9780470697061

Mercury Cadmium Telluride : Growth, Properties and Applications

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780470697061

  • ISBN10:

    0470697067

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-11-03
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Mercury Cadmium Telluride delivers a comprehensive treatment of both the growth techniques and fundamental properties of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT). It also presents information on the current developments in the use of this important material and includes contributions from many of the key groups working in the area from several countries, giving it a wide, international appeal. Edited by experts in the field of MCT, this reference is essential for researchers or postgraduates who want to check out a property value or read about a growth technique or device application.

Table of Contents

Series Preface
Preface
Foreword
List of Contributors
Growth
Bulk Growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT)
Introduction
Phase Equilibria
Crystal Growth
Conclusions
References
Bulk growth of CdZnTe/CdTe crystals
Introduction
High-purity Cd and Te
Crystal Growth
Wafer processing
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Properties of Cd(Zn)Te (relevant to use as substrates)
Introduction
Structural Properties
Thermal Properties
Mechanical and Lattice Vibronic Properties
Collective Effects and Some Response Characteristics
Electronic Energy-band Structure
Optical Properties
Carrier Transport Properties
References
Substrates for the Epitaxial growth of MCT
Introduction
Substrate Orientation
CZT Substrates
Si-based Substrates
Other Substrates
Summary and Comclusions
References
Liquid phase epitaxy of MCT
Introduction
Growth
Material Characteristics
Device Status
Summary and Future Developments
References
Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) Growth
Requirement for Epitaxy
History
Substrate Choices
Reactor Design
Process Parameters
Metalorganic Sources
Uniformity
Reproducibility
Doping
Defects
Annealing
In-situ monitoring
Conclusions
References
MBE growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride
Introduction
MBE Growth theory and Growth Modes
Substrate Mounting
In-situ Characterization Tools
MCT Nucleation and Growth
Dopants and Dopant Activation
Pr operties of MCT epilayers grown by MBE
Conclusions
References
Properties
Mechanical and Thermal Properties
Density of MCT
Lattice Parameter of MCT
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion for MCT
Elastic Parameters of MCT
Hardness and deformation characteristics of HgCdTe
Phase Diagrams of MCT
Viscosity of the MCT melt
Thermal properties of MCT
References
Optical Properties of MCT
Introduction
Optical Constants and the Dielectric Function
Theory of Band-to-band Optical Transition
Near Band Gap Absorption
Analytic Expressions and Empirical Formulas for Intrinsic Absorption and Urbach Tail
Dispersion of the Refractive Index
Optical Constants and Related van Hover Singularities above the Energy Gap
Reflection Spectra and Dielectric Function
Multimode Model of Lattice Vibration
Phonon Absorption
Raman Scattering
Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
References
Diffusion in MCT
Introduction
Self-Diffusion
Chemical Self-Diffusion
Compositional Interdiffusion
Impurity Diffusion
References
Defects in HgCdTe - Fundamental
Introduction
Ab Initio calculations
Prediction of Native Point Defect Densities in HgCdgTe
Future Challenges
References
Band Structure and Related Pr operties of HgCdTe
Introduction
Parameters
Electronic Band Structure
Comparison with Experiment
Acknowledgments
References
Conductivity Type Conversion
Introduction
Native Defects in Undoped MCT
Native Defects in Doped MCT
Defect Concentrations During Cool Down
Change of Conductivity Type
Dry Etching by Ion Beam Milling
Plasma Etching
Summary
References
Extrinsic Doping
Introduction
Impurity Activity
Thermal Ionization Energies of Impurities
Segregation Properties of Impurities
Traps and Recombination Centers
Donor and Acceptor Doping in LWIR and MWIR MCT
Residual Defects
Conclusions
References
Structure and electrical characteristics of Metal/MCT interfaces
Introduction
Reactive/intermediately reactive/nonreactive categories
Ultrareactive/reactive categories
Conclusion
Passivation of MCT
Conclusion
Contacts to MCT
Surface Effects on MCT
Surface Structure of CdTe and MCT
References
MCT Superlattices for VLWIR Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays
Introduction
Why HgTe-Based Superlattices
Calculated Properties
Growth
Interdiffusion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Dry Plasma Pr ocessing of Mercury Cadmium Telluride and related II- VIs
Introduction
Effects of Plasma Gases on MCT
Plasma Parameters
Characterization - Surfaces of Plasma Processed MCT
Manufacturing Issues and Solutions
Plasma Processes in Production of II-VI materials
Conclusions and Future Efforts
References
MCT Photoconductive Infrared Detectors
Introduction
Applications and Sensor Design
Photoconductive Detectors in MCT and Related Alloys
SPRITE Detectors
Conclusions on Photoconductive MCT Detectors
Ackowledgements
References
Applications
HgCdTe Photovoltaic Infrared Detectors
Introduction
Advantages of the Photovoltaic Device in MCT
Applications
Fundamentals of MCT Photodiodes
Theoretical Foundations for MCT Array Technology
Manufacturing Technology for MCT Arrays
Towards "GEN III" Detectors
Conclusions and Future Trends for Photovoltaic NCT Arrays
References
Nonequilibrium, dual-band and emission devices
Introduction
Nonequilibrium Devices
Dual-Band Devices
Emission devices
Conclusions
References
HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiodes (EAPDs)
Introduction and Applications
The Avalanche Multiplication Effect
Physics of MCT EAPDs
Technology of MCT EAPDs
Reported Performance of Arrays of MCT EAPDs
Laser-gated Imaging as a Practical Example of MCT EAPDs
Conclusions and Future Developments
References
Room-temperature IR photodetectors
Introduction
Performance of Room-Temperature Infrared Photodetectors
MCT as a Material for Room-Temperature Photodetectors
Photoconductive Devices
Photoelectromagnetic, Magnetoconcentration and Dember IR Detectors
Photodiodes
Conclusions
References
Index
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