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The Media of Mass Communication, 2006 Update

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205467013

ISBN10:
0205467016
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This up-to-date, reader-friendly presentation of the mass media helps instructors use the media to teach the media and explore its excitement, complexity, and impact on our lives. Widely praised for his ability to make learning interesting, Vivian excites students as they explore the ever-changing subject of mass communication. This updated edition retains the emphasis on the challenges of today's media while building on its extensive coverage of media history, effects, and culture. The coverage of media literacy, an underlying theme since the first edition, has been enhanced with a new feature. The three part-organizationthe media, media messages, and media issueshas been strengthened by the addition of a totally new chapter on entertainment to balance the coverage of other types of media messages.

Table of Contents

Features xvii
Preface xix
About the Author xxvi
Award for Excellence xxvii
Section 1 The Mass Media
Mass Media
Vignette: Rupert Murdoch
1(1)
Importance of Mass Media
2(3)
Pervasiveness
2(1)
Information Source
3(1)
Entertainment Source
4(1)
Persuasion Forum
4(1)
Binding Influence
4(1)
Primary Mass Media
5(2)
Print Media
5(1)
Electronic Media
6(1)
Chemical Media
6(1)
Mass Media Models
7(3)
Hot-Cool Model
7(1)
Entertainment-Information Model
7(1)
Content-Distribution Model
8(1)
Maturation Model
9(1)
Elitist-Populist Model
10(1)
Economics of Mass Media
10(5)
Economic Foundation
10(5)
Economic Imperative
15(1)
Upside and Downside
15(1)
Media Demassification
15(1)
Technology and Demassification
15(1)
Effects of Demassification
16(1)
Media Conglomeration
16(7)
Media Ownership Consolidation
16(1)
Media Ownership Collaboration
17(2)
Dubious Effects of Conglomeration
19(4)
Positive Effects of Conglomeration
23(1)
Media Melding
23(1)
Digitization
23(1)
Intracorporate Synergy
24(1)
Media Future: Mass Media
24(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
24(1)
Questions for Review
24(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
25(1)
Keeping Up to Date
25(2)
Books
Vignette: J. K. Rowling
27(1)
Books in the Culture
28(3)
Books in Human History
28(2)
Books in National Development
30(1)
Book Categories
31(3)
Trade Books
32(1)
Textbooks
33(1)
Book Publishers
34(3)
Major Houses
34(1)
Book Industry Consolidation
35(1)
Government Printing Office
35(1)
Small Publishers
36(1)
Book Production
36(1)
Book Authors
37(1)
Authoring Process
37(1)
Author-Publisher Relations
37(1)
Book Issues
38(4)
Blockbusters
38(1)
Mass Marketing
39(1)
Book Censorship
40(2)
Evaluating Books
42(2)
Populist Measures
42(2)
Quality Measures
44(1)
Book Trends
44(5)
Paperback Books
44(1)
Book Retailing
45(1)
Electronic Books
46(2)
Books and Media Melding
48(1)
Media Future: Books
49(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
50(1)
Questions for Review
50(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
50(1)
Keeping Up to Date
51(2)
Magazines
Vignette: Bonnie Fuller
53(1)
Influence of Magazines
54(2)
Contributing to Nationhood
54(1)
National Advertising Medium
55(1)
Massive Magazine Audience
55(1)
Magazines as Media Innovators
56(2)
Investigative Reporting
56(1)
Personality Profiles
56(1)
Photojournalism
56(2)
Consumer Magazines
58(5)
Circulation Leaders
58(1)
Newsmagazines
59(1)
Newspaper Supplements
60(1)
Women's Magazines
61(1)
Men's Magazines
62(1)
Comic Books
62(1)
Non-Newsrack Magazines
63(2)
Sponsored Magazines
63(1)
Trade Journals
63(1)
Criticism of Trade Magazines
64(1)
Newsletters
64(1)
Magazine Demassification
65(5)
Heyday of Mass Magazines
65(1)
Assault from Television
65(1)
A Narrower Focus
66(2)
Critics of Demassification
68(1)
New Competition
68(1)
Web Magazines
69(1)
Evaluating Magazines
70(2)
Populist Measures
70(1)
Quality Measures
70(1)
Reader Usage Measure
71(1)
Media Future: Magazines
72(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
73(1)
Questions for Review
73(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
73(1)
Keeping Up to Date
73(2)
Newspapers
Vignette: Mary Junck
75(1)
Importance of Newspapers
76(1)
Newspaper Industry Dimensions
76(1)
Content Diversity and Depth
76(1)
Newspaper Chain Ownership
77(3)
Trend Toward Chains
77(2)
Assessing Chain Ownership
79(1)
National Dailies
80(5)
USA Today
80(1)
Wall Street Journal
81(3)
Christian Science Monitor
84(1)
New York Times
85(3)
Newspaper of Record
85(1)
New York Times Heritage
85(2)
National Edition
87(1)
Hometown Newspapers
88(1)
Metropolitan Dailies
88(1)
Hometown Dailies
89(1)
Challenges for Daily Newspapers
89(3)
Circulation
89(1)
Sunday Editions
90(1)
Advertising
90(1)
Web Transition
91(1)
Clustering
91(1)
Weekly Newspapers
92(1)
Community Weeklies
92(1)
Shoppers
93(1)
Alternative and Minority Newspapers
93(3)
Counterculture Newspapers
93(1)
Gay Newspapers
94(1)
Black Newspapers
94(1)
Foreign-Language Newspapers
95(1)
Evaluating Newspapers
96(2)
Circulation and Penetration
96(1)
Quality Indicators
97(1)
Media Future: Newspapers
98(2)
Chapter Wrap-Up
100(1)
Questions for Review
100(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
100(1)
Keeping Up to Date
101(2)
Recordings
Vignette: Shawn Fanning
103(1)
Recorded Music as a Social Force
104(2)
Rallying Power
104(1)
Leading and Reflecting Change
105(1)
Sound-Recording Technology
106(3)
Mechanical
107(1)
Electrical
108(1)
Digital
108(1)
Recording Industry
109(2)
Industry Scope
109(1)
The Majors
109(1)
Indies
110(1)
Changes in the Music Business
111(3)
Music Demassification
111(1)
Streaming Crisis
112(1)
Steve Jobs and the iPod
112(2)
Evaluating Record Companies
114(1)
Populist Measures
114(1)
Quality Measures
114(1)
Recording Industry Issues
115(2)
Piracy
115(1)
Music-Swapping
116(1)
Airplay
116(1)
Censorship and Recorded Music
117(2)
Objectionable Music
118(1)
Record Labeling
118(1)
Lyrics and Young People
118(1)
Media Future: Recordings
119(2)
Chapter Wrap-Up
121(1)
Questions for Review
121(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
121(1)
Keeping Up to Date
121(2)
Movies
Vignette: Kevin Costner
123(1)
Importance of Movies
124(3)
Overwhelming Experience
124(1)
Hollywood's Cultural Influence
124(3)
Movie Industry
127(4)
Production
127(1)
Exhibition
128(1)
Auxiliary Enterprises
129(2)
Industry Ownership
131(4)
Major Studios
132(2)
Independent Producers
134(1)
Movie Technology
135(1)
Adaptation from Photography
135(1)
Sound
136(1)
Media Rivals
136(5)
Television's Challenge
136(1)
Content Innovation
137(1)
Digital
138(1)
Melding Media
138(3)
Movie Censorship
141(3)
Morality as an Issue
142(1)
Movies and Changing Mores
142(1)
Current Movie Code
142(2)
Evaluating Movies
144(2)
Box Office and Grosses
144(1)
Movie Criticism
145(1)
Media Future: Movies
146(3)
Chapter Wrap-Up
149(1)
Questions for Review
149(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
149(1)
Keeping Up to Date
149(2)
Radio
Vignette: Howard Stern
151(1)
Significance of Radio
152(1)
Radio as a Motivator
152(1)
Ubiquity of Radio
153(1)
Scope of the Radio Industry
153(1)
Technical Development
153(2)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
154(1)
Transmitting Voices
154(1)
Characteristics of U.S. Radio
155(4)
Radio in the Private Sector
155(2)
Role of Advertising
157(1)
Noncommercial Radio
158(1)
Radio as Entertainment
159(3)
Early Mass Programming
159(1)
Formats for Specific Audiences
160(2)
Radio News
162(5)
Pioneer Radio News
162(1)
News Formats
162(2)
Decline of Radio News
164(1)
National Public Radio
164(1)
Talk Radio
164(3)
Radio Networks
167(2)
Four Historic Networks
167(1)
Radio Networks Today
168(1)
Affiliate-Network Relations
169(1)
Broadcasting Regulation
169(7)
Trusteeship Rationale
169(3)
Regulating Networks
172(2)
Broadcast Deregulation
174(1)
Emergency Alerts
174(2)
Quality on the Air
176(1)
Marketplace Values
176(1)
Measuring Quality
176(1)
Media Future: Radio
177(2)
Risk-Free Bland Programming
177(1)
Digital Radio
177(1)
Web Radio
178(1)
Satellite Radio
178(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
179(1)
Questions for Review
179(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
179(1)
Keeping Up to Date
179(2)
Television
Vignette: Jeff Gaspin
181(1)
Impact of Television
182(3)
Cultural Impact
182(1)
Mass Media Shake-Up
183(2)
Technology of Television
185(3)
Electronic Scanning
185(2)
Integrated Standardization
187(1)
High-Definition Television
187(1)
Streaming
187(1)
Structure of U.S. Television
188(3)
Dual National System
188(1)
Affiliate-Network Relations
189(2)
Delivery Systems
191(2)
Over-Air Stations
191(1)
Cable Systems
191(1)
Satellite-Direct
192(1)
Interactive Television
192(1)
Over-Air Networks
193(3)
Big Four Networks
193(2)
Other Networks
195(1)
Cable Television
196(5)
Roots of Cable
196(1)
Gerald Levin and HBO
197(1)
Turner Broadcasting System
197(1)
Growth of Cable
197(3)
Advertising
200(1)
Television Entertainment
201(3)
Early Programming
201(1)
Producing Entertainment Programs
202(1)
Changing Program Standards
203(1)
Ratings System
204(1)
Television News
204(4)
Talking Heads and Newsreels
205(1)
Shift in Network News
206(1)
24-Hour Television News
207(1)
Local News
208(1)
Public Television
208(2)
Corporation for Public Broadcasting
208(1)
Debate over Public Funding
209(1)
Evaluating Television
210(2)
Populist Measures
211(1)
Quality Measures
212(1)
Media Future: Television
212(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
212(1)
Questions for Review
213(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
213(1)
Keeping Up to Date
213(2)
The Web
Vignette: Tim Berners-Lee
215(1)
World Wide Web
216(3)
New Mass Medium
216(1)
The Web in Context
217(1)
Bandwidth Limitations
218(1)
The Internet
219(2)
Information Highway
219(1)
Internet2
220(1)
Online Services
220(1)
Commerce and the Web
221(1)
Advertising-Free Origins
221(1)
Web Commerce
221(1)
Web Advertising
221(1)
Measuring the Web Audience
222(1)
Inconsistent Data
222(1)
Web's Advertising Reach
222(1)
Web Technology
223(3)
Transistors
223(2)
Fiber Optics
225(1)
Nonlinear Communication
226(2)
Vannevar Bush's Memex
226(2)
Hypertext
228(1)
Pre-Hypertext Innovations
228(1)
Hypertext News
229(1)
Hyperfiction
229(1)
Evaluating the Web
229(2)
Accuracy on the Web
230(1)
Strengths of Sites
231(1)
Media Melding
231(3)
Technological Convergence
232(1)
Transition Ahead
233(1)
Government Deregulation
233(1)
Public Policy and the Web
234(3)
Universal Access
234(1)
Global Inequities
235(1)
Privacy and the Web
236(1)
Cyberpornography
236(1)
Media Future: The Web
237(2)
Chapter Wrap-Up
239(1)
Questions for Review
239(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
239(1)
Keeping Up to Date
239(2)
Section 2 Mass Messages
News
Vignette: Christiane Amanpour
241(1)
Journalism Traditions
242(7)
Colonial Period
242(1)
Partisan Period
243(1)
Penny Press Period
244(3)
Yellow Press Period
247(2)
Personal Values in News
249(4)
Role of the Journalist
249(1)
Journalists' Personal Values
250(2)
Journalistic Bias
252(1)
Variables Affecting News
253(2)
News Hole
253(1)
News Flow and News Staffing
254(1)
Perceptions About Audience
254(1)
Availability of Material
255(1)
Competition
255(1)
Influences on News
255(2)
Advertiser Influence
256(1)
Corporate Policy
256(1)
Source Pressure
257(1)
Gatekeeping in News
257(2)
Gatekeepers' Responsibilities
258(1)
Journalism Trends
259(2)
Nonstop Coverage
259(1)
Live News
260(1)
Unedited Blogs
260(1)
Exploratory News
260(1)
Soft News
261(1)
Journalism and War
261(4)
Embedded Reporters
262(1)
Vietnam Reporting
263(1)
Early Lessons
264(1)
Identifying Good Journalism
265(1)
Audience Dimensions
265(1)
Evaluative Criteria
265(1)
Media Future: Journalism
266(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
266(1)
Questions for Review
266(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
267(1)
Keeping Up to Date
267(2)
Public Relations
Vignette: Marc Kasky
269(1)
Importance of Public Relations
270(2)
Defining Public Relations
270(1)
Public Relations in a Democracy
271(1)
Origins of Public Relations
272(5)
Moguls in Trouble
272(1)
The Ideas of Ivy Lee
273(2)
Public Relations on a New Scale
275(1)
Lobbyist-Journalist Balance
276(1)
Structure of Public Relations
277(2)
Policy Role of Public Relations
277(1)
How Public Relations Is Organized
278(1)
Public Relations Agencies
278(1)
Public Relations Services
279(3)
Activities Beyond Publicity
279(2)
Public Relations and Advertising
281(1)
Integrated Marketing
281(1)
Media Relations
282(5)
Open Media Relations
282(1)
Proactive Media Relations
283(2)
Ambivalence in Media Relations
285(1)
Adversarial Public Relations
286(1)
Professionalization
287(3)
A Tarnished Image
287(2)
Standards and Certification
289(1)
Media Future: Public Relations
290(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
290(1)
Questions for Review
290(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
290(1)
Keeping Up to Date
291(2)
Advertising
Vignette: Mary Rich Wells
293(1)
Importance of Advertising
294(1)
Consumer Economies
294(1)
Advertising and Prosperity
294(1)
Advertising and Democracy
295(1)
Origins of Advertising
295(2)
Stepchild of Technology
296(1)
Industrial Revolution
296(1)
Pioneer Agencies
297(1)
Advertising Agencies
297(1)
Agency Structure
297(1)
Agency Compensation
298(1)
Advertiser's Role in Advertising
298(1)
Placing Advertisements
298(3)
Media Plans
299(1)
Media Choices
299(2)
Pitching Messages
301(8)
Importance of Brands
301(3)
Lowest Common Denominator
304(1)
Market Segments
304(1)
Redundancy Techniques
305(1)
Under-the-Radar Advertising
305(3)
Post-Brand-Name Era
308(1)
Research and Psychology
309(2)
Motivational Research
309(1)
Subliminal Advertising
310(1)
Advertising Regulation
311(3)
Media Gatekeeping
311(1)
Industry Self-Regulation
312(1)
Government Regulation
313(1)
Problems and Issues
314(2)
Advertising Clutter
314(1)
Creative Excesses
315(1)
Advertising Effectiveness
315(1)
Media Future: Advertising
316(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
316(1)
Questions for Review
317(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
317(1)
Keeping Up to Date
317(2)
Entertainment
Vignette: Jerry Bruckheimer
319(1)
Entertainment in History
320(1)
Pre-Mass Media Roots
320(1)
Technology-Driven Entertainment
320(1)
Entertainment Genres
321(1)
Storytelling as Media Entertainment
321(1)
Genres of Literature
321(1)
Trends and Fads
322(1)
Music as Media Entertainment
322(2)
American Folk Music
323(1)
Early Rock `n' Roll
323(1)
Music as Multimedia Content
324(1)
Sports as Media Entertainment
324(4)
Mass Audiences for Sports
324(1)
Audience and Advertiser Confluence
325(1)
Sports and the Web
325(3)
Sex as Media Entertainment
328(1)
Adult Content
328(1)
Decency Requirements
328(1)
Sexual Content and Children
329(1)
Media Entertainment and Technology
329(1)
Effect of Technology
329(1)
Portability
330(1)
Evaluating Media Content
330(4)
Media Content as Art
330(1)
Production-Line Entertainment
331(2)
Copycat Content
333(1)
Cross-Media Adaptations
333(1)
Unpretentious Media Content
334(1)
Media Future: Media Entertainment
334(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
335(1)
Questions for Review
335(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
335(1)
Keeping Up to Date
335(2)
Media Research
Vignette: Andy Kohut
337(1)
Public-Opinion Sampling
338(6)
The Surveying Industry
338(1)
Probability Sampling
339(3)
Quota Sampling
342(1)
Evaluating Surveys
342(1)
Latter-Day Straw Polls
343(1)
Measuring Audience Size
344(5)
Newspaper and Magazine Audits
344(1)
Broadcast Ratings
344(2)
Audience Measurement Techniques
346(1)
Web Audience Measures
347(1)
Billboard Measures
347(1)
Criticism of Ratings
347(2)
Measuring Audience Reaction
349(1)
Focus Groups
349(1)
Galvanic Skin Checks
349(1)
Prototype Research
349(1)
Audience Analysis
350(3)
Demographics
350(1)
Cohort Analysis
350(1)
Geodemographics
351(1)
Psychographics
351(2)
Applied and Theoretical Research
353(1)
Media-Sponsored Research
353(1)
Mass Communication Scholarship
354(1)
Media Future: Media Research
354(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
355(1)
Questions for Review
355(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
355(1)
Keeping Up to Date
355(2)
Section 3 Mass Media Issues
Mass Communication
Vignette: Wilbur Schramm
357(1)
Types of Communication
358(2)
Intrapersonal Communication
358(1)
Interpersonal Communication
358(1)
Group Communication
358(1)
Mass Communication
358(2)
Components of Mass Communication
360(1)
Mass Communicators
360(1)
Mass Messages
361(1)
Mass Media
361(1)
Mass Communication
361(1)
Mass Audiences
361(1)
Communication Models
361(3)
Role of Communication Models
362(1)
Basic Model
362(1)
Narrative Model
362(1)
Concentric Circle Model
362(2)
Fundamentals in the Process
364(2)
Stimulation
364(1)
Encoding
365(1)
Transmission
365(1)
Decoding
365(1)
Internalization
365(1)
Players in the Process
366(1)
Gatekeepers
366(1)
Regulators
366(1)
Gatekeeper-Regulator Hybrids
367(1)
Impediments to Communication
367(2)
Noise
367(1)
Filters
368(1)
Results of Mass Communication
369(2)
Amplification
369(1)
Feedback
370(1)
Effects
370(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
371(1)
Questions for Review
371(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
371(1)
Keeping Up to Date
371(2)
Mass Media Effects
Vignette: Orson Welles
373(1)
Effects Studies
374(3)
Powerful Effects Theory
374(1)
Minimalist Effects Theory
375(1)
Cumulative Effects Theory
376(1)
Third-Person Effect
377(1)
Future Theories
377(1)
Uses and Gratifications Studies
377(3)
Challenges to Audience Passivity
378(1)
Surveillance Function
378(1)
Socialization Function
378(1)
Diversion Function
379(1)
Consistency Theory
379(1)
Individual Selectivity
380(1)
Selective Exposure
380(1)
Selective Perception
380(1)
Selection Retention and Recall
380(1)
Socialization
381(4)
Media's Initiating Role
381(1)
Role Models
382(1)
Stereotyping
383(2)
Socialization via Eavesdropping
385(1)
Media-Depicted Violence
385(8)
Learning About Violence
385(1)
Media Violence as Positive
386(1)
Prodding Socially Positive Action
386(1)
Media Violence as Negative
386(1)
Catalytic Theory
387(1)
Societally Debilitating Effects
388(1)
Media Violence and Youth
389(2)
Tolerance of Violence
391(2)
Violence Studies
393(1)
Media Agenda-Setting for Individuals
393(1)
Media Selection of Issues
393(1)
Intramedia Agenda-Setting
394(1)
Media-Induced Anxiety and Apathy
394(2)
Information Anxiety
395(1)
Media-Induced Passivity
396(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
396(1)
Questions for Review
396(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
397(1)
Keeping Up to Date
397(2)
Mass Media and Society
Vignette: Marshall McLuhan
399(1)
Mass Media Role in Culture
400(3)
Elitist Versus Populist Values
400(1)
The Case Against Pop Art
401(1)
Pop Art Revisionism
402(1)
Social Stability
403(5)
Media-Induced Ritual
404(1)
Media and the Status Quo
405(1)
Media and Cognitive Dissonance
406(1)
Agenda-Setting and Status Conferral
407(1)
Media and Morality
407(1)
Cultural Transmission
408(2)
Historical Transmission
408(1)
Contemporary Transmission
409(1)
Mass Media and Fundamental Change
410(1)
Human Alientation
410(1)
Television and the Global Village
410(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
411(1)
Questions for Review
411(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
411(1)
Keeping Up to Date
411(2)
Global Mass Media
Vignette: Charlotte Beers
413(1)
Global Conglomeration
414(2)
Multinational Companies
414(1)
Web and Globalization
415(1)
Effects of Globalization
416(1)
Cultural Subversiveness
416(1)
Corporate Ideology
416(1)
Cultural Intrusion
417(4)
Latter-Day Imperialism
417(1)
Non-Downward Media Exchange
417(2)
Emerging Global Media
419(2)
Insidious Western Influence
421(1)
Transnational Cultural Enrichment
421(1)
Global Media Models
421(4)
Bipolar Model
421(1)
Continuum Model
421(1)
Compass Model
422(1)
Change Model
423(1)
Subsystem Model
424(1)
Global Media Players
425(3)
News Agencies
425(1)
Video News Services
426(1)
Syndicates
427(1)
Global Media Companies
428(1)
U.S.-Based Companies
428(1)
Non-U.S. Companies
428(1)
Media Pressure Points
429(3)
Russia
429(1)
Hong Kong
430(1)
Colombia
430(2)
Media Future: Global Mass Media
432(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
433(1)
Questions for Review
433(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
433(1)
Keeping Up to Date
433(2)
Mass Media and Governance
Vignette: Arnold Schwarzenegger
435(1)
Media Role in Governance
436(3)
Fourth Estate
436(2)
Government-Media Relations
438(1)
Media as Information Sources
439(3)
Direct Versus Indirect
439(1)
Citizen Preferences
440(1)
Lessons from 2004
440(2)
Media Effects on Governance
442(3)
Agenda-Setting
442(1)
CNN Effect
442(1)
Priming
443(1)
Media Obsessions
443(2)
Government Manipulation of Media
445(2)
Influencing Coverage
445(1)
Trial Balloons and Leaks
445(2)
Stonewalling
447(1)
Overwhelming Information
447(1)
Status of the Watchdog
447(5)
Campaign Coverage
447(2)
Federal Coverage
449(2)
State and Local Coverage
451(1)
Media-Government Issues
452(2)
Political Favors
452(1)
Campaign Advertising
453(1)
Free Airtime
454(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
454(1)
Questions for Review
454(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
455(1)
Keeping Up to Date
455(2)
Mass Media Law
Vignette: John Perry Barlow
457(1)
The U.S. Constitution
458(1)
First Amendment
458(1)
Scope of the First Amendment
458(1)
Prior Restraint
459(5)
Public Nuisances
459(1)
Allowable Abridgments
460(3)
Incitement Standard
463(1)
Hate Speech
464(1)
Flag Burning
464(1)
Defamation
464(4)
The Libel Concept
465(1)
Reckless Disregard
465(2)
Comment and Criticism
467(1)
Trespass, Fraud and Libel
468(1)
Privacy Law
468(2)
Intruding on Solitude
469(1)
Harassment
470(1)
Journalism Law
470(2)
Court Coverage
470(1)
Sunshine Laws
471(1)
Confidential Sources
472(1)
Obscenity and Pornography
472(2)
Import Restrictions
473(1)
Postal Restrictions
473(1)
Communications Decency Act
473(1)
Pornography Versus Obscenity
474(1)
Censorship Today
474(1)
Local Censorship
474(1)
Library and School Boards
475(1)
Copyright
475(3)
How Copyright Works
475(1)
Copyright and the Web
476(1)
Music Licensing
477(1)
Piracy
477(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
478(1)
Questions for Review
478(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
479(1)
Keeping Up to Date
479(2)
Ethics and the Mass Media
Vignette: Jayson Blair
481(1)
The Difficulty of Ethics
482(3)
Prescriptive Ethics Codes
482(1)
Conflict in Duties
483(2)
Promoting Self-Interest
485(1)
Media Ethics
485(1)
Media Commitment
485(1)
Audience Expectation
485(1)
Ethics as an Intellectual Process
486(1)
Moral Principles
486(2)
The Golden Mean
486(1)
``Do unto Others,''
487(1)
Categorical Imperatives
487(1)
Utilitarian Ethics
487(1)
Pragmatic Ethics
488(1)
Egalitarian Ethics
488(1)
Social Responsibility Ethics
488(1)
Process Versus Outcome
488(3)
Deontological Ethics
488(2)
Teleological Ethics
490(1)
Situational Ethics
490(1)
Potter's Box
491(1)
Four Quadrants
491(1)
Limitations of Potter's Box
492(1)
Ethics and Other Issues
492(2)
Differentiating Ethics and Law
494(1)
Accepted Practices
494(1)
Prudence and Ethics
494(1)
Unsettled, Unsettling Issues
494(6)
Plagiarism
495(3)
Misrepresentation
498(1)
Gifts, Junkets and Meals
499(1)
Chapter Wrap-Up
500(1)
Questions for Review
500(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
501(1)
Keeping Up to Date
501(1)
Visual Messages
Vignette: Al Diaz
Early Media Illustrations
Engravings
Editorial Cartoons
Comics
Photographic Technology
Invention of Photography
Halftones
Digital Captures
Photography in Mass Communication
Visual Messages
Troublesome Word Medium
Cameras, Films and Techniques
Stopping Motion
Celluloid
Smaller Cameras
Faster Film
Instant Photography
Documentary Photography
Mathew Brady
Frontier Photography
Depression Photography
Persuasive Photography
Illustrating Advertisements
Illustrating a Cause Poignantly
Reality Photography
Newspapers
Magazines
Moving Visuals
Evaluating Visual Messages
Images as Evocative
Recognition of Excellence
Visual Issues
Imitative or Creative
Image Ownership
Image Misrepresentation
Access for Photographers
Intruding
Chapter Wrap-Up
Questions for Review
Questions for Critical Thinking
Media and Political Systems
Vignette: John Twyn
Four Theories Model
Political Systems
Siebert, Peterson and Schramm
Authoritarian Media
Henry VIII
Authoritarian Control
Effectiveness of Controls
Nature of Truth
Communist Media
Marxist Underpinnings
Marxist Notion of Truth
Media Unified with Government
Libertarian Model
Optimism About the Human Mind
Marketplace of Ideas
First Amendment
Libertarians and Religion
Social Responsibility Model
Challenges to Libertarianism
Hutchins Commission
Freedom and Responsibility
Responsibility Versus Profitability
Exceptions to Social Responsibility
Media Future: Political and Media Systems
Chapter Wrap-Up
Questions for Review
Questions for Critical Thinking
Index 502


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