4.7.1 The Discrete Fourier Transform
125(2)
4.7.2 Frequencies in Discretely Sampled Signals: Aliasing and Frequency Resolution
127(4)
4.7.3 An Example of Discrete Fourier Analysis
131(4)
4.8 Summary
135(5)
5 The Response of Measuring Systems
140(44)
5.1 Introduction
140(1)
5.2 Amplitude Response
141(1)
5.3 Frequency Response
141(1)
5.4 Phase Response
142(1)
5.5 Predicting Performance for Complex Waveforms
142(3)
5.6 Delay, Rise Time, and Slew Rate
145(1)
5.7 Response of Experimental System Elements
145(3)
5.8 Simplified Physical Systems
148(1)
5.9 Mechanical Elements
148(3)
5.9.1 Mass
148(1)
5.9.2 Spring Force
149(1)
5.9.3 Damping
150(1)
5.10 An Example of a Simple Mechanical System
151(1)
5.11 The Importance of Damping
152(1)
5.12 Dynamic Characteristics of Simplified Mechanical Systems
153(1)
5.13 Single-Degree-of-Freedom Spring-Mass-Damper Systems
153(1)
5.14 The Zero-Order System
154(1)
5.15 Characteristics of First-Order Systems
154(7)
5.15.1 The Step-Forced First-Order System
155(2)
5.15.2 The Harmonically Excited First-Order System
157(4)
5.16 Characteristics of Second-Order Systems
161(9)
5.16.1 The Step-Excited Second-Order System
161(3)
5.16.2 The Harmonically Excited Second-Order System
164(3)
5.16.3 General Periodic Forcing
167(3)
5.17 Electrical Elements
170(2)
5.18 First-Order Electrical System
172(4)
5.19 Simple Second-Order Electrical System
176(2)
5.20 Calibration of System Response
178(1)
5.21 Summary
179(5)
6 Sensors
184(45)
6.1 Introduction
184(1)
6.2 Loading of the Signal Source
185(1)
6.3 The Secondary Transducer
185(2)
6.4 Classification of First-Stage Devices
187(3)
6.5 Variable-Resistance Transducer Elements
190(1)
6.6 Sliding-Contact Devices
190(2)
6.6.1 Potentiometer Resolution
192(1)
6.6.2 Potentiometer Linearity
192(1)
6.7 The Resistance Strain Gage
192(1)
6.8 Thermistors
192(1)
6.9 The Thermocouple
193(1)
6.10 Variable-Inductance Transducers
193(5)
6.10.1 Simple Self-Inductance Arrangements
195(1)
6.10.2 Two-Coil Mutual-Inductance Arrangements
195(3)
6.11 The Differential Transformer
198(1)
6.12 Variable-Reluctance Transducers
198(1)
6.13 Capacitive Transducers
199(3)
6.14 Piezoelectric Sensors
202(2)
6.15 Semiconductor Sensors
204(5)
6.15.1 Electrical Behavior of Semiconductors
204(1)
6.15.2 pn-Junctions
205(2)
6.15.3 Photodiodes
207(2)
6.16 Light-Detecting Transducers
209(4)
6.16.1 Thermal Detectors
209(1)
6.16.2 Photon Detectors
210(1)
6.16.3 Applications
210(3)
6.17 Hall-Effect Sensors
213(1)
6.18 Some Design-Related Problems
214(9)
6.18.1 Manufacturing Tolerances
215(2)
6.18.2 Some Temperature-Related Problems
217(4)
6.18.3 Methods for Limiting Temperature Errors
221(2)
6.19 Summary
223(6)
7 Signal Conditioning
229(61)
7.1 Introduction
229(1)
7.2 Advantages of Electrical Signal Conditioning
230(1)
7.3 Modulated and Unmodulated Signals
230(1)
7.4 Input Circuitry
231(1)
7.5 The Simple Current-Sensitive Circuit
232(2)
7.6 The Ballast Circuit
234(2)
7.7 Voltage-Dividing Circuits
236(2)
7.7.1 The Voltage-Dividing Potentiometer
236(1)
7.7.2 Loading Error
237(1)
7.7.3 Use of End Resistors
238(1)
7.8 Small Changes in Transducer Resistance
238(3)
7.9 Resistance Bridges
241(8)
7.9.1 The Voltage-Sensitive Wheatstone Bridge
244(2)
7.9.2 The Current-Sensitive Wheatstone Bridge
246(1)
7.9.3 The Constant-Current Bridge
246(1)
7.9.4 The AC Resistance Bridge
247(1)
7.9.5 Compensation for Leads
248(1)
7.9.6 Adjusting Bridge Sensitivity
249(1)
7.10 Reactance or Impedance Bridges
249(2)
7.11 Resonant Circuits
251(1)
7.11.1 Undesirable Resonance Conditions
251(1)
7.12 Electronic Amplification or Gain
252(3)
7.13 Electronic Amplifiers
255(1)
7.14 Operational Amplifiers
256(8)
7.14.1 Typical Op-Amp Specifications
258(1)
7.14.2 Applications of the Op Amp
259(5)
7.15 Special Amplifier Circuits
264(2)
7.15.1 Instrumentation Amplifiers
264(1)
7.15.2 The Charge Amplifier
264(2)
7.16 Filters
266(1)
7.17 Some Filter Theory
267(6)
7.18 Active Filters
273(1)
7.19 Differentiators and Integrators
273(2)
7.20 Shielding and Grounding
275(2)
7.20.1 Shielding
275(1)
7.20.2 Grounding
276(1)
7.21 Component Coupling Methods
277(2)
7.22 Summary
279(11)
8 Digital Techniques in Mechanical Measurements
290(45)
8.1 Introduction
290(2)
8.2 Why Use Digital Methods?
292(1)
8.3 Digitizing Mechanical Inputs
293(1)
8.4 Fundamental Digital Circuit Elements
293(9)
8.4.1 Basic Logic Elements
293(4)
8.4.2 Combination of Logic Elements: The Flip-Flop
297(1)
8.4.3 IC Families
297(3)
8.4.4 IC Oscillators and Clock Signals
300(1)
8.4.5 Digital Displays
301(1)
8.5 Number Systems
302(2)
8.6 Binary Codes
304(6)
8.6.1 Binary-Coded Decimal
304(1)
8.6.2 Position Encoders and Gray Code
305(1)
8.6.3 Alphanumeric Codes
306(4)
8.6.4 Bar Codes
310(1)
8.7 Some Simple Digital Circuitry
310(6)
8.7.1 Events Counter
310(2)
8.7.2 Gating
312(1)
8.7.3 Frequency Meter
312(1)
8.7.4 Wave Shaping
313(1)
8.7.5 Integrated-Circuit Counter and Frequency Meter
313(1)
8.7.6 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
314(2)
8.8 The Computer as a Measurement System
316(1)
8.9 The Microprocessor
317(2)
8.10 The Microcomputer
319(1)
8.10.1 Read-Only Memory (ROM)
319(1)
8.10.2 Random Access Memory (RAM)
319(1)
8.10.3 Input and Output Ports (I/O Ports)
320(1)
8.10.4 External Buses
320(1)
8.11 Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion
320(8)
8.11.1 A Digital-to-Analog Converter
322(1)
8.11.2 An Analog-to-Digital Converter
323(2)
8.11.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion Considerations
325(1)
8.11.4 Digital Signal Processing
326(2)
8.12 Digital Images
328(1)
8.13 Getting It All Together
329(1)
8.14 Summary
330(5)
9 Readout and Data Processing
335(29)
9.1 Introduction
335(1)
9.2 The Electronic Counter
336(4)
9.2.1 Event Counter
336(1)
9.2.2 Time-Interval Meter
336(3)
9.2.3 Events per Unit Time (EPUT) Meter
339(1)
9.2.4 Count Error
339(1)
9.3 Analog Electric Meter Indicators
340(6)
9.3.1 Voltmeter Sensitivity
341(1)
9.3.2 The Current Meter
342(1)
9.3.3 AC Meters
342(3)
9.3.4 The Multimeter and Resistance Measurement
345(1)
9.4 Meters with Electronic Amplification
346(1)
9.5 Digital-Readout Multimeters
346(1)
9.6 The Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)
347(6)
9.6.1 Oscilloscope Amplifiers
348(3)
9.6.2 Sawtooth Oscillator or Time-Base Generator
351
9.6.3 Synchronization or Triggering
151(202)
9.7 Additional CRO Features
353(2)
9.7.1 Multiple Trace
353(1)
9.7.2 Magnification and Delayed Sweep
353(1)
9.7.3 Digital Storage Oscilloscopes
353(2)
9.7.4 Single-Ended and Differential Inputs
355(1)
9.8 XY-Plotters
355(1)
9.9 Digital Waveform Recorders
355(1)
9.10 The Spectrum Analyzer
356(2)
9.11 LabVIEW
358(6)
II Applied Mechanical Measurements 364(358)
10 Measurement of Count, Events per Unit Time, Time Interval, and Frequency
365(21)
10.1 Introduction
365(1)
10.2 Use of Counters
366(2)
10.2.1 Electronic Counters
366(1)
10.2.2 EPUT Meters
367(1)
10.2.3 Time-Interval Meter
367(1)
10.3 Stroboscopy and High-Speed Imaging
368(4)
10.3.1 The Stroboscope
368(2)
10.3.2 High-Speed Imaging
370(2)
10.4 Frequency Standards
372(3)
10.4.1 Global Positioning System Signals
373(1)
10.4.2 Radio Time and Frequency Transmission
374(1)
10.4.3 Quartz-Crystal Oscillators
374(1)
10.4.4 Complex-Wave Oscillators and Function Generators
375(1)
10.5 Lissajous Figures for Finding Frequency and Phase Relations
375(4)
10.6 Heterodyne and Phase-Lock Measurements of Frequency
379(3)
10.7 Measurement of Rotary Motion
382(4)
11 Displacement and Dimensional Measurement
386(27)
11.1 Introduction
386(1)
11.2 A Problem in Dimensional Measurement
387(1)
11.3 Gage Blocks
388(3)
11.4 Assembling Gage-Block Stacks
391(1)
11.5 Surface Plates
391(1)
11.6 Temperature Problems
392(2)
11.7 Use of Comparators
394(1)
11.8 Monochromatic Light
395(1)
11.9 The Interferometer
396(2)
11.10 Measuring Microscopes
398(4)
11.10.1 Fixed-Scale Microscopes
398(2)
11.10.2 Filar Microscopes
400(1)
11.10.3 Traveling and Traveling-Stage Microscopes
400(1)
11.10.4 The Draw-Tube Microscope
400(1)
11.10.5 Focusing
401(1)
11.10.6 Digital Microscopes
402(1)
11.11 Whole-Field Displacement Measurement
402(1)
11.12 Displacement Transducers
402(1)
11.13 The Differential Transformer or LVDT
403(4)
11.13.1 Input Power
405(1)
11.13.2 Advantages of the LVDT
406(1)
11.14 Surface Roughness
407(6)
12 Strain and Stress: Measurement and Analysis
413(45)
12.1 Introduction
413(3)
12.2 Strain Measurement
416(1)
12.3 The Electrical Resistance Strain Gage
417(1)
12.4 The Metallic Resistance Strain Gage
418(3)
12.5 Selection and Installation Factors for Bonded Metallic Strain Gages
421(1)
12.6 Circuitry for the Metallic Strain Gage
422(1)
12.7 The Strain-Gage Ballast Circuit
423(1)
12.8 The Strain-Gage Bridge Circuit
424(3)
12.8.1 Bridges with Two and Four Arms Sensitive to Strain
425(1)
12.8.2 The Bridge Constant
426(1)
12.8.3 Lead-Wire Error
427(1)
12.9 The Simple Constant-Current Strain-Gage Circuit
427(1)
12.10 Temperature Compensation
428(1)
12.10.1 The Adjacent-Arm Compensating Gage
428(1)
12.10.2 Self-Temperature Compensation
428(1)
12.11 Calibration
429(2)
12.12 Commercially Available Strain-Measuring Systems
431(1)
12.12.1 The Basic Indicator
432(1)
12.13 Strain-Gage Switching
432(1)
12.14 Use of Strain Gages on Rotating Shafts
432(2)
12.15 Stress—Strain Relationships
434(5)
12.15.1 The Simple Uniaxial Stress Situation
434(1)
12.15.2 The Biaxial Stress Situation
435(4)
12.16 Gage Orientation and Interpretation of Results
439(7)
12.16.1 Gages Connected in Series
445(1)
12.17 Special Problems
446(2)
12.17.1 Cross Sensitivity
446(1)
12.17.2 Plastic Strains and the Postyield Gage
446(1)
12.17.3 Fatigue Applications of Resistance Strain Gages
446(1)
12.17.4 Cryogenic Temperature Applications
446(1)
12.17.5 High-Temperature Applications
447(1)
12.17.6 Creep
448(1)
12.17.7 Residual Stress Determination
448(1)
12.18 Final Remarks
448(10)
13 Measurement of Force and. Torque
458(31)
13.1 Introduction
458(2)
13.2 Measuring Methods
460(1)
13.3 Mechanical Weighing Systems
461(3)
13.3.1 The Analytical Balance
461(1)
13.3.2 Multiple-Lever Systems
462(2)
13.3.3 The Pendulum Force-Measuring Mechanism
464(1)
13.4 Elastic Transducers
464(7)
13.4.1 Calibration Adjustment
468(1)
13.4.2 The Proving Ring
469(2)
13.5 Strain-Gage Load Cells
471(4)
13.6 Piezoelectric Load Cells
475(1)
13.7 Ballistic Weighing
475(2)
13.8 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
477(2)
13.9 Torque Measurement
479(6)
13.9.1 Mechanical and Hydraulic Dynamometers
480(3)
13.9.2 Electric Dynamometers
483(2)
13.10 Transmission Dynamometers
485(4)
14 Measurement of Pressure
489(38)
14.1 Introduction
489(1)
14.2 Static and Dynamic Pressures in Fluids
490(2)
14.3 Pressure-Measuring Transducers
492(1)
14.4 Manometry
493(5)
14.5 Bourdon-Tube Gages
498(1)
14.6 Elastic Diaphragms
498(3)
14.6.1 Flat Metal Diaphragms
500(1)
14.6.2 Corrugated Metal Diaphragms
500(1)
14.6.3 Semiconductor Diaphragms
501(1)
14.7 Additional Pressure Transducers
501(5)
14.7.1 Strain Gages and Flat Diaphragms
501(1)
14.7.2 Inductive Transducers
502(1)
14.7.3 Piezoelectric Transducers
502(1)
14.7.4 Capacitative Transducers
503(1)
14.7.5 Strain-Gage Pressure Cells
504(2)
14.8 Measurement of High Pressures
506(2)
14.8.1 Electrical Resistance Pressure Gages
506(2)
14.9 Measurement of Low Pressures
508(3)
14.9.1 The McLeod Gage
508(1)
14.9.2 Thermal Conductivity Gages
509(1)
14.9.3 Ionization Gages
510(1)
14.10 Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure-Measuring Systems
511(4)
14.10.1 Gas-Filled Systems
512(1)
14.10.2 Liquid-Filled Systems
513(2)
14.11 Calibration Methods
515(12)
14.11.1 Periodic Pressure Sources
516(1)
14.11.2 Aperiodic Pressure Sources
517(10)
15 Measurement of Fluid Flow
527(50)
15.1 Introduction
527(2)
15.2 Flow Characteristics
529(2)
15.3 Obstruction Meters
531(10)
15.3.1 Obstruction Meters for Incompressible Flow
531(2)
15.3.2 Venturi Tube Characteristics
533(1)
15.3.3 Flow-Nozzle Characteristics
534(1)
15.3.4 Orifice Characteristics
534(7)
15.3.5 Relative Merits of the Venturi, Flow Nozzle, and Orifice
541(1)
15.4 Obstruction Meters for Compressible Fluids
541(4)
15.4.1 Choked Flow and the Critical Flow Venturi Meter
544(1)
15.5 Additional Flowmeters
545(7)
15.5.1 Turbine Meters
545(2)
15.5.2 Electromagnetic Flowmeters
547(1)
15.5.3 Coriolis Flowmeters
548(1)
15.5.4 Vortex Shedding Flowmeters
549(1)
15.5.5 Ultrasonic Flowmeters
550(1)
15.5.6 Positive Displacement Flowmeters
550(1)
15.5.7 The Variable-Area Meter
551(1)
15.6 Calibration of Flowmeters
552(2)
15.7 Measurements of Fluid Velocities
554(1)
15.8 Pressure Probes
555(7)
15.8.1 Incompressible Fluids
556(1)
15.8.2 Compressible Fluids
557(1)
15.8.3 Total-Pressure Probes
557(1)
15.8.4 Static-Pressure Probes
558(2)
15.8.5 Direction-Sensing Probes
560(2)
15.9 Thermal Anemometry
562(3)
15.10 Doppler-Shift Measurements
565(5)
15.10.1 Laser-Doppler Anemometry
566(3)
15.10.2 Ultrasonic-Doppler Anemometry
569(1)
15.11 Flow Visualization
570(7)
16 Temperature Measurements
577(79)
16.1 Introduction
577(6)
16.2 Use of Thermal Expansion
583(3)
16.2.1 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
583(1)
16.2.2 Calibration and Stem Correction
584(2)
16.2.3 Bimetal Temperature-Sensing Elements
586(1)
16.3 Pressure Thermometers
586(2)
16.4 Thermoresistive Elements
588(8)
16.4.1 Resistance Thermometers
588(2)
16.4.2 Instrumentation for Resistance Thermometry
590(3)
16.4.3 Thermistors
593(3)
16.5 Thermocouples
596(17)
16.5.1 Application Laws for Thermocouples
598(1)
16.5.2 Thermocouple Materials and Construction
598(3)
16.5.3 Values of the Thermocouple EMF
601(1)
16.5.4 Measurement of Thermocouple EMF
602(8)
16.5.5 Electronic Instruments
610(2)
16.5.6 Thermopiles and Thermocouples Connected in Parallel
612(1)
16.6 Semiconductor-Junction Temperature Sensors
613(1)
16.7 The Linear Quartz Thermometer
613(2)
16.8 Pyrometry
615(10)
16.8.1 Radiation Pyrometry Theory
616(4)
16.8.2 Total-Radiation Pyrometry
620(2)
16.8.3 Spectral-Band Pyrometry
622(2)
16.8.4 Infrared Pyrometry
624(1)
16.8.5 Thermal Imaging
625(1)
16.9 Other Methods of Temperature Indication
625(1)
16.10 Temperature Measurement Errors
626(12)
16.10.1 Errors Associated with Convection, Radiation, and Conduction
626(6)
16.10.2 Measurement of Temperature in Rapidly Moving Gas
632(2)
16.10.3 Temperature Element Response
634(3)
16.10.4 Compensation for Temperature Element Response
637(1)
16.11 Measurement of Heat Flux
638(4)
16.12 Calibration of Temperature-Measuring Device;
642(14)
17 Measurement of Motion
656(35)
17.1 Introduction
656(1)
17.2 Vibrometers and Accelerometers
657(1)
17.3 Elementary Vibrometers and Vibration Detectors
657(2)
17.4 Elementary Accelerometers
659(1)
17.5 The Seismic Instrument
659(1)
17.6 General Theory of the Seismic Instrument
660(5)
17.6.1 The Vibration Pickup
662(1)
17.6.2 Phase Shift in the Seismic Vibrorneter
663(2)
17.6.3 General Rule for Vibrometers
665(1)
17.7 The Seismic Accelerometer
665(3)
17.7.1 Phase Lag in the Accelerometer
667(1)
17.7.2 Practical Design of Seismic Instruments
667(1)
17.8 Calibration
668(1)
17.9 Calibration of Vibrometers
669(1)
17.10 Calibration of Accelerometers
669(1)
17.10.1 Static Calibration
669(1)
17.10.2 Steady-State Periodic Calibration
670(1)
17.11 Response of the Seismic Instrument to Transients
670(3)
17.12 Measurement of Velocity by the Laser Velocity Transducer
673(1)
17.13 Vibration and Shock Testing
673(1)
17.14 Vibrational Exciter Systems
674(4)
17.14.1 Electromagnetic Systems
674(1)
17.14.2 Mechanical-Type Exciters
675(1)
17.14.3 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
676(1)
17.14.4 Relative Merits and Limitations of Each System
676(2)
17.15 Vibration Test Methods
678(1)
17.15.1 The Brute-Force Method
678(1)
17.15.2 The Resonance Method
678(1)
17.16 Shock Testing
679(1)
17.17 Shock Rigs
680(4)
17.17.1 Air Gun Shock-Producing Devices
681(1)
17.17.2 Spring-Loaded Test Rigs
681(1)
17.17.3 A Hydraulic-Pneumatic Rig
681(1)
17.17.4 Gravity Rigs
682(1)
17.17.5 Relative Merits and Limitations of Each Shock Rig
683(1)
17.18 Practical Shock Testing
684(7)
18 Acoustical Measurements
691(31)
18.1 Introduction
691(1)
18.2 Characterization of Sound (Noise)
692(2)
18.3 Basic Acoustical Parameters
694(6)
18.3.1 Sound Pressure
694(1)
18.3.2 Sound Pressure Level
694(2)
18.3.3 Power, Intensity, and Power Level
696(1)
18.3.4 Combination of Sound Pressure Levels
697(2)
18.3.5 Attenuation with Distance
699(1)
18.4 Psychoacoustic Relationships
700(2)
18.5 Sound-Measuring Apparatus and Techniques
702(8)
18.5.1 Microphones
702(2)
18.5.2 The Sound Level Meter
704(2)
18.5.3 Frequency Spectrum Analysis
706(4)
18.5.4 The Discrete Fourier Transform
710(1)
18.6 Applied Spectrum Analysis
710(2)
18.7 Measurement and Interpretation of Industrial and Environmental Noise
712(3)
18.7.1 Equivalent Sound Level, Leq
712(1)
18.7.2 Sound Exposure Level (SEL)
713(1)
18.7.3 Sound Intensity Measurement
713(2)
18.8 Notes on Some Practical Aspects of Sound Measurements
715(2)
18.9 Calibration Methods
717(1)
18.10 Final Remarks
718(4)
III Appendices 722(40)
A Standards and Conversion Equations
723(3)
B Theoretical Basis for Fourier Analysis
726(5)
C Number Systems
731(5)
D Some Useful Data
736(4)
E Stress and Strain Relationships
740(15)
F Statistical Tests of Least Squares Fits
755(4)
Answers to Selected Problems
759(3)
Index 762


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