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Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease,9780781742320

Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780781742320

ISBN10:
0781742323
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/17/2005
Publisher(s):
Lippincott Willams & Wilkins
List Price: $46.95
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Summary

This widely read classic is an excellent primer on normal anatomy and physiology, basic microbiology, chemistry, and an introduction to the human disease process. New to this edition is a beautifully revised design and art program with new illustrations that include anatomical line drawings and clinical photos and photomicrographs. New content includes "Word Derivations" sections that promote recognition of scientific terms, "Health Professions" boxes that provide information on the various health careers, and new types of end-of chapter questions. A back-of-book CD-ROM for students with an image atlas and audio pronunciation glossary is included. Online courses for use with WebCT and Blackboard are available. LiveAdvise online student tutoring and faculty support come as a bonus with every text. Please visit http://connection.lww.com/liveadvise for more information.

Table of Contents

Unit I THE BODY AS A WHOLE
1(74)
Organization of the Human Body
3(16)
Studies of the Human Body
4(1)
Levels of Organization
4(1)
Body Systems
4(1)
Metabolism and Its Regulation
5(3)
Homeostasis
6(2)
The Effects of Aging
8(1)
Directions in the Body
8(3)
Directional Terms
8(1)
Planes of Division
8(3)
Body Cavities
11(2)
Dorsal Cavity
11(1)
Ventral Cavity
11(2)
The Metric System
13(6)
Units of Length
13(1)
Units of Weight
13(1)
Units of Volume
13(1)
Temperature
13(6)
Chemistry, Matter, and Life
19(15)
Elements
20(1)
Atoms
20(1)
Molecules and Compounds
21(2)
The Importance of Water
21(1)
Mixtures: Solutions and Suspensions
21(2)
Chemical Bonds
23(2)
Ionic Bonds
23(1)
Covalent Bonds
24(1)
Compounds: Acids, Bases and Salts
25(1)
The pH Scale
25(1)
Buffers
26(1)
Isotopes and Radioactivity
26(1)
Use of Radioactive Isotopes
26(1)
Chemistry of Living Matter
27(7)
Organic Compounds
27(7)
Cells and Their Functions
34(22)
The Role of Cells
36(1)
Microscopes
37(1)
Cell Structure
37(4)
Plasma Membrane
37(1)
The Nucleus
38(1)
The Cytoplasm
39(2)
Surface Organelles
41(1)
Cellular Diversity
41(1)
Protein Synthesis
41(4)
Nucleic acids---DNA and RNA
41(4)
Cell Division
45(1)
Stages of Mitosis
45(1)
Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane
46(5)
Movement That Does Not Require Cellular Energy
47(1)
Movement That Requires Cellular Energy
48(1)
How Osmosis Affects Cells
49(2)
Cell Aging
51(1)
Cells and Cancer
51(5)
Cancer Risk Factors
52(4)
Tissues, Glands, and Membranes
56(19)
Tissue Classification
58(1)
Epithelial Tissue
58(2)
Structure of Epithelial Tissue
58(1)
Special Functions of Epithelial Tissue
59(1)
Glands
59(1)
Connective Tissue
60(2)
Soft Connective Tissue
60(1)
Fibrous Connective Tissue
61(1)
Hard Connective Tissue
61(1)
Muscle Tissue
62(2)
Nervous Tissue
64(1)
The Neuron
64(1)
Neuroglia
64(1)
Membranes
65(2)
Epithelial Membranes
65(2)
Connective Tissue Membranes
67(1)
Membranes and Disease
67(1)
Benign and Malignant Tumors
67(3)
Benign Tumors
67(1)
Malignant Tumors
68(1)
Symptoms of Cancer
69(1)
Diagnosis of Cancer
69(1)
Treatment of Cancer
70(1)
Tissues and Aging
71(4)
Unit II DISEASE AND THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE
75(44)
Disease and Disease-Producing Organisms
76(24)
Categories of Disease
78(1)
Predisposing Causes of Disease
78(1)
The Study of Disease
79(1)
Disease Terminology
79(1)
Treatment and Prevention of Disease
80(1)
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
80(1)
Prevention of Disease
80(1)
Infectious Disease
80(2)
Modes of Transmission
81(1)
Microbiology---The Study of Microorganisms
82(5)
Normal Flora
83(1)
Bacteria
83(2)
Viruses
85(1)
Fungi
86(1)
Protozoa
87(1)
Parasitic Worms
87(2)
Round worms
87(2)
Flatworms
89(1)
Microbial Control
89(4)
Microbes and Public Health
90(1)
Aseptic Methods
91(1)
Infection Control Techniques
92(1)
Antimicrobial Agents
92(1)
Laboratory Identification of Pathogens
93(7)
Bacterial Isolations and Tests
93(1)
Staining Techniques
93(1)
Other Methods of Identification
94(6)
The Skin in Health and Disease
100(19)
Structure of the Skin
102(2)
Epidermis
102(1)
Dermis
103(1)
Subcutaneous Layer
103(1)
Accessory Structures of the Skin
104(2)
Sebaceous (Oil) Glands
104(1)
Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands
104(1)
Hair
105(1)
Nails
105(1)
Functions of the Skin
106(1)
Protection Against Infection
106(1)
Protection Against Dehydration
106(1)
Regulation of Body Temperature
106(1)
Collection of Sensory Information
106(1)
Other Activities of the Skin
107(1)
Observation of the Skin
107(4)
Color
107(1)
Lesions
108(1)
Burns
109(2)
Tissue Repair
111(1)
Effects of Aging on the Integumentary System
111(1)
Care of the Skin
111(1)
Skin Disorders
111(8)
Dermatitis
112(1)
Psoriasis
112(1)
Cancer
112(1)
Acne and Other Skin Infections
113(1)
Alopecia (Baldness)
114(1)
Allergy and Other Immul14ne Disorders
114(1)
Pressure Ulcers
114(5)
Unit III MOVEMENT AND SUPPORT
119(58)
The Skeleton: Bones and Joints
120(31)
Bones
122(3)
Bone Structure
122(2)
Bone Growth and Repair
124(1)
Bone Markings
125(1)
Bones of the Axial Skeleton
125(7)
Framework of the Skull
126(1)
Framework of the Trunk
127(5)
Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton
132(6)
The Upper Division of the Appendicular Skeleton
132(3)
The Lower Division of the Appendicular Skeleton
135(3)
Disorders of Bone
138(3)
Metabolic Disorders
138(1)
Tumors
139(1)
Infection
139(1)
Structural Disorders
139(1)
Fractures
140(1)
Skeletal Changes in the Aging
140(1)
The Joints
141(10)
More About Synovial Joints
141(2)
Disorders of Joints
143(8)
The Muscular System
151(26)
Types of Muscle
152(1)
Smooth Muscle
152(1)
Cardiac Muscle
152(1)
Skeletal Muscle
152(1)
The Muscular System
153(6)
Structure of a Muscle
153(1)
Muscle Cells in Action
154(3)
Energy Sources
157(1)
Effects of Exercise
158(1)
Types of Muscle Contractions
159(1)
The Mechanics of Muscle Movement
159(1)
Muscles Work Together
160(1)
Levers and Body Mechanics
160(1)
Skeletal Muscle Groups
160(10)
Muscles of the Head
161(2)
Muscles of the Neck
163(1)
Muscles of the Upper Extremities
164(1)
Muscles of the Trunk
165(2)
Muscles of the Lower Extremities
167(3)
Effects of Aging on Muscles
170(1)
Muscular Disorders
170(7)
Diseases of Muscles
171(1)
Disorders of Associated Structures
171(6)
Unit IV COORDINATION AND CONTROL
177(84)
The Nervous System: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
178(22)
Role of the Nervous System
180(1)
Structural Divisions
180(1)
Functional Divisions
180(1)
Neurons and Their Functions
181(2)
Structure of a Neuron
181(1)
Types of Neurons
182(1)
Nerves and Tracts
182(1)
Neuroglia
183(1)
The Nervous System at Work
184(2)
The Nerve Impulse
184(1)
The Synapse
185(1)
The Spinal Cord
186(5)
Structure of the Spinal Cord
187(1)
The Reflex Arc
188(2)
Medical Procedures Involving the Spinal Cord
190(1)
Diseases and Other Disorders of the Spinal Cord
190(1)
The Spinal Nerves
191(9)
Branches of the Spinal Nerves
191(1)
Disorders of the Spinal Nerves
192(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
193(1)
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
193(2)
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System
195(5)
The Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
200(22)
The Brain
202(1)
Protective Structures of the Brain and Spinal Cord
202(3)
Cerebrospinal Fluid
205(1)
The Cerebral Hemispheres
205(5)
Functions of the Cerebral Cortex
207(1)
Communication Areas
208(1)
Memory and the Learning Process
209(1)
The Diencephalon
210(1)
The Limbic System
210(1)
The Brain Stem
210(1)
The Midbrain
210(1)
The Pons
210(1)
The Medulla Oblongata
210(1)
The Cerebellum
211(1)
Brain Studies
212(1)
The Electroencephalograph
212(1)
Disorders of the Brain and Associated Structures
213(3)
Hydrocephalus
213(1)
Stroke and Other Brain Disorders
214(1)
Injury
214(2)
Degenerative Diseases
216(1)
Cranial Nerves
216(3)
Names and Functions of the Cranial Nerves
217(1)
Disorders Involving the Cranial Nerves
218(1)
Aging of the Nervous System
219(3)
The Sensory System
222(22)
The Senses
224(1)
Sensory Receptors
224(1)
Special and General Senses
224(1)
The Eye and Vision
224(7)
Coats of the Eyeball
225(1)
Pathway of Light Rays and Refraction
225(1)
Function of the Retina
226(1)
Muscles of the Eye
227(2)
Nerve Supply to the Eye
229(1)
Errors of Refraction and Other Eye Disorders
230(1)
The Ear
231(6)
The Outer Ear
232(1)
The Middle Ear and Ossicles
233(1)
The Inner Ear
233(2)
Otitis and Other Disorders of the Ear
235(2)
Other Special Sense Organs
237(1)
Sense of Taste
237(1)
Sense of Smell
237(1)
The General Senses
238(2)
Sense of Touch
238(1)
Sense of Pressure
238(1)
Sense of Temperature
239(1)
Sense of Position
239(1)
Sense of Pain
239(1)
Sensory Adaptation
240(4)
The Endocrine System: Glands and Hormones
244(17)
Hormones
246(1)
Hormone Chemistry
246(1)
Hormone Regulation
246(1)
The Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
247(8)
The Pituitary
247(4)
The Thyroid Gland
251(1)
The Parathyroid Glands
252(1)
The Adrenal Glands
253(1)
The Pancreas and Its Hormones
254(1)
The Sex Glands
255(1)
The Thymus Gland
255(1)
The Pineal Gland
255(1)
Other Hormone-Producing Tissues
255(1)
Prostaglandins
256(1)
Hormones and Treatment
256(1)
Hormones and Stress
257(1)
Aging and the Endocrine System
258(3)
Unit V CIRCULATION AND BODY DEFENSE
261(100)
The Blood
262(20)
Functions of the Blood
264(1)
Transportation
264(1)
Regulation
264(1)
Protection
264(1)
Blood Constituents
264(1)
Blood Plasma
264(1)
The Formed Elements
265(4)
Hemostasis
269(1)
Blood Clotting
270(1)
Blood Types
270(2)
The ABO Blood Type Group
270(1)
The Rh Factor
271(1)
Uses of Blood and Blood Components
272(1)
Whole Blood Transfusions
272(1)
Use of Blood Components
272(1)
Blood Disorders
273(2)
Anemia
273(1)
Leukemia
274(1)
Clotting Disorders
275(1)
Blood Studies
275(7)
The Hematocrit
275(1)
Hemoglobin Tests
276(1)
Blood Cell Counts
276(1)
The Blood Slide (Smear)
276(1)
Blood Chemistry Tests
277(1)
Coagulation Studies
277(1)
Bone Marrow Biopsy
277(5)
The Heart and Heart Disease
282(24)
Circulation and the Heart
284(1)
Location of the heart
284(1)
Structure of the Heart
284(6)
The Pericardium
284(2)
Special Features of the Myocardium
286(1)
Divisions of the Heart
286(4)
Blood Supply to the Myocardium
290(1)
Function of the Heart
290(4)
Cardiac Output
291(2)
The Heart's Conduction System
293(1)
Control of the Heart Rate
293(1)
Heart Sounds
293(1)
Heart Disease
294(4)
Classifications of Heart Disease
294(1)
Congenital Heart Disease
295(1)
Rheumatic Heart Disease
296(1)
Coronary Artery Disease
296(2)
Heart Failure
298(1)
The Heart in the Elderly
298(1)
Prevention of Heart Disease
298(1)
Heart Studies
299(1)
Treatment of Heart Disease
299(7)
Medications
299(1)
Correction of Arrhythmias
300(1)
Heart Surgery
300(6)
Blood Vessels and Blood Circulation
306(24)
Blood Vessels
308(2)
Blood Circuits
308(1)
Vessel Structure
309(1)
Systemic Arteries
310(4)
The Aorta and Its Parts
310(2)
The Iliac Arteries and Their Subdivisions
312(1)
Arteries That Branch to the Arm and Head
313(1)
Anastomoses
313(1)
Systemic Veins
314(3)
The Venae Cavae and Their Tributaries
314(2)
Venous Sinuses
316(1)
The Hepatic Portal System
316(1)
The Physiology of Circulation
317(6)
Capillary Exchange
317(1)
The Dynamics of Blood Flow
318(1)
The Pulse
319(1)
Blood Pressure
320(3)
Arterial Degeneration and Other Blood Vessels Disorders
323(7)
Hemorrhage
324(1)
Shock
325(1)
Thrombosis
325(1)
Varicose Veins
326(4)
The Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Tissue
330(14)
The Lymphatic System
332(1)
Functions of the Lymphatic System
332(1)
Lymphatic Circulation
332(3)
Lymphatic Capillaries
333(1)
Lymphatic Vessels
333(2)
Movement of Lymph
335(1)
Lymphoid Tissue
335(4)
Lymph Nodes
335(1)
The Spleen
336(1)
The Thymus
337(1)
The Tonsils
338(1)
Other Lymphoid Tissue
338(1)
The Reticuloendothelial System
339(1)
Disorders of the Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Tissue
339(5)
Lymphedema
339(1)
Lymphadenopathy
339(1)
Splenomegaly
339(1)
Lymphoma
340(4)
Body Defenses, Immunity, and Vaccines
344(17)
Why Do Infections Occur?
346(1)
Nonspecific Defenses
346(1)
Chemical and Mechanical Barriers
346(1)
Phagocytosis
346(1)
Natural Killer Cells
347(1)
Inflammation
347(1)
Fever
347(1)
Interferon
347(1)
Immunity
347(8)
Inborn Immunity
348(1)
Acquired Immunity
348(2)
The Antigen-Antibody Reaction
350(1)
Naturally Acquired Immunity
351(1)
Artificially Acquired Immunity
351(4)
Disorders of the Immune System
355(1)
Allergy
355(1)
Autoimmunity
355(1)
Immune Deficiency Diseases
355(1)
Multiple Myeloma
356(1)
The Immune System and Cancer
356(1)
Transplantation and the Rejection Syndrome
357(4)
Unit VI ENERGY: SUPPLY AND USE
361
Respiration
362(22)
Phases of Respiration
364(5)
The Nasal Cavities
365(1)
The Pharynx
366(1)
The Larynx
366(1)
The Trachea
367(1)
The Bronchi
367(1)
The Lungs
367(2)
The Process of Respiration
369(6)
Pulmonary Ventilation
369(1)
Gas Exchange
370(2)
Transport of Oxygen
372(1)
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
372(1)
Regulation of Respiration
373(1)
Abnormal Ventilation
373(1)
Breathing Patterns
374(1)
Disorders of the Respiratory System
375(4)
Disorders of the Nasal Cavities and Related Structures
375(1)
Infection
375(2)
Hay Fever and Asthma
377(1)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
377(1)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
377(1)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
378(1)
Cancer
378(1)
Disorders Involving the Pleura
378(1)
Age and the Respiratory Tract
379(1)
Special Equipment for Respiratory Treatment
380(4)
Digestion
384(22)
Function and Design of the Digestive System
386(2)
The Wall of the Digestive Tract
386(1)
The Peritoneum
387(1)
Organs of the Digestive Tract
388(5)
The Mouth
388(1)
The Teeth
388(1)
The Pharynx
389(1)
The Esophagus
390(1)
The Stomach
390(1)
The Small Intestine
391(1)
The Large Intestine
391(2)
The Accessory Organs
393(1)
The Salivary Glands
393(1)
The Liver
394(1)
The Gallbladder
394(1)
The Pancreas
394(1)
Enzymes and the Digestive Process
394(2)
The Role of Water
395(1)
Digestion, Step-by-Step
395(1)
Absorption
396(1)
Absorption of Fats
396(1)
Absorption of Vitamins and Minerals
396(1)
Control of Digestion
396(2)
Hunger and Appetite
397(1)
Eating Disorders
397(1)
Disorders of the Digestive System
398(4)
Peritonitis
398(1)
Diseases of the Mouth and Teeth
398(1)
Disorders of the Esophagus and Stomach
398(1)
Intestinal Disorders
399(2)
Infection of the Salivary Glands
401(1)
Cirrhosis and Other Liver Diseases
401(1)
Gallstones
402(1)
Panereatitis
402(1)
Aging and the Digestive System
402(4)
Metabolism, Nutrition, and Body Temperature
406(16)
Metabolism
408(3)
Cellular Respiration
408(1)
The Use of Nutrients for Energy
409(1)
Anabolism
410(1)
Minerals and Vitamins
410(1)
Nutritional Guidelines
411(3)
Carbohydrates
411(2)
Fats
413(1)
Proteins
413(1)
Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
413(1)
The Food Guide Pyramid
414(1)
Alcohol
414(1)
Nutritional Disorders
414(1)
Food Allergies
414(1)
Malnutrition
415(1)
Overweight and Obesity
415(1)
Underweight
415(1)
Nutrition and Aging
415(1)
Body Temperature
416(6)
Heat Production
416(1)
Heat Loss
416(1)
Temperature Regulation
417(1)
Fever
417(1)
Responses to Excessive Heat
418(1)
Responses to Excessive Cold
418(4)
Body Fluids
422(10)
The Importance of Water
424(1)
Fluid Compartments
424(1)
Water Balance
425(1)
Sense of Thirst
425(1)
Electrolytes and Their Functions
425(1)
Electrolyte Balance
426(1)
Acid-Base Balance
426(2)
Regulation of pH
426(1)
Abnormal pH
427(1)
Disorders of Body Fluids
428(1)
Fluid Therapy
428(4)
The Urinary System
432(22)
Excretion
434(1)
Organs of the Urinary System
434(1)
The Kidneys
435(6)
Blood Supply to the Kidney
435(1)
Structure of the Kidney
435(1)
Functions of the Kidney
436(1)
Formation of Urine
437(4)
The Ureters
441(1)
The Urinary Bladder
441(1)
The Urethra
442(1)
Urination
442(1)
The Urine
442(1)
Normal Constituents
442(1)
Abnormal Constituents
442(1)
Disorders of the Urinary System
443(5)
Kidney Disorders
443(2)
Disorders of the Ureters
445(1)
Disorders of the Bladder
446(1)
Disorders of the Urethra
447(1)
The Effects of Aging
448(6)
Unit VII PERPETUATION OF LIFE
The Male and Female Reproductive Systems
454(22)
Reproduction
456(1)
Meiosis
457(1)
The Male Reproductive System
457(2)
The Testes
457(1)
Accessory Organs
458(1)
Semen
458(1)
The Urethra and Penis
459(1)
Hormonal Control of Male Reproduction
459(1)
The Effects of Aging on Male Reproduction
460(1)
Disorders of the Male Reproductive System
460(2)
Structural Disorders
460(1)
Infections
461(1)
Tumors
462(1)
The Female Reproductive System
462(4)
The Ovaries
462(1)
The Ova and Ovulation
462(2)
Accessory Organs
464(2)
The Menstrual Cycle
466(1)
Beginning of the Cycle
466(1)
Ovulation
466(1)
The Menstrual Phase
467(1)
Menopause
467(1)
Hormone Replacement Therapy
467(1)
Birth Control
467(2)
Disorders of the Female Reproductive System
469(7)
Menstrual Disorders
469(1)
Benign and Malignant Tumors
469(1)
Infections
470(1)
Infertility
471(5)
Development and Birth
476(16)
Pregnancy
478(6)
Fertilization and the Start of Pregnancy
478(1)
The Placenta
478(4)
Development of the Embryo
482(1)
The Fetus
482(1)
The Mother
483(1)
Childbirth
484(2)
The Four Stages of Labor
484(1)
Cesarean Section
484(1)
Multiple Births
485(1)
Termination of Pregnancy
485(1)
The Mammary Glands and Lactation
486(1)
Disorders of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Lactation
486(6)
Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension
487(1)
Postpartum Disorders
487(1)
Lactation Disturbances
487(5)
Heredity and Hereditary Diseases
492
Genes and Chromosomes
494(2)
Dominant and Recessive Genes
494(1)
Distribution of Chromosomes to Offspring
495(1)
Sex Determination
495(1)
Sex-Linked Traits
496(1)
Hereditary Traits
496(1)
Gene Expression
496(1)
Genetic Mutation
496(1)
Genetic Diseases
497(3)
Congenital Versus Hereditary Diseases
497(1)
Examples of Genetic Diseases
498(2)
Treatment and Prevention of Genetic Diseases
500
Genetic Counseling
500(2)
Progress in Medical Treatment
502
Glossary
1(18)
Glossary of Word Parts
19
Appendices
1(1)
Appendix 1 Metric measurements
1(1)
Appendix 2 Celsius-Fahrenheit temperature conversion scale
2(1)
Appendix 3 Periodic table of the elements
3(1)
Appendix 4 Laboratory tests
4(4)
Table 1, Routine urinalysis
4(1)
Table 2, Complete blood count
5(1)
Table 3, Blood chemistry tests
6(2)
Appendix 5 Infectious diseases and their causative conditions
8(5)
Table 1, Bacterial diseases
8(2)
Table 2, Viral diseases
10(1)
Table 3, Prion diseases
11(1)
Table 4, Fungal diseases
11(1)
Table 5, Protozoal diseases
12(1)
Appendix 6 Answers to Chapter Checkpoint and Zooming In questions
13
Index 1


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