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This essential text surveys the perspectives, methodologies, and theories that geographers use to address the subject of human health and disease. Wide ranging and international in scope, the volume synthesizes knowledge from across the social, physical, and biological sciences.
Melinda S. Meade, a medical geographer, is Professor of Geography at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She is also Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology, a member of the Institute of Environment, and a fellow of the Carolina Population Center. In addition to the first and second editions of Medical Geography, Dr. Meade has published journal articles on the disease ecology of tropical Asia and the United States. She is a member of the Association of American Geographers and other geographic, Asian studies, and population associations.
Michael Emch, a medical geographer, is Associate Professor of Geography at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he directs the Spatial Health Research Group. He is also Adjunct Associate Professor of Epidemiology and a fellow of the Carolina Population Center. Dr. Emch has published journal articles on disease ecology, primarily of infectious diseases of the tropical world. He is a member of the Association of American Geographers and is also an advisory editor for the international journal Social Science and Medicine.
Table of Contents
|Questions of Medical Geography||p. 1|
|What's in a Name?||p. 2|
|A Brief History of Medical Geography||p. 9|
|Definitions and Terminology||p. 17|
|The Challenge of Medical Geography||p. 21|
|Further Reading||p. 24|
|The Human Ecology of Disease||p. 26|
|The Triangle of Human Ecology||p. 30|
|Transmission and Creation of Infectious Disease||p. 44|
|Nutrition and Health||p. 55|
|Further Reading||p. 67|
|Biological Classifications of Importance to Health||p. 68|
|Maps and Geographic Information Systems in Medical Geography||p. 73|
|Cartography of Disease||p. 74|
|Types of Maps: Some Issues||p. 77|
|Geographic Information Systems||p. 83|
|Disease Maps on the Web||p. 91|
|Further Reading||p. 95|
|Landscape Epidemiology||p. 98|
|Transmissible Disease Systems||p. 100|
|The Landscape Epidemiology Approach||p. 110|
|The Cultural Dimension of Water-Based Disease Transmission||p. 116|
|The Cultural Ecology of Tick-Borne and Other Transmissible Diseases||p. 131|
|Ecological Complications||p. 138|
|Further Reading||p. 143|
|Field Mapping for Landscape Epidemiology||p. 145|
|Transitions and Development||p. 149|
|Ecologies of Population Change: Multiple Transitions||p. 150|
|Major Impacts of Population Change||p. 162|
|Nutrition in Transition||p. 165|
|The Mobility Transition and Time-Space Geography||p. 168|
|Disease Ecologies of the Agricultural Frontier||p. 173|
|Other Development Impacts on Rural Ecologies||p. 180|
|World Urbanization and Changing Disease Ecologies||p. 184|
|Globalization of Movements||p. 192|
|Conclusion: Emerging Diseases in Your Future||p. 195|
|Further Reading||p. 199|
|Age Standardization||p. 201|
|Microspatial Exposure Analysis||p. 204|
|Climate and Weather: Influences on Health||p. 207|
|Direct Biometeorological Influences||p. 209|
|The Influences of the Weather||p. 215|
|Seasonality of Death and Birth||p. 221|
|How Climate Change Is Likely to Affect Health and Disease||p. 227|
|Further Reading||p. 236|
|Monthly Indexes||p. 236|
|Seasonality of Birth||p. 238|
|Physical Zonation of Climates and Biomes||p. 244|
|The Pollution Syndrome||p. 247|
|Toxic Hazards of Natural and Economic Origins||p. 248|
|Outdoor Air Pollution||p. 249|
|Indoor Air Pollution||p. 259|
|Water Pollution||p. 260|
|Radioactive Pollution||p. 265|
|Risk Assessment and Prevention||p. 271|
|Globalization and the Perception of Health Hazards||p. 272|
|The Geometry of Hazards, Power, and Policy||p. 274|
|Further Reading||p. 279|
|Political Ecology of Noncommunicable Diseases||p. 281|
|The Dimension of Mortality||p. 283|
|The Poverty Syndrome||p. 288|
|Race in the Study of Health Risks||p. 292|
|Gender: Women's Health||p. 294|
|Causal Reasoning and Epidemiological Design||p. 300|
|Disease Ecology: Cancer||p. 304|
|Disease Ecology: Cardiovascular Disease||p. 314|
|Unknown Etiology and Other Questions||p. 325|
|The Precautionary Principle and Some Political Ecology of Research||p. 329|
|Further Reading||p. 337|
|Neighborhoods and Health||p. 339|
|The Concept of Neighborhood Health||p. 339|
|Neighborhood Definition and Units||p. 341|
|Analyzing Neighborhood Effects on Health||p. 345|
|Effects of the Built Environment on Health||p. 346|
|The Challenges of Neighborhood Health Studies||p. 347|
|Further Reading||p. 350|
|Disease Diffusion in Space||p. 351|
|Disease Diffusion||p. 358|
|Modeling Disease Diffusion||p. 359|
|Geographic Approaches to the Pandemic of AIDS||p. 380|
|Other Epidemics||p. 398|
|Further Reading||p. 401|
|Diffusion Waves or Stochastic Simulation of Individual Contact?||p. 403|
|Health Care and Promotion||p. 407|
|Asclepius: Provision of Medical Care||p. 409|
|Asclepius Unrobed: Cultural Alternatives and Perceptions||p. 431|
|Hygeia: Health Promotion||p. 442|
|Further Reading||p. 447|
|Application of Spatial Statistics to Health Care Delivery||p. 448|
|Scale, Spatial Analysis, and Geographic Visualization||p. 453|
|Some Issues of Scale||p. 454|
|The Ecological Fallacy||p. 454|
|Scale of Analysis and Units of Observation||p. 455|
|Sources for Spatial Disease Data||p. 458|
|Visualizing and Summarizing Disease Distributions||p. 459|
|Spatial Analysis||p. 463|
|Spatial Statistics||p. 466|
|Further Reading||p. 469|
|Chi-Square Statistical Test||p. 471|
|Regression Analysis||p. 474|
|Spatial Autocorrelation||p. 479|
|Concluding Words||p. 483|
|About the Authors||p. 498|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|