9781412970426

Media Audiences : Effects, Users, Institutions, and Power

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781412970426

  • ISBN10:

    1412970423

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-10-23
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc

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Summary

Despite the widespread use of the term audience in our popular culture, the meaning of the audience is complex, and it has undergone significant historical shifts over time. Media Audiences explores the concept of media audiences from four broad perspectives, as victims of mass media, as market constructions & commodities, as users of media, and as producers & subcultures of mass media.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowlegmentsp. xv
History and Concept of the Audiencep. 1
Situating the Audience Conceptp. 2
Overview of the Chapterp. 2
What Is an "Audience"?p. 2
Constructionism and the Notion of the Audiencep. 5
Three Models of the Audiencep. 6
History of Early Audiencesp. 8
Greek and Roman Audiences: Public Performance and Oral Communicationp. 8
Print and the Shift Toward Mediated Audiencesp. 11
Liberalism, Democratic Participation, and Crowds in the 19th Centuryp. 12
Motion Pictures and the Rise of the Mass Audiencep. 15
Audiences and Notions of Powerp. 16
Structure and Agencyp. 16
What Is Power?p. 18
Conclusion: Constructing Audiences Through History and Theoryp. 19
Discussion Activitiesp. 20
Additional Materialsp. 21
Referencesp. 21
Audiences as Objectsp. 23
Effects of Media Messagesp. 25
Overview of the Chapterp. 26
Origins of Media Effects Theories in the Early 20th Centuryp. 26
Charles Horton Cooley and the Emergence of Sociologyp. 27
Concern Over Film Audiences: Hugo Münsterberg and Mass Suggestibilityp. 28
Mass Society Theory and the Payne Fund Studiesp. 30
The Payne Fund Studies (1929-1932)p. 31
Consequences of the Payne Fund Studiesp. 33
The War of the Worlds Broadcast and the Direct Effects Modelp. 33
The War of the Worlds Broadcast (1938)p. 34
Cantril's Study of Mass Panic among Radio Audiencesp. 35
Mass Propaganda Concerns and World War II Communication Researchp. 35
Early Concerns With Mass Persuasionp. 36
World War II Communication Researchp. 37
Postwar Communication Research: The Rise of the Limited Effects Paradigmp. 39
Persuasion Research: Selectivity and the ELMp. 39
The People's Choice (1944) and Personal Influence (1955)p. 42
Effects of Media Violencep. 44
Rise of Public Concern Over Television and the Surgeon General's Report (1971)p. 44
Long-Term Media Effects and Cultivation Theoryp. 46
Video Game Violence and Effectsp. 46
Conclusion: Enduring Concern Over Media Effectsp. 47
Discussion Activitiesp. 48
Additional Materialsp. 49
Referencesp. 49
Audiences as Institutional Constructionsp. 53
Public Opinion and Audience Citizenshipp. 55
Overview of the Chapter 1p. 56
A Brief History of Public Opinionp. 56
Greco-Roman Notions of Public Opinionp. 57
Feudal Europe and the Representative Public Spherep. 58
The 18th-century Enlightenment and the Bourgeois Public Spherep. 59
Quantification of Public Opinion in the 19th Centuryp. 61
The Rise of Surveys in the 20th Centuryp. 62
Survey Methods and the Public Opinion Industryp. 62
Sampling and Survey Participationp. 63
Data Gathering and Survey Designp. 64
Public Opinion Organizationsp. 65
Public Opinion and the Limits of Audience Constructionsp. 66
Public Opinion as a Fictional Constructp. 66
Surveys and the Manufacture of Public Opinionp. 67
How News Shapes Public Opinionp. 69
News and the Public Agendap. 69
Opinion Polling and the News Mediap. 71
Conclusion: The Construction of Public Opinion and Its Implications for Democracyp. 72
Discussion Activitiesp. 73
Additional Materialsp. 74
Referencesp. 74
Media Ratings and Target Marketingp. 77
Overview of the Chapterp. 78
The Political Economic Approach to Communicationp. 78
Political Economy and the Commodity Audiencep. 80
Dallas W. Smythe and the "Blindspot" Debatep. 81
Ratings and the Construction of the Audience Productp. 82
Toothpicks and Trees: The "Natural" Audience as Taxonomic Collectivesp. 82
Measuring Audiences: The Ratings Systemp. 83
Audience Research and the Ratingsp. 84
Operationalization of the Audience Concept: Quantificationp. 84
Constructing the Nielsen Samplep. 86
Measuring Audience Viewership: Diaries, Household Meters, Peoplemeters, and PPMsp. 90
Online Audience Measuresp. 93
Ratings and Shares in the Television Industryp. 93
Ratings, Market Research, and the Audience Commodity: Assigning Market Value to Mass Audiencesp. 95
The Importance of Audience Demographics: Age, Gender, and Incomep. 95
The Role of Psychographic and Lifestyle Measurements in Targeted Marketing Appealsp. 97
Marketing and Social Stereotypes: Minority Audiences Struggle With Big Mediap. 98
Conclusion: How Effective Is Institutional Control Over Audiences?p. 100
Discussion Activitiesp. 101
Additional Materialsp. 102
Referencesp. 102
Audiences as Active Users of Mediap. 105
Uses and Gratificationsp. 107
Overview of the Chapterp. 108
Early Examples of Uses and Gratifications in Communication Researchp. 108
Motion Picture Autobiographies and Media Motivations in the 1920sp. 109
Female Radio Serial Listeners in the 1940sp. 110
The Uses and Gratifications Approachp. 113
Israeli Media and Their Uses (Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas, 1973)p. 114
Uses and Gratifications and the Notion of Needsp. 115
Audience Activities and Media Motivesp. 116
Expectancy-Value Approaches to Uses and Gratificationsp. 120
Social Uses of Mediap. 122
The Uses and Dependency Approachp. 125
Conclusion: Refocusing on Audience Powerp. 128
Discussion Activitiesp. 228
Additional Materialsp. 229
Referencesp. 130
Interpreting and Decoding Mass Media Textsp. 133
Overview of the Chapterp. 135
The Rise of Critical Cultural Studiesp. 135
Interpretation and Semioticsp. 135
Ideology, Screen Theory, and the Critical Paradigmp. 138
The Birmingham School and the Encoding/Decoding Modelp. 140
The Encoding/Decoding Modelp. 140
Message Asymmetry and Multiple Levels of Meaningp. 141
Polysemy and Three Subject Positionsp. 142
The Nationwide Audience Studiesp. 144
Gender and Media Interpretation: Soap Operas, Romances, and Feminismp. 147
Crossroads and the Soap Opera Viewerp. 148
Decoding Dallas: The Work of Ien Angp. 149
Reading the Romance Novel Reader: Janice Radwayp. 149
Cross-Cultural Reception of Popular Mediap. 151
Israeli Viewers of Dallasp. 151
Decoding American Soap TV in Indiap. 152
Open Texts and Popular Meaningsp. 153
Open Texts: The Theories of John Fiskep. 153
Intertextuality and Interpretive Communitiesp. 154
Conclusion: Interpretation and Audience Power 'p. 157
Discussion Activitiesp. 158
Additional Materialsp. 159
Referencesp. 159
Reception Contexts and Media Ritualsp. 161
Overview of the Chapterp. 162
Media in Context: Notions of Space and Timep. 163
Social and Situational Contextsp. 163
Time and Media Usep. 165
Media Reception in the Domestic Spherep. 167
Housewives and Mass Mediap. 168
Morley's Nationwide Follow-Up: Family Televisionp. 168
Television and "Gendered" Technologies in the Homep. 169
Domestic Media Reception in the '90s and Beyondp. 170
Social Versus Individualized Viewing Behaviorsp. 171
The Internet and New Media in the Homep. 172
Media and Everyday Life in the Domestic Contextp. 173
The Blending of Public and Private Spaces: Modernity and Time-Space Distanciationp. 174
Media Technology and the Homep. 175
Media Spaces in the 21st Centuryp. 176
Media Rituals: Another Reception Contextp. 178
Defining Ritualsp. 178
Media Events: Creating Television's "High Holidays"p. 179
Conclusion: Audiences in Contextp. 182
Discussion Activitiesp. 182
Additional Materialsp. 184
Referencesp. 184
Audiences as Producers and Subculturesp. 187
Media Fandom and Audience Subculturesp. 189
Overview of the Chapterp. 191
Defining Fan Culturesp. 192
Fan Stereotypesp. 193
Defining Fan Studies: Why Study Fans?p. 193
Fan Cultures and Interpretive Activityp. 195
The Social Aspect of Media Fandom: Developing Communities and Subculturesp. 195
Fan Activism: Challenging Institutional Producersp. 196
Fans and Media Texts: Protecting Continuity and Canonp. 198
Canon Wars: Star Wars Fans Define the Popular Textp. 201
Fans and Textual Productionsp. 202
De Certeau and Textual Poachingp. 202
Fanzines, Fanfic, and Filking: Textual Poaching in Actionp. 203
Fans and Cultural Hierarchy: The Limits of Textual Reinterpretationp. 206
Pierre Bourdieu and the Sociology of Cultural Consumptionp. 207
Second Wave Fan Studies: The Reproduction of Economic and Social Hierarchiesp. 207
Conclusion: Fans, Creativity, and Cultural Hierarchyp. 209
Discussion Activitiesp. 210
Additional Materialsp. 211
Referencesp. 211
Online, Interactive Audiences in a Digital Media Worldp. 213
Overview of the Chapterp. 216
Digitalization, Fragmentation, and the Rise of Audience Autonomyp. 216
YouTube and WoW: Sites of Audience Agency and Creativityp. 218
The Rise of Participatory Culturep. 218
YouTube as a Site for Participatory Culturep. 220
World of Warcraft as Creative Playground and Social Centerp. 224
Crowdsourcing Media Production: Wikis and Blogsp. 225
Wikis and the Crowdsourcing of Audience Knowledgep. 227
Blogs and Citizen Journalismp. 227
Questioning Audience Power in the Networked Information Society: Issues of Media Ownership, Surveillance, and Labor Exploitationp. 229
Audience-Produced Media: The Question of Intellectual Propertyp. 229
Social Media and Audience Surveillance in a Networked Environmentp. 231
Audience Creativity and Labor Exploitationp. 232
Conclusion: Networked Creativity Meets Undercompensated Laborp. 233
Discussion Activitiesp. 234
Additional Materialsp. 235
Referencesp. 235
Conclusion: Audience Agency in New Contextsp. 239
Overview of the Chapterp. 240
The Rise of Mobile, Transmedia Experiences in the Post-Network Erap. 240
The New Economics of Audience Aggregationp. 243
Audience Studies in a New Centuryp. 245
Additional Materialsp. 247
Referencesp. 248
Indexp. 251
About the Authorp. 263
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