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# Medical Mathematics and Dosage Calculations for Veterinary Professionals

**by**Bill, Robert

2nd

### 9780813823638

0813823633

Paperback

8/11/2009

Wiley-Blackwell

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## Summary

Medical Mathematics and Dosage Calculations for Veterinary Professionals, Second Edition, is an updated and revised version of the essential pocket-size reference for using math in the veterinary setting. Covering a range of topics from math fundamentals to drug prescription and dosing information, the book provides step-by-step instructions for calculating dosages, drip rates, concentrations, and other drug administration information. Medical Mathematics and Dosage Calculations for Veterinary Professionals is a useful guide for veterinary health care professionals, veterinary students, and veterinary technicians.

## Author Biography

**Robert Louis (Pete) Bill**, DVM, is Director of Veterinary Technology and Professor of Veterinary Pharmacology at Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine.

## Table of Contents

Acknowledgments | |

Self-Assessment | |

Self-Assessment Exercise | |

Self-Assessment Exercise Answers | |

Review of Decimal Numbers in Medical Math | |

The Basics of Decimal Numbers | |

Relative Values | |

Reading Decimal Numbers Aloud | |

The Rules for the Use of Zero in Decimal Numbers | |

Comparing Decimals - Determining Which Number Is Larger at a Glance | |

Scientific Notation for Decimal Numbers | |

Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Numbers | |

Tips for Adding and Subtracting Decimals | |

Multiplication of Decimal Numbers | |

Division of Decimal Numbers | |

Rounding of Decimal Numbers | |

Fractions as they Apply to Medical Math | |

Fraction Basics and Simplifying Fractions | |

Numerators and Denominators | |

The Larger the Denominator, the Smaller the Piece (and the Smaller the Number Value) | |

Improper Fractions, Proper Fractions, and Mixed Numbers | |

Understanding and Using Equivalent Fractions | |

Simplifying or Reducing Fractions | |

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions | |

Adding Fractions | |

Finding the Common Denominator for More Complex Fractions | |

Subtraction of Fractions | |

Addition of Mixed Numbers | |

Subtraction of Mixed Numbers | |

Multiplication of Fractions | |

Multiplication of Improper Fractions | |

Multiplication of Whole Numbers and Fractions | |

Multiplication of Mixed Numbers | |

A Shortcut for Multiplying Fractions | |

Division of Fractions | |

The Reciprocal: What Is It and How Do We Use It? | |

Division of Fractions | |

Division of Mixed Numbers | |

Conversion of Fractions to Decimals | |

Conversion of Decimals to Fractions | |

Rounding Decimal Fractions and Fractions | |

Percentages | |

Definition and Use of Percentages | |

Conversion of Percentages to Fractions | |

Conversion of Percentages to Decimal Numbers | |

Conversion of Fractions to Percentages | |

Using Percentages to Solve Problems | |

Finding the Percentage of a Whole | |

Subtracting or Adding the Percentage of the Whole | |

Determining Percentages Represented by the Fractional Component | |

Solving For the Unknown Value X | |

Finding the Value of the Unknown X in Addition and Subtraction Problems | |

Analyzing the Problem and Setting Up the Equation | |

Moving the Values from One Side of the Equation to the Other | |

Moving Negative Numbers or a Negative Unknown X Used in a Subtraction Problem | |

Finding the Value of the Unknown X in Multiplication and Division Problems | |

Finding the Unknown X in a Multiplication Problem | |

Multiplication Problems Using Fractions and Mixed Numbers | |

What to Do When the Unknown X Is in the Denominator in the Problem | |

Finding the Unknown X in a Division Problem | |

Unknown X Problems Involving Division of Fractions | |

Dosage Calculation and Measurements Used in Veterinary Medicine | |

Different Units, Same Measurements | |

Metric Units | |

The Basic Units of the Metric System | |

Metric Units of Weight or Mass | |

Metric Units of Volume | |

Metric Units of Length | |

Combination of Metric Units to Describe Density or Concentrations | |

Household, Apothecary, and Avoirdupois Units (Nonmetric Units) Commonly Used in Veterinary Medicine | |

Common Units | |

Conversions between Common Household Measurements | |

Converting Between Metric and Nonmetric Measurements Commonly Used in Veterinary Medicine | |

The Common Equivalents | |

Setting Up a Problem to Convert from One Unit to Another | |

Using the Proportion Method | |

The Cancel-Out Method | |

Estimating the Answer: Does Your Answer Make Sense? | |

Understanding Drug Orders and Drug Labels | |

The Dosage Regimen | |

The Dose, Dosage, and Dose Range | |

The Route of Administration | |

The Dose Interval | |

The Dose Form | |

Best Practices for Writing Drug Orders | |

Handling Unclear Drug Orders | |

Drug Labels | |

The Drug Name | |

Concentration of Drug in the Dose Form | |

Dose Formulation and Number of Dose Form Units | |

Approved Use for the Drug | |

Controlled Substances and Prescription Labeling | |

United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and National Formulary (NF) Label Designations | |

Hazard Warnings on the Label | |

Storage Information on the Label | |

Expiration Dates | |

Dose Calculation and Syringe Measurements | |

Performing the Basic Dose Calculation | |

Converting the Animal's Weight into the Units Needed to Calculate the Dose | |

Types of Dosages Listed | |

Putting It All Together - Determining the Dose for the Patient | |

Proportion Method (Liquid) | |

Cancel-Out Method (Liquid) | |

Proportion Method (Tablets) | |

Cancel-Out Method (Tablets) | |

What to Do When Tablet Doses Don't Come Out Even | |

Dispensing Multiple Units of Drug Form | |

Proportion Method | |

Cancel-Out Method | |

Here Is the Most Common Mistake Students Make When Calculating Total Tablets Dispensed | |

Dosing With the Syringe | |

Types of Syringes Used in Veterinary Medicine | |

Syringe Units of Measurement | |

Measuring the Amount of Liquid in a Syringe | |

Calculating Intravenous Infusions | |

Intravenous Infusion of Medication | |

Types of IV Administration Sets Used in Veterinary Medicine | |

Determining the Fluid Rate Delivered through an IV Administration Set | |

Setting the Flow Rate Using the Drip Chamber Rate | |

Determining the Total Volume Delivered over Time | |

Practice Problems | |

Calculating Infusion Rates When Adding Drugs to IV Fluids | |

Practice Problems | |

Calculating Common Fluid Rates Used in Veterinary Medicine | |

Converting Total Infusion Time to the 12- and 24-Hour Clock Stop Time | |

Ratios, Proportions, Dilutions, and Other Calculations Used by Veterinary Professionals | |

Ratios and Proportions - Some Additional Points | |

Dilutions | |

Making Serial Dilutions | |

Diluting for Specific Solutions with Specific Volumes | |

Compounding to Create Percentage Solutions | |

Diluting Percentage Solutions | |

Converting Temperature Values From Fahrenheit to Celsius | |

Roman Numeral Nomenclature | |

Writing Roman Numerals | |

Reading Roman Numerals | |

Index | |

Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved. |