9780632059270

Metal Contamination of Food : Its Significance for Food Quality and Human Health

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780632059270

  • ISBN10:

    0632059273

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-11-01
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Summary

Since publication of the previous edition of this successful book, there have been many advances in the field of food science and metal analysis and these have been taken into account of in compiling this new edition. Data on metal levels in foods and diets have been updated with information gathered from recent international literature. More than 80% of the text has been completely rewritten and, as the addition of a new subtitle suggests, greater account is taken than in earlier editions of the importance of the nutritional properties of many of the metals that we consume.In the compilation of this cutting-edge new edition, full account has been taken of the significant advances in the ready availability of multi-element analysis, improved sample preparation procedures and a growing interest in the content of chemical species in foods. Details of several metals, not considered in depth in previous editions but now widely used in the electronic and chemical industries, have also been included.The third edition of Metal Contamination of Food is an essential reference book for food industry personnel, including those working in food processing, formation and ingredients, packaging, quality control and food safety. Nutritionists, public analysts and chemists will also find much of great use within the covers of this book. Libraries and laboratories worldwide in all universities and research establishments where food science and technology, nutrition and chemistry are studied and taught should

Author Biography

Conor Reilly is Emeritus Professor of Public Health at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, and also Visiting Professor of Nutrition at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.

Table of Contents

Preface to the third edition xiii
Preface to the second edition xv
Preface to the first edition xvii
Part I: The Metals We Consume
1(78)
Introduction
3(9)
Ash
3(2)
Ash and the early food analysts
3(1)
A nineteenth-century view on food ash
4(1)
Ash in the modern food laboratory
5(1)
The metals in food
5(3)
Chemical properties of the metals
7(1)
Representative and transition metals
7(1)
Distribution of the metals in the environment
8(4)
Metals in human tissue
8(1)
Metals in soil
8(1)
Soil as a source of plant trace elements
8(1)
Variations in the metal content of soils
9(1)
Soil metal availability
9(1)
Metal transport and location within the plant
10(1)
Soil metal speciation
10(2)
Metals in food
12(11)
The metal components of food
12(1)
Why are we interested in metals in food?
13(2)
Functions of the trace elements
13(1)
New trace elements
14(1)
The toxic metals
15(1)
Effects of metals on food quality
16(1)
How much metal do we consume with our food?
16(3)
Estimating metal intakes
17(1)
Surveillance methods for assessing intake
18(1)
Duplicate diet method for intake estimation
18(1)
Comparison of methods of assessment of metal intakes
19(1)
Assessing risks from metals in food
19(4)
Metal analysis of food
23(17)
The determination of metals in foods and beverages
23(2)
The first step in analysis: obtaining a representative sample
23(1)
Prevention of contamination
24(1)
Drying of samples
24(1)
Purity of chemical reagents and water
25(1)
Glassware and other equipment
25(1)
Preparation of samples for analysis: digestion of organic matter
25(3)
Dry ashing
25(1)
Wet digestion techniques
26(1)
Nitric acid digestion
26(1)
Nitric--sulphuric acids digestion
27(1)
Use of perchloric acid
27(1)
Hydrofluoric acid
27(1)
Microwave digestion
27(1)
End-determination methods for metal analysis
28(4)
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS)
29(1)
Background correction
29(1)
Use of slurries and flow injection in AAS
29(1)
Speeding up AAS
30(1)
Spectrofluorimetry
30(1)
Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-S)
31(1)
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)
31(1)
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
31(1)
Other analytical techniques for trace elements
32(1)
Determination of elemental species
32(2)
Methodology for the determination of metal species
33(1)
Chemical methods of speciation
33(1)
Hyphenated techniques for metal speciation
33(1)
Analytical quality control
34(6)
How metals get into food
40(27)
Metals in the soil
40(9)
Uptake of metals by plants
41(1)
Accumulator plants
41(1)
Geobotanical indicators
41(1)
Effects of agricultural practices on soil metal content
42(1)
Metals in agricultural fertilisers
42(1)
Metals in sewage sludge
43(2)
Metal uptake from agrochemicals
45(1)
Industrial contamination as a source of metals in food
45(1)
Metal contamination from mining operations
46(1)
Metal contamination from metal industries
46(2)
Emission of metals from coal
48(1)
Problems of use of brownfield sites
48(1)
Geophagia
49(1)
Metal contamination of food during processing
49(8)
Contamination of food from plant and equipment
50(1)
Metal pick-up during canning
50(1)
`Tin' cans
51(1)
Aluminium containers
52(1)
Contamination of food during catering operations
53(1)
Metal cooking utensils
53(2)
Ceramic ware
55(1)
Enamelled ware
56(1)
Other domestic sources of metal contamination of food
56(1)
Food fortification
57(10)
Regulations and current practice regarding fortification of foods
57(1)
UK regulations
58(1)
Australian and New Zealand regulations
58(1)
Foods commonly fortified
59(1)
RTE breakfast cereals
59(1)
Functional foods
59(1)
Natural fortification of foods with metals
60(7)
Metals in food and the law
67(12)
Why do we have food legislation?
67(9)
International and national legislation
69(1)
UK legislation on metals in food
69(2)
US legislation on metals in food
71(1)
Legislation in Australia and elsewhere in the English-speaking world
72(2)
International standardisation and harmonisation of food laws
74(1)
European Community food regulations
75(1)
Codes of practice
76(3)
Part II: The Individual Metals
79(178)
The persistent contaminants: lead, mercury, cadmium
81(34)
Lead
81(13)
Chemical and physical properties of lead
82(1)
Production and uses
82(2)
Lead in the human body
84(1)
Biological effects of lead
85(2)
Lead in food and beverages
87(1)
Lead in meat and offal
87(1)
Lead in canned foods
87(1)
Lead in wines
88(1)
Lead in home-grown vegetables
88(1)
Lead in water
89(1)
Adventitious sources of dietary lead
89(1)
Lead in alcoholic beverages
89(1)
Lead in dietary supplements
90(1)
Lead in plastic packing
90(1)
Dietary intake of lead
91(1)
Lead in children's diets
91(2)
Analysis of foodstuffs for lead
93(1)
Mercury
94(6)
Chemical and physical properties of mercury
94(1)
Environmental distribution of mercury
95(1)
Production and uses of mercury
96(1)
Biological effects of mercury
96(1)
Mercury in food
97(2)
Analysis of foodstuffs for mercury
99(1)
Cadmium
100(15)
Chemical and physical properties of cadmium
101(1)
Production and uses of cadmium
101(1)
Cadmium in food
102(2)
Cadmium in water and other beverages
104(1)
Dietary intake of cadmium
104(1)
Uptake and accumulation of cadmium by the body
104(1)
Effects of cadmium on health
105(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for cadmium
106(9)
The packaging metals: aluminium and tin
115(22)
Aluminium
115(10)
Chemical and physical properties of aluminium
116(1)
Production and uses
116(1)
Aluminium in food and beverages
117(1)
Aluminium in fresh foods
117(1)
Aluminium in processed foods
118(1)
Aluminium in infant formulas
119(1)
Aluminium in beverages
120(1)
Aluminium in domestic water
120(1)
Levels of aluminium in bottled waters and canned soft drinks
121(1)
Aluminium in brewed tea
121(1)
Aluminium in alcoholic beverages
121(1)
Dietary intake of aluminium
121(1)
High consumers of aluminium
122(1)
Adventitious contributions of aluminium to the diet
122(1)
Aluminium absorption
123(1)
Metabolic consequences of high aluminium absorption
124(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for aluminium
124(1)
Tin
125(12)
Chemical and physical properties of tin
126(1)
Production and uses of tin
126(1)
Tin in food and beverages
127(1)
Organotin compounds in food
128(1)
Dietary intakes of tin
129(1)
Absorption and metabolism of tin
129(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for tin
130(7)
Transition metals: chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and molybdenum
137(42)
Chromium
138(5)
Chemical and physical properties of chromium
138(1)
Production and uses of chromium
139(1)
Chromium in food and beverages
139(1)
Adventitious chromium in foods
140(1)
Dietary intakes of chromium
141(1)
Recommended intakes of chromium
141(1)
Absorption and metabolism of chromium
141(1)
Chromium toxicity
142(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for chromium
142(1)
Manganese
143(3)
Chemical and physical properties of manganese
143(1)
Production and uses of manganese
143(1)
Manganese in food and beverages
144(1)
Dietary intake of manganese
145(1)
Dietary requirements for manganese
145(1)
Absorption and metabolism of manganese
145(1)
Manganese toxicity
146(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for manganese
146(1)
Iron
146(7)
Chemical and physical properties of iron
147(1)
Production and uses of iron
147(1)
Iron in food and beverages
148(1)
Iron in canned foods
149(1)
Iron fortification of food
149(2)
Dietary intake of iron
151(1)
Iron absorption and metabolism
151(1)
Functions of iron
152(1)
Iron deficiency anaemia
152(1)
Recommended intakes of iron
153(1)
High intakes of iron
153(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for iron
153(1)
Cobalt
153(4)
Chemical and physical properties of cobalt
154(1)
Production and uses of cobalt
154(1)
Cobalt in food and beverages
154(1)
Recommended intakes of cobalt
155(1)
Absorption and metabolism of cobalt
156(1)
Toxicity of cobalt
156(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for cobalt
156(1)
Nickel
157(3)
Chemical and physical properties of nickel
157(1)
Production and uses of nickel
157(1)
Nickel in food and beverages
158(1)
Dietary intakes and requirements
159(1)
Absorption and metabolism of nickel
159(1)
Nickel toxicity
159(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for nickel
159(1)
Copper
160(6)
Chemical and physical properties of copper
160(1)
Production and uses of copper
160(1)
Copper in food and beverages
161(1)
Copper in drinking water
161(1)
Adventitious copper in food
162(1)
Dietary intakes of copper
163(1)
Recommended and safe intakes of copper
163(1)
Absorption and metabolism of copper
164(1)
Copper enzymes
164(1)
Depression of copper absorption by zinc and other metals
165(1)
Copper toxicity
165(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for copper
165(1)
Molybdenum
166(13)
Chemical and physical properties of molybdenum
166(1)
Production and uses of molybdenum
166(1)
Molybdenum in food and beverages
166(1)
Dietary intakes of molybdenum
167(1)
Absorption and metabolism of molybdenum
167(1)
Toxicity of molybdenum
168(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for molybdenum
169(10)
The other transition metals and zinc
179(16)
Titanium
179(2)
Properties, production and uses of titanium
179(1)
Titanium in food and beverages
180(1)
Absorption and metabolism of titanium
180(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for titanium
181(1)
Vanadium
181(2)
Chemical and physical properties of vanadium
181(1)
Production and uses of vanadium
181(1)
Vanadium in food and beverages
182(1)
Absorption and metabolism of vanadium
182(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for vanadium
183(1)
Silver
183(2)
Chemical and physical properties of silver
183(1)
Production and uses of silver
183(1)
Silver in food and beverages
184(1)
Absorption and metabolism of silver
184(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for silver
185(1)
Tungsten
185(1)
Chemical and physical properties of tungsten
185(1)
Production and uses of tungsten
185(1)
Tungsten in foods and diets
186(1)
Absorption and metabolism of tungsten
186(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for tungsten
186(1)
Zinc
186(9)
Chemical and physical properties of zinc
186(1)
Production and uses of zinc
187(1)
Zinc in food and beverages
188(1)
Absorption and metabolism of zinc
188(1)
Biological roles of zinc
189(1)
Zinc requirements and dietary reference values
190(1)
Toxic effects of zinc in food and beverages
190(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for zinc
190(5)
The metalloids: arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and boron
195(34)
Arsenic
195(7)
Chemical and physical properties of arsenic
196(1)
Production and uses of arsenic
196(1)
Arsenic in food and beverages
197(1)
Arsenic in mushrooms
197(1)
Arsenic in fish: organic and inorganic forms
198(1)
Arsenic in water
199(1)
Arsenic from industrial pollution
199(1)
Accidental contamination of foods by arsenic
199(1)
Dietary intakes of arsenic
200(1)
Absorption and metabolism of arsenic
200(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for arsenic
201(1)
Antimony
202(2)
Chemical and physical properties of antimony
202(1)
Production and uses of antimony
202(1)
Metabolism and biological effects of antimony
203(1)
Antimony in food and beverages
203(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for antimony
203(1)
Selenium
204(11)
Chemical and physical properties of selenium
205(1)
Production and uses of selenium
206(1)
Selenium in food and beverages
207(1)
Variability in selenium levels in food
207(1)
Good sources of dietary selenium
208(1)
Brazil nuts
208(1)
Dietary intakes of selenium
209(2)
Dietary requirements and recommended intakes for selenium
211(1)
Uptakes from food and metabolism of selenium
211(1)
Biological roles of selenium
212(1)
Protective role of selenium against toxic metals
213(1)
Selenium toxicity
214(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for selenium
214(1)
Tellurium
215(2)
Chemical and physical properties of tellurium
215(1)
Production and uses of tellurium
216(1)
Tellurium in foods and diets
216(1)
Uptakes and metabolism of tellurium
216(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for tellurium
217(1)
Boron
217(12)
Chemical and physical properties of boron
218(1)
Production and uses of boron
218(1)
Boron in foods and beverages
219(1)
Absorption and metabolism of boron
220(1)
Boron toxicity
220(1)
Analysis of foodstuffs for boron
221(8)
The new metal contaminants
229(14)
The radioactive metals
229(6)
Radioisotopes
230(1)
Radioactive contamination of foods
231(2)
Food contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident
233(1)
Food contamination and the nuclear industry
234(1)
The catalytic metals
235(2)
Platinum metals in the environment
235(1)
Platinum metals in food and diets
235(1)
Health implications of platinum metals in the diet
236(1)
The electronic metals
237(6)
Germanium
238(1)
Tantalum
239(1)
Caesium
239(4)
Barium, beryllium, thallium and the other metals -- summing up
243(14)
Barium
243(3)
Chemical and physical properties of barium
243(1)
Production and uses of barium
243(1)
Barium in food and diets
244(1)
Absorption and metabolism of barium
245(1)
Beryllium
246(1)
Chemical and physical properties of beryllium
246(1)
Production and uses of beryllium
246(1)
Beryllium in food and diets
247(1)
Absorption and biological effects of beryllium
247(1)
Thallium
247(2)
Chemical and physical properties of thallium
248(1)
Production and uses of thallium
248(1)
Thallium in food and diets
248(1)
Absorption and metabolism of thallium
249(1)
The other metals
249(3)
Bismuth
250(1)
Lithium
250(1)
Zirconium
251(1)
Cerium and the other rare earth elements
251(1)
The remaining metals: summing up
252(5)
Glossary 257(2)
Index 259

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