9780884154747

Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780884154747

  • ISBN10:

    0884154742

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1997-03-31
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

This book examines the underlying mechanics of creating a fracture from vertical or deviated wellbores and the propagation of a hydraulic fracture in the reservoir. This book is intended as a reference book for research engineers and advanced graduate students in petroleum or mechanical engineering. For more than forty years, hydraulic fracturing has been employed to enhance the production of oil and gas from underground reservoirs.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi(2)
NOTATIONS xiii
CHAPTER ONE Fracturing of a Wellbore and 2-D Fracture Models
1(29)
Introduction
1(1)
Fracturing of a Wellbore
2(4)
Constant Height Fracture Models
6(8)
The Khristianovic-Geertsma-de Klerk (KGD) Model
7(3)
The Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) Model
10(4)
Circular Fractures
14(4)
Energy Consideration
18(2)
Poroelasticity and Filtercake
20(7)
References
27(3)
CHAPTER TWO Three-Dimensional Fracture Modeling
30(31)
Fluid Motion Inside the Fracture
31(5)
Fracture Opening Equation
36(3)
Propagation of a Hydraulic Fracture
39(5)
Discretization of Eq. 2-14 in the Time Domain
40(2)
Procedure for Solving Eqs. 2-24 and 2-29
42(1)
Movement of Fracture Front
43(1)
Mesh Generation
44(9)
Node Generation of Fracture Front
45(2)
Interior Node Generation
47(2)
Insertion of Nodes Inside the Domain
49(1)
Construction of Elements
50(1)
Interpolation Between Meshes
51(2)
Results and Discussion
53(6)
References
59(2)
CHAPTER THREE Proppant Transport in a 3-D Fracture
61(23)
Introduction
61(1)
The Governing Equations
62(5)
Proppant Transport
67(2)
Finite Element Formulation
69(3)
Analysis of Shut-in
72(1)
Results and Discussion
73(8)
Pseudo 3-D Models
81(1)
References
82(2)
CHAPTER FOUR Deviated Wellbores
84(28)
Introduction
84(1)
Stress Distribution and Initiation of a Hydraulic Fracture
85(13)
Cased Hole and Perforation Strategy
98(12)
References
110(2)
CHAPTER FIVE Link up of Mini-fractures From Perforated Holes
112(16)
Introduction
112(1)
Formulation of the Problem
113(3)
Solution Method
116(3)
Fracture Growth and Link up
119(1)
Results and Discussion
120(6)
References
126(2)
CHAPTER SIX Turning of Fracture From a Deviated Wellbore
128(22)
Introduction
128(2)
Non-symmetric Growth of 2-D Fracture From a Horizontal Wellbore
130(7)
The Turning of a Hydraulic Fracture
137(5)
Results and Discussion
142(6)
References
148(2)
CHAPTER SEVEN Experimental Studies
150(27)
Introduction
150(1)
Experiments Carried Out in Laboratory
151(11)
Breakdown Pressure of an Open Hole
152(1)
Fracture Propagation and Its Containment
153(1)
Fracture Initiated From Deviated or Horizontal Wellbores
154(1)
The Shape of the Hydraulic Fracture Near the Tip Region
155(3)
Simulation of a Massive Hydraulic Fracture
158(2)
Similitude Analysis
160(2)
Experiments Carried Out in the Field
162(9)
Measurement of In-situ Stresses
163(2)
Application of the Measured Downhold Pressure Curve
165(3)
Measurement of Fracture Width and Pressure
168(3)
The Hydraulic Impedance Method
171(1)
References
171(6)
INDEX 177

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