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Mass media have taken the digital turn: they have made the transition from the analog past into our digital future. Today's communication students need a book that keeps pace with those changes—and with their own experiences as media consumers. While students may be familiar with the latest technology, Media & Culture can help enhance their understanding of how we arrived at this point, and where we're headed. The new edition explores the effects of the digital turn with new and informative part openers that dig into our media consumption habits, a brand-new chapter on digital gaming that goes deeper and further than other media books, and an integrated VideoCentral program throughout the book that converges the print text with the Web. Using its signature critical process and cultural perspective, Media & Culture shows how digital media really work—and how students can become informed media consumers and critics.
CHRISTOPHER R. MARTIN is professor of journalism at University of Northern Iowa and author of Framed! Labor and the Corporate Media (2003). He has written articles and reviews on journalism, televised sports, the Internet, and labor for several publications including Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Communication Inquiry, Labor Studies Journal, and Culture, Sport, and Society.
BETTINA FABOS, an award-winning video maker and former print reporter, is an associate professor of Visual Communication and interactive media studies at University of Northern Iowa. She is the author of Wrong Turn on the Information Superhighway: Education and the Commercialized Internet (2003). Her areas of expertise include critical media literacy, Internet commercialization, the role of the internet in education, and media representations of popular culture.
Table of Contents
Chapter 6: Television & Cable: The Power of Visual Culture
The Origins and Development of TelevisionEarly Innovations in TV Technology Controlling Content TV—Grows Up
The Development of Cable
CATV—Community Antenna TelevisionThe Wires and Satellites behind Cable Television Cable Threatens Broadcasting Cable Services CASE STUDY ESPN: Sports and Stories DBS: Cable without Wires Technology and Third Screens Change Viewing Habits Home Video The Third Screen: TV Converges with the Internet Fourth Screens: Smartphones and Mobile Video Major Programming Trends TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture TV Information: Our Daily News Culture Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS TV and the State of Storytelling Public Television Struggles to Find its Place Regulatory Challenges to Television and Cable Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcasters’ Interests Franchising Frenzy The Telecommunications Act of 1996 The Economies and Ownership of Television and Cable Production Distribution Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going . . . Measuring Television Viewing The Major Programming Corporations TRACKING TECHNOLOGY Streaming Dreams: YouTube Turns Pro Alternative Voices Television, Cable, and Democracy CHAPTER REVIEW Chapter 7: Movies and the Impact of Images Early Technology and The Evolution of Movies The Development of Film The Introduction of Narrative The Arrival of Nickelodeons The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System Production Distribution Exhibition The Studio System’s Golden Age Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era The Introduction of Sound The Development of the Hollywood Style CASE STUDY Breaking through Hollywood’s Race Barrier Outside the Hollywood System GLOBAL VILLAGE Beyond Hollywood: Asian Cinema The Transition of the Studio System The Hollywood Ten The Paramount Decision Moving to the Suburbs Television Changes Hollywood Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment The Economics of the Movie Business Production, Distribution, and Exhibition Today MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Blockbuster Mentality The Major Studio Players Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Internet Age Alternative Voices Popular Movies and Democracy CHAPTER REVIEW PART 3: WORDS AND PICTURES Chapter 8: Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism The Evolution of American Newspapers Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press The Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media The Age of Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism and Investigation Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism "Objectivity" in Modern Journalism Interpretive Journalism Literary Forms of Journalism Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age The Business and Ownership of Newspapers Consensus vs. Conflict: Newspapers Play Different Roles MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Covering Business and Economic News Newspapers Target Specific Readers Newspaper Operations CASE STUDY Alternative Journalism: Dorothy Day and I.F. Stone Newspaper Ownership: Chains Lose Their Grip Joint Operating Agreements Combat Declining Competition Challenges Facing Newspapers Today Readership Declines in the United States Going Local: How Small and Campus Papers Retain Readers Blogs Challenge Newspapers’ Authority Online GLOBAL VILLAGE For U.S. Newspaper Industry, an Example in Germany? Convergence: Newspapers Struggle in the Move to Digital New Models for Journalism Alternative Voices Newspaper and Democracy CHAPTER REVIEW Chapter 9: Magazines in the Age of Specialization The Early History of Magazines The First Magazines Magazines in Colonial America U.S. Magazines in the Nineteenth Century National, Women’s and Illustrated Magazines The Development of Modern American Magazines Social Reform and Muckrakers The Rise of General-Interest Magazines CASE STUDY The Evolution of Photojournalism The Fall of General-Interest Magazines Convergence: Magazines Confront the Digital Age The Domination of Specialization TRACKING TECHNOLOGY The New "Touch" of Magazines Men’s and Women’s Magazines Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure Magazines Magazines for the Ages Elite Magazines MEDIA LITERACY BOX Uncovering American Beauty Minority-Targeted Magazines Supermarket Tabloids The Organization and Economics of Magazines Magazine Departments and Duties Major Magazine Chains Alternative Voices Magazines in a Democratic Society CHAPTER REVIEW Chapter 10: Books and the Power of Print The History of Books from Papyrus to Paperbacks The Development of Manuscript Culture The Innovations of Block-Printing and Movable Type The Gutenberg Revolution: The Invention of the Printing Press The Birth of Publishing in the United States Modern Publishing and the Book Industry The Formation of Publishing Houses Types of Books CASE STUDY Comic Books: Alternative Themes, but Superheroes Prevail Trends and Issues in Book Publishing Influences of Television and Film Audio Books Convergence: Books in the Digital Age Preserving and Digitizing Books TRACKING TECH Did Publishers and Apple Collude Against Amazon? Censorship and Banned Books MEDIA LITERCY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Banned Books and "Family Values" The Organization and Ownership of the Book Industry Ownership Patterns The Structure of Book Publishing Selling Books, Stores, Clubs, and Mail Order Alternative Voices Books and the Future of Democracy CHAPTER REVIEW PART 4: THE BUSINESS OF MASS MEDIA Chapter 11: Advertising and Commercial Culture Early Developments in American Advertising The First Advertising Agencies Advertising in the 1800s Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values Early Ad Regulation The Shape of U.S. Advertising Today The Influence of Visual Design Types of Advertising Agencies The Structure of Ad Agencies Trends in Online Advertising Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising Conventional Persuasive Strategies The Association Principle CASE STUDY Idiots and Objects: Stereotyping in Advertising Advertising as Myth Product Placement EXAMINING ETHICS Brand Integration, Everywhere MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS The Branded You Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising Critical Issues in Advertising GLOBAL VILLAGE Smoking Up the Global Market Watching Over Advertising Alternative Voices Advertising, Politics, and Democracy Advertising’s Role in Politics The Future of Advertising CHAPTER REVIEW Chapter 12: Public Relations and Framing Message Early Developments in Public Relations P.T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill Big Business and Press Agents The Birth of Modern Public Relations The Practice of Public Relations Approaches to Organized Public Relations Performing Public Relations CASE STUDY Social Media Transform the Press Release EXAMINING ETHICS What Does It Mean to be Green? Public Relations Adapts to the Internet Age Public Relations during a Crisis Tensions between Public Relations and the Press Elements of Professional Friction Shaping the Image of Public Relations Alternative Voices Public Relations and Democracy MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS The Invisible Hand of PR CHAPTER REVIEW Chapter 13: Media Economics and the Global Marketplace Analyzing the Media Economy The Structure of the Media Industry The Performance of Media Organizations The Transition to an Information Economy Deregulation Trumps Regulation Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers Business Tendencies in Media Industries Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling Specialization and Global Markets The Rise of Specialization and Synergy CASE STUDY Minority and Female Media Ownership: Why Does it Matter? Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate Global Audiences Expand Media Markets The Internet and Convergence Change the Game Social Issues in Media Economics MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Cultural Imperialism and Movies CASE STUDY From fifty to a Few: The Most Dominant Media Corporations The Limits of Antitrust Laws The Fallout from a Free Market Cultural Imperialism The Media Marketplace and Democracy The Effects of Media Consolidation on Democracy The Media Reform Movement CHAPTER REVIEW PART 5: DEMOCRATIC EXPRESSION AND THE MASS MEDIA Chapter 14: The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy Modern Journalism in the Information Age What Is News? Values in American Journalism Ethics and the News Media CASE STUDY Bias in the News Ethical Predicaments Resolving Ethical Problems Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalism Focusing on the Present MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Telling Stories and Covering Disaster Relying on Experts Balancing Story Conflict Acting as Adversaries xxJournalism in the Age of TV and the Internet Differences between Print and TV News Pundits, "Talking Heads," and Politics Convergence Enhances and Changes Journalism The Power of Visual Language Alternative Models: Public Journalism and "Fake" News The Public Journalism Movement GLOBAL VILLAGE Why Isn’t Al Jazeera English on More U.S. TV Systems? "Fake" News and Satiric Journalism Democracy and Reimagining Journalism’s Role Social Responsibility Deliberative Democracy EXAMINING ETHICS Wikileaks, Secret Documents, and Good Journalism? CHAPTER REVIEW Chapter 15: Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research Early Media Research Methods Propaganda Analysis Public Opinion Research Social Psychology Studies Marketing Research CASE STUDY The Effects of TV in a Post-TV World Research on Media Effects Early Theories of Media Effects Conducting Media Effects Research MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS First-Person Shooter Games: Misogyny as Entertainment? Contemporary Media Effects Theories Evaluating Research on Media Effects Cultural Approaches to Media Research Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research Conducting Cultural Studies Research CASE STUDY Labor Gets Framed Cultural Studies’ Theoretical Perspectives Evaluating Cultural Studies Research Media Research and Democracy CHAPTER REVIEW Chapter 16: Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression The Origins of Free Expression and a Free Press Models of Expression The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution Censorship as Prior Restraint Unprotected Forms of Expression
MEDIA LITERACY AND THE CRITICAL PROCESS Who Knows the First Amendment?
CASE STUDY Is "Sexting" Pornography?The First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment Film and the First Amendment Social and Political Pressures on the Movies Self-Regulation in the Movie Industry The MPAA Ratings System Expression in the Media: Print, Broadcast, and Online The FCC Regulates Broadcasting Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity The Demise of the Fairness Doctrine Communication Policy and the Internet EXAMINING ETHICS A Generation of Copyright Criminals? The First Amendment and Democracy CHAPTER REVIEW Extended Case Study: Our Digital World and The Self-Invasion of Privacy Step 1: Description Step 2: Analysis Step 3: Interpretation Step 4: Evaluation Step 5: Engagement Notes Glossary Index