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Media Effects Research : A Basic Overview,9780534629175
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Media Effects Research : A Basic Overview

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534629175

ISBN10:
0534629172
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/31/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $120.33
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Summary

Theories and Theoretical Concepts Discussed in the Text. Preface. Acknowledgments. 1. A Scientific Approach to the Study of Media Effects. 2. Scientific Methods in Media Effects Research. 3. A Brief History of Media Effects Research. 4. Time Spent With Mass Media: Reasons and Consequences. 5. Effects of Media Violence. 6. Sexual Content in the Media. 7. Media that Stir Emotions. 8. Persuasive Effects of the Media. 9. The Effects of News and Political Content. 10. The Effects of Media Stereotypes. 11. The Impact of New Media Technologies. 12. Meet Marshall McLuhan: A Less Scientific Approach to Media Impact. Names Index. Subject Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
A Scientific Approach to the Study of Media Effects
1(19)
Ways of Knowing
2(2)
Experience
2(1)
Authority
3(1)
Science
4(1)
Goals of Science
4(4)
Prediction
4(1)
Explanation
5(1)
Understanding
6(1)
Control
6(2)
How Are the Goals of Science Achieved?
8(3)
Theory
8(2)
Falsifiability
10(1)
The Nature of Science
11(6)
Science Is General
12(1)
Science Acknowledges the Existence of Objective Truth
13(2)
Science Assumes a Skeptical Attitude
15(1)
Science Can't Answer Certain Kinds of Questions
16(1)
Summary
17(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
18(1)
Notes
18(2)
Scientific Methods in Media Effects Research
20(23)
Analyzing Media Content
20(5)
What Is Content Analysis?
21(1)
An Example: The Content of Top-Grossing Movies
22(3)
The Sample Survey
25(4)
An Example: The Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents
26(3)
The Search for Causal Relationships
29(6)
Criteria for Causal Relationships
30(5)
The Experimental Method
35(5)
Manipulation of a Key Variable
35(1)
Random Assignment to Experimental Conditions
35(1)
Identical Treatment Except for the Manipulation
36(1)
Control Groups
37(1)
Different Experimental Designs
37(1)
An Example: The Effects of Mood on Music Listening Choice
38(2)
Controversy About Research Methods
40(1)
Another Methodological Approach
40(1)
Summary
41(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
42(1)
Notes
42(1)
A Brief History of Media Effects Research
43(20)
Setting the Stage
44(2)
1898---Congress Declares War on Spain
45(1)
1917---Propaganda in World War I
45(1)
The 1920s---Movies Explode as Mainstream Entertainment
45(1)
1929---1932---The Payne Fund Studies
46(3)
What Was the Content of Movies?
46(1)
The Emotional Impact of Movies
46(1)
Does Watching Movies Affect Behavior?
47(2)
The Aftermath of the Payne Fund Studies
49(1)
The Invasion from Mars
49(2)
The Research at Princeton
50(1)
Early Theory of Media Effects: The Magic Bullet Model
51(1)
The People's Choice Study: The Limited-Effects Model
52(5)
Why Use Control Groups?
52(1)
Media Impact in the 1940 Campaign
53(1)
Experiments on World War II Movies
53(2)
The Limited-Effects Perspective
55(2)
The Evils of Comic Books
57(1)
The Dawn of Television
58(1)
Many Types of Media Effects
58(2)
Summary
60(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
60(1)
Notes
61(2)
Time Spent with Mass Media: Reasons and Consequences
63(18)
The Uses and Gratifications Perspective
64(5)
Why Do Children Watch TV?
64(4)
Uses and Gratifications Among Older Viewers
68(1)
The Problem with Self-Reports
69(1)
Time Spent with Media
70(7)
The Displacement Hypothesis
72(3)
Television Viewing and Obesity
75(2)
Summary
77(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
78(1)
Notes
78(3)
Effects of Media Violence
81(25)
The Presence of Violent Content
83(3)
The Causal Link Between Viewing Violence and Behaving Aggressively
86(7)
The Research of Albert Bandura
86(2)
The Long-Term Studies of Leonard Eron and Rowell Huesmann
88(2)
The Research of Brandon Centerwall
90(1)
The Catharsis Hypothesis
91(1)
A Priming Analysis of the Effect of Media Violence
92(1)
Desensitization to Violence
93(2)
What About Video Games? Are They Training Kids to Kill?
95(6)
An Opinion on Video Games from an Expert on ``Killology''
96(1)
What Does the Research Say?
97(4)
Why Do People Like Media Violence?
101(1)
Concluding Comments
102(1)
Summary
103(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
103(1)
Notes
104(2)
Sexual Content in the Media
106(21)
Human Sexuality Brings Out Passionate Opinion
106(2)
Sorting Out Definitions and Terms
108(1)
The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography
109(4)
Major Finding
109(1)
A Reexamination of the Commission's Findings
110(3)
Research Following the Commission Report
113(3)
Content Available
113(1)
Perceptual Consequences of Viewing
113(1)
Behavioral Consequences of Viewing
114(2)
The Meese Commission Report on Pornography
116(2)
Major Conclusion
116(2)
Sex on Prime-Time TV
118(5)
The Dynamics of Excitation Transfer
118(2)
Content Analyses
120(1)
Sexual Behavior and Viewing
121(2)
Control over Media Content
123(1)
Sex and the Internet
123(1)
Legal Control
123(1)
Social or Economic Control
124(1)
Control Through Education
124(1)
Summary
124(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
125(1)
Notes
125(2)
Media That Stir Emotions
127(21)
Fright Reactions to Media Are Prevalent
128(1)
Developmental Theory: What Scares One Child May Not Scare Another
129(1)
Experimenting with the Incredible Hulk
130(4)
Why Is the Paranormal So Scary?
134(3)
Poltergeist
134(1)
The Nightmare on Elm Street Series
135(1)
The Exorcist
136(1)
Theory About Emotional Coping: What's a Parent to Do?
137(2)
Is It Fun to Be Scared?
139(2)
Frightening Films and Roller-Coaster Rides
139(1)
The Sexual Dynamic in Viewing Frightening Films
140(1)
Beyond Fear: Other Emotional Reactions to Media
141(4)
Empathy: I Feel What You Feel
141(2)
Using Media to Manage Your Mood
143(1)
Does Mediated Emotion Disrupt and Confuse Our Emotional Well-Being?
143(2)
Summary
145(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
146(1)
Notes
146(2)
Persuasive Effects of the Media
148(26)
What Is Persuasion?
148(1)
How Media Messages Persuade Without Even Trying
149(6)
The Theory of Media Cultivation: Cultivating Attitudes Is Attitude Change
151(2)
Do Media Messages About the Paranormal Influence Paranormal Beliefs?
153(2)
Intentional Persuasion in the Media
155(3)
Using Entertainment to Improve Public Health
155(1)
The Great American Values Test
156(1)
How Does an Advertiser Determine Success?
157(1)
Some Evidence for the Effectiveness of Advertising
157(1)
Some Key Principles of Media Persuasion
158(7)
The Power of the Source
159(1)
Message Features: Simplicity and Repetition
160(1)
More Message Features: Fear, Guilt, and Humor
161(2)
The Health Campaign
163(2)
Subliminal Persuasion: The Magic Key?
165(5)
Early History
166(1)
The Presumed Mechanism
167(1)
Two Important Questions
167(2)
The Third-Person Effect
169(1)
Summary
170(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
170(1)
Notes
171(3)
The Effects of News and Political Content
174(18)
Thinking About the News
174(8)
Need for Cognition
175(1)
Political Sophistication
175(1)
Agenda-Setting Theory: A Theory About Thinking
176(2)
The Spiral of Silence
178(1)
How Much of the News Do We Remember?
179(3)
The Role of Emotion
182(4)
Another View of News: Do Certain News Reports Cause More People to Die?
186(3)
Imitative Suicides and the News
187(2)
Summary
189(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
189(1)
Notes
190(2)
The Effects of Media Stereotypes
192(19)
Stereotypical Representations in the Media
192(11)
Sex Role Stereotypes
193(2)
Effects of Sex Role Stereotypes
195(1)
Media Images of Thin Bodies and Effects on Body Image
196(4)
Racial Stereotypes
200(1)
Overrepresentation of African Americans as Lawbreakers
200(3)
The Imbalance in Media Research on Stereotypes
203(2)
An Intriguing and Under-Studied Media Depiction: Faces
205(3)
Summary
208(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
209(1)
Notes
209(2)
The Impact of New Media Technologies
211(14)
The Revolution in New Media Technology
211(2)
Computers and the Internet: Connection or Alienation?
213(10)
The Carnegie Mellon Study
214(2)
Applying the Lessons of History
216(3)
Thinking About New Technology
219(2)
Speculation About New Technology Effects
221(2)
Summary
223(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
223(1)
Notes
224(1)
Meet Marshall Mcluhan: A Less Scientific Approach to Media Impact
225(18)
Is There Any Value to Considering Marshall McLuhan?
225(1)
Meet Marshall McLuhan
226(1)
The Eras of Communication History
227(4)
The Tribal Age
227(1)
Moving from the Tribal Age to the Print Age
228(1)
Moving On to the Current Electronic Age
229(2)
The Medium Is the Message
231(1)
The Effects of Electronic Media on Human Beings
232(7)
Education in the Electronic Age
233(2)
War in the Electronic Age: Not So ``Hot''
235(1)
Politics in the Electronic Age: Was Bill Clinton ``Cooler'' Than George Bush?
236(1)
Did McLuhan's Perspective Predict a Winner Between John Kerry and George W. Bush?
237(1)
Drugs in the Electronic Age
238(1)
McLuhan's Influence
239(1)
Some Final Reflections
240(1)
Summary
240(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
241(1)
Notes
241(1)
Important Sources on Marshall McLuhan
242(1)
Appendix: Theories and Theoretical Concepts Discussed in the Text (By Chapter) 243(2)
Name Index 245(2)
Subject Index 247


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