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Meteorology Today Book and Cdr: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment/With Infotrak

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534372019

ISBN10:
0534372015
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/26/1999
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $85.00

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Table of Contents

The Earth And Its Atmosphere
1(23)
Overview of the Earth's Atmosphere
2(6)
Composition of the Atmosphere
2(3)
Focus On A Special Topic A Breath of Fresh Air
5(2)
The Early Atmosphere
7(1)
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
8(7)
A Brief Look at Air Pressure and Air Density
8(0)
Layers of the Atmosphere
8(2)
Focus On A Special Topic The Atmospheres of Other Planets
10(3)
Focus On An Observation The Radiosonde
13(1)
The lonosphere
14(1)
Weather and Climate
15(7)
Meteorology-A Brief History
16(0)
A Satellite's View of the Weather
16(0)
Storms of All Sizes
16(1)
A Look at a Weather Map
17(1)
Weather and Climate in Our Lives
18(4)
Summary
22(0)
Key Terms
22(0)
Questions for Review
22(1)
Questions for Thought
23(0)
Problems and Exercises
23(0)
Questions for Exploration
23(1)
Energy: Warming The Earth And The Atmosphere
24(28)
Energy, Temperature, and Heat
26(4)
Temperature Scales
27(1)
Specific Heat
28(0)
Latent Heat-The Hidden Warmth
28(2)
Focus On A Special Topic The Fate of a Sunbeam
30(0)
Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere
30(3)
Conduction
30(1)
Convection
31(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Rising Air Cools and Sinking Air Warms
32(1)
01>Radiation
33(3)
Radiation and Temperature
34(0)
Radiation of the Sun and Earth
34(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Wave Energy, Sun Burning, and UV Rays
36(0)
Balancing Act-Absorption, Emission, and Equilibrium
36(5)
Selective Absorbers and the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect
37(2)
Enhancement of the Greenhouse Effect
39(2)
Warming the Air from Below
41(0)
Incoming Solar Energy
41(8)
Focus On An Advanced Topic Radiative Equilibrium and Forcing- The Ins and Outs
42(1)
Scattered and Reflected Light
43(1)
The Earth's Annual Energy Balance
44(1)
Solar Particles and the Aurora
45(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Characteristics of the Sun
46(3)
Summary
49(0)
Key Terms
49(0)
Questions for Review
49(1)
Questions for Thought
50(0)
Problems and Exercises
50(1)
Questions for Exploration
51(1)
Seasonal And Daily Temperatures
52(28)
Why the Earth Has Seasons
54(7)
Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere
54(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Is December 21 Really the First Day of Winter?
56(2)
Focus On An Observation Does the First Frost Cause the Leaves to Change Color in Autumn?
58(1)
Seasons in the Southern Hemisphere
59(1)
Focus On A Special Topic The Tilted Earth and Its Energy Balance
60(1)
Focus On A Special Topic The Changing Seasons and How We Feel- It Could Be SAD
61(0)
Local Seasonal Variations
61(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Solar Heating and the Noonday Sun
63(0)
Daily Temperature Variations
63(5)
Daytime Warming
63(2)
Nighttime Cooling
65(0)
Radiation Inversions
65(2)
Protecting Crops from the Cold
67(1)
The Controls of Temperature
68(2)
Air Temperature Data
70(2)
Daily, Monthly, and Yearly Temperatures
70(1)
The Use of Temperature Data
71(1)
Air Temperature and Human Comfort
72(3)
Focus On An Observation A Thousand Degrees and Freezing to Death
75(0)
Measuring Air Temperature
75(3)
Focus On A Special Topic Thermometers Should Be Read in the Shade
77(1)
Summary
78(0)
Key Terms
78(0)
Questions for Review
78(1)
Questions for Thought
79(0)
Problems and Exercises
79(0)
Questions for Exploration
79(1)
Light, Color, And Atmospheric Optics
80(24)
White and Colors
82(0)
White Clouds and Scattered Light
82(1)
Blue Skies and Hazy Days
83(1)
Red Suns and Blue Moons
84(3)
Twinkling, Twilight, and the Green Flash
87(3)
The Mirage: Seeing Is Not Believing
90(1)
Halos, Sundogs, and Sun Pillars
91(4)
Focus On An Observation The Fata Morgana
92(3)
Rainbow
95(3)
Focus On An Observation Can It Be a Rainbow If It Is Not Raining?
98(0)
Coronas, Glories, and Heiligenschein
98(3)
Summary
101(0)
Key Terms
101(0)
Questions for Review
101(1)
Questions for Thought
102(0)
Problems and Exercises
102(1)
Questions for Exploration
103(1)
Atmospheric Moisture
104(20)
Water in the Atmosphere
106(3)
The Many Phases of Water
106(2)
Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere
108(1)
Absolute Humidity
109(0)
Specific Humidity and Mixing Ratio
109(1)
Vapor Pressure
110(2)
Relative Humidity
112(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Vapor Pressure and Boiling-The Higher You Go, the Longer Cooking Takes
113(1)
Relative Humidity and Dew Point
114(2)
Comparing Humidities
116(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Computing Relative Humidity and Dew Point
117(1)
Relative Humidity in the Home
118(0)
Relative Humidity and Human Discomfort
118(1)
Measuring Humidity
119(3)
Focus On A Special Topic Is Humid Air or Dry Air More Dense?
120(2)
Summary
122(0)
Key Terms
122(0)
Questions for Review
122(1)
Questions for Thought
123(0)
Problems and Exercises
123(0)
Questions for Exploration
123(1)
Condensation: Dew, Fog, And Clouds
124(34)
The Formation of Dew and Frost
126(1)
Condensation Nuclei
127(0)
Haze
127(1)
Fog
128(7)
Radiation Fog
129(2)
Advection Fog
131(0)
Focus On An Observation Why Are Headlands Usually Foggier than Beaches?
131(1)
Upslope Fog
132(1)
Evaporation (Mixing) Fog
133(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Fog that Forms by Mixing
134(1)
Foggy Weather
135(1)
Clouds
136(20)
Focus On A Special Topic Fog Dispersal
137(1)
Classification of Clouds
138(0)
Cloud Identification
138(0)
High Clouds
138(1)
Middle Clouds
139(1)
Low Clouds
140(2)
Clouds with Vertical Development
142(2)
Some Unusual Clouds
144(5)
Cloud Observations
149(0)
Determining Sky Conditions
149(1)
Focus On Instruments Measuring Cloud Ceilings
150(1)
Satellite Observations
151(3)
Focus On A Special Topic Satellites Do More than Observe Clouds
154(2)
Summary
156(0)
Key Terms
156(0)
Questions for Review
156(1)
Questions for Thought
157(0)
Problems and Exercises
157(0)
Questions for Exploration
157(1)
Stability And Cloud Development
158(22)
Atmospheric Stability
160(1)
Determining Stability
161(6)
Stable Air
161(1)
A Stable Atmosphere
162(1)
Unstable Air
163(2)
Causes of Instability
165(2)
Cloud Development
167(11)
Convection and Clouds
167(4)
Topography and Clouds
171(1)
Focus On An Observation Determining Convective Cloud Bases
172(1)
Widespread Ascent and Clouds
173(1)
Focus On An Advanced Topic Adiabatic Charts
174(2)
Changing Cloud Forms
176(0)
Mixing and Stratocumulus
176(2)
Summary
178(0)
Key Terms
178(0)
Questions for Review
178(0)
Questions for Thought
178(1)
Problems and Exercises
179(0)
Questions for Exploration
179(1)
Precipitation
180(28)
Precipitation Processes
182(9)
How Do Cloud Droplets Grow Larger?
182(2)
Collision and Coalescence Process
184(1)
Ice-Crystal Process
185(3)
Cloud Seeding
188(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Does Cloud Seeding Enhance Precipitation?
190(0)
Precipitation in Clouds
190(1)
Precipitation Types
191(11)
Rain
191(1)
Snow
192(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Are Raindrops Tear-Shaped?
193(0)
Snowflakes and Snowfall
193(1)
Focus On A Special Topic When Is It Too Warm to Snow?
194(2)
A Blanket of Snow
196(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Sounds of Silence
197(0)
Sleet and Freezing Rain
197(2)
Focus On An Application Aircraft Icing
199(0)
Snow Grains and Snow Pellets
199(1)
Hail
200(2)
Measuring Precipitation
202(3)
Instruments
202(1)
Weather Radar and Precipitation
203(2)
Summary
205(0)
Key Terms
205(0)
Questions for Review
205(1)
Questions for Thought
206(0)
Problems and Exercises
206(1)
Questions for Exploration
207(1)
The Atmosphere In Motion: Air Pressure, Forces, And Winds
208(30)
Atmospheric Pressure
210(6)
Focus On A Special Topic The Atmosphere Obeys the Gas Law
212(0)
Pressure Measurements
212(3)
Pressure Readings
215(1)
Surface and Upper-Level Charts
216(5)
Focus On An Observation Flying on a Constant Pressure Surface- High to Low, Look Out Below
220(1)
Newton's Laws of Motion
221(0)
Forces that Influence the Winds
221(12)
Pressure Gradient Force
222(0)
Coriolis Force
222(3)
Straight-Line Winds Aloft-Geostrophic Winds
225(1)
Focus On An Advanced Topic A Mathematical Look at the Geostrophic Wind
226(1)
Curved Winds Around Lows and Highs Aloft-Gradient Winds
227(1)
Focus On An Observation Estimating Wind Direction and Pressure Patterns Aloft
228(1)
Winds On Upper-Level Charts
229(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Winds Aloft in the Southern Hemisphere
231(0)
Surface Winds
231(2)
Winds and Vertical Air Motions
233(2)
Focus On An Advanced Topic The Hydrostatic Equation
234(1)
Summary
235(0)
Key Terms
235(0)
Questions for Review
235(1)
Questions for Thought
236(0)
Problems and Exercises
236(1)
Questions for Exploration
237(1)
Wind: Small-Scale And Local Systems
238(34)
Small-Scale Winds Interacting with the Environment
240(10)
Scales of Motion
240(0)
Friction and Turbulence in the Boundary Layer
240(3)
Eddies-Big and Small
243(1)
The Force of the Wind
244(1)
Focus On An Observation Eddies and "Air Pockets"
245(1)
Microscale Winds Blowing over the Earth's Surface
246(0)
Wind and Exposed Soil
246(0)
Wind and Snow Surfaces
246(1)
Wind and Vegetation
247(1)
Wind and Waves
248(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Pedaling into the Wind
249(1)
Determining Wind Direction and Speed
250(3)
The Influence of Prevailing Winds
250(1)
Wind Instruments
251(2)
Local Wind Systems
253(15)
Thermal Circulations
253(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Wind Power
254(1)
Sea and Land Breezes
255(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Florida's Fires and the Sea Breeze
257(1)
Local Winds and Water
258(1)
Seasonally Changing Winds-The Monsoon
259(1)
Mountain and Valley Breezes
260(1)
Katabatic Winds
261(1)
Chinook (Foehn) Winds
262(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Snow Eaters and Rapid Temperature Changes
263(0)
Santa Ana Winds
263(2)
Desert Winds
265(1)
Other Local Winds of Interest
266(2)
Summary
268(1)
Key Terms
269(0)
Questions for Review
269(1)
Questions for Thought
270(0)
Problems and Exercises
270(2)
Wind: Global Systems
272(28)
General Circulation of the Atmosphere
274(7)
Single-Cell Model
274(0)
Three-Cell Model
274(3)
Focus On A Special Topic Dynamic General Circulation Models
277(0)
Average Surface Winds and Pressure: The Real World
277(2)
The General Circulation and Precipitation Patterns
279(2)
Average Wind Flow and Pressure Patterns Aloft
281(0)
Jet Streams
281(7)
Focus On An Observation The "Dishpan" Experiment
284(1)
The Formation of the Polar Front Jet and the Subtropical Jet
285(1)
Other Jet Streams
286(1)
Focus On An Advanced Topic Momentum-A Case of Give and Take
287(1)
Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions
288(4)
Global Wind Patterns and Surface Ocean Currents
288(3)
Upwelling
291(1)
Global Wind Patterns and Surface Ocean Temperatures
292(0)
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
292(5)
Summary
297(0)
Key Terms
297(1)
Questions for Review
298(0)
Questions for Thought
298(0)
Problems and Exercises
298(1)
Questions for Exploration
299(1)
Air Masses And Fronts
300(25)
Air Masses
302(11)
Source Regions
302(0)
Classification
302(1)
Air Masses of North America
303(0)
cP (Continental Polar) and cA (Continental Arctic) Air Masses
303(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Lake Effect Snows
304(2)
mP (Maritime Polar) Air Masses
306(1)
Focus On A Special Topic The Return of the Siberian Express
307(2)
mT (Maritime Tropical) Air Masses
309(2)
cT (Continental Tropical) Air Masses
311(2)
Fronts
313(8)
Stationary Fronts
313(0)
Cold Fronts
313(5)
Warm Fronts
318(2)
Occluded Fronts
320(1)
Summary
321(1)
Key Terms
322(0)
Questions for Review
322(0)
Questions for Thought
322(1)
Problems and Exercises
323(0)
Questions for Exploration
323(2)
Middle Latitude Cyclones
325(25)
Polar Front Theory
326(2)
Where Do Mid-Latitude Storms Tend to Form?
328(1)
Vertical Structure of Deep-Pressure Systems
329(2)
Focus On A Special Topic A Closer Look at Convergence and Divergence
330(1)
Upper-Level Waves and Surface Storms
331(1)
The Necessary Ingredients for a Developing Wave Cyclone
332(8)
Upper-Air Support
332(1)
The Role of the Jet Stream
333(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Jet Streaks and Storms
334(1)
The Conveyor Belt Model of Rising and Descending Air
335(2)
A Developing Wave-Cyclone---The March Storm of 1993
337(3)
Vorticity, Divergence, and Developing Storm Systems
340(6)
Focus On A Special Topic Vorticity and Longwaves
342(3)
Focus On A Special Topic The Development of Lee-Side Lows
345(1)
Polar Lows
346(1)
Summary
347(0)
Key Terms
347(0)
Questions for Review
347(1)
Questions for Thought
348(0)
Problems and Exercises
348(1)
Questions for Exploration
349(1)
Weather Forecasting
350(30)
Acquisition of Weather Information
352(1)
Weather Forecasting Methods
353(10)
The Computer and Weather Forecasting: Numerical Weather Prediction
353(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Watches, Warnings, and Advisories
354(0)
Forecasting Tools
354(4)
Why Forecasts Go Awry
358(0)
Other Forecasting Methods
358(4)
Accuracy and Skill in Forecasting
362(1)
Predicting the Weather from Local Signs
363(2)
Weather Forecasting Using Surface Charts
365(7)
Determining the Movement of Weather Systems
365(1)
Focus On An Observation Forecasting Temperature Advection by Watching the Clouds
366(2)
A Forecast for Six Cities
368(0)
Weather Forecast for Augusta, Georgia
368(1)
Rain or Snow for Washington, D.C.?
369(1)
Big Snowstorm for Chicago
370(0)
Mixed Bag of Weather for Memphis
370(1)
Cold Wave for Dallas
371(0)
Clear but Cold for Denver
371(1)
A Meterologist Makes a Prediction
372(6)
Help from the 500-mb Chart
372(1)
The Computer Provides Assistance
373(2)
A Valid Forecast
375(0)
Assistance from the Satellite
375(1)
A Day of Rain and Wind
376(2)
Summary
378(0)
Key Terms
378(0)
Questions for Review
378(1)
Questions for Thought
379(0)
Problems and Exercises
379(0)
Questions for Exploration
379(1)
Thunderstorms And Tornadoes
380(38)
What Are Thunderstorms?
382(0)
Ordinary (Air-Mass) Thunderstorms
382(2)
Severe Thunderstorms
384(11)
The Gust Front and Microburst
386(2)
Supercell and Squall-Line Thunderstorms
388(2)
The Dryline
390(1)
Floods and Flash Floods
391(1)
Focus On A Special Topic The Terrifying Flash Flood in the Big Thompson Canyon
392(1)
Mesoscale Convective Complexes
393(1)
Thunderstorm Movement
394(1)
Distribution of Thunderstorms
395(1)
Lightning and Thunder
396(5)
Electrification of Clouds
396(1)
The Lightning Stroke
397(0)
Focus On A Special Topic Red Sprites and Blue Jets
397(4)
Lightning Detection and Suppression
401(2)
Focus On An Observation Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree
402(1)
Tornadoes
403(8)
Tornado Occurrence
403(2)
Tornado Winds
405(2)
Tornado Formation
407(2)
Observing Tornadoes
409(1)
Focus On An Observation Thunderstorm Rotation
410(1)
Severe Weather and Doppler Radar
411(3)
Waterspouts
414(1)
Summary
415(0)
Key Terms
415(0)
Questions for Review
415(1)
Questions for Thought
416(0)
Problems and Exercises
416(1)
Questions for Exploration
417(1)
Hurricanes
418(22)
Tropical Weather
420(0)
Anatomy of a Hurricane
420(3)
Hurricane Formation and Dissipation
423(13)
Hurricane Stages of Development
425(1)
Hurricane Movement
426(1)
Focus On A Special Topic How Do Hurricanes Compare with Middle Latitude Storms?
427(2)
Destruction and Warning
429(2)
Focus On A Special Topic Modifying Hurricanes
431(5)
Naming Hurricanes
436(2)
Summary
438(0)
Key Terms
438(0)
Questions for Review
438(1)
Questions for Thought
439(0)
Problems and Exercises
439(0)
Questions for Exploration
439(1)
Air Pollution
440(30)
A Brief History of Air Pollution
442(1)
Types and Sources of Air Pollutants
443(12)
Principal Air Pollutants
443(4)
Ozone in the Troposphere
447(1)
Ozone in the Stratosphere
448(1)
Stratospheric Ozone: Production-Destruction
449(0)
Stratospheric Ozone---Upsetting the Balance
449(1)
Air Pollution: Trends and Patterns
450(1)
Focus On A Special Topic The Ozone Hole
451(4)
Factors that Affect Air Pollution
455(6)
The Role of the Wind
455(0)
The Role of Stability and Inversions
455(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Indoor Air Pollution
456(2)
The Role of Topography
458(1)
Focus On An Observation Smoke Stack Plumes
459(2)
Severe Air Pollution Potential
461(0)
Air Pollution and the Urban Environment
461(2)
Focus On An Observation Five Days in Donora---An Air Pollution Episode
462(1)
Acid Deposition
463(4)
Summary
467(0)
Key Terms
467(0)
Questions for Review
467(1)
Questions for Thought
468(0)
Problems and Exercises
468(1)
Questions for Exploration
469(1)
Global Climate
470(34)
A World with Many Climates
472(7)
Global Temperatures
472(1)
The Hottest and Coldest Places on Earth
473(1)
Global Precipitation
474(5)
Climatic Classification
479(3)
The Ancient Greeks
479(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Precipitation Extremes
480(0)
The Koppen System
480(2)
Thornthwaite's System
482(0)
The Global Pattern of Climate
482(20)
Tropical Moist Climates (Group A)
482(6)
Dry Climates (Group B)
488(3)
Moist Subtropical Mid-latitude Climates (Group C)
491(1)
Focus On A Special Topic A Desert with Clouds and Drizzle
492(3)
Moist Continental Climates (Group D)
495(4)
Polar Climates (Group E)
499(2)
Highland Climates (Group H)
501(1)
Summary
502(0)
Key Terms
502(0)
Questions for Review
502(0)
Questions for Thought
502(1)
Problems and Exercises
503(1)
Climate Change
504(2)
The Earth's Changing Climate
506(4)
Determining Past Climates
506(2)
Climate Through the Ages
508(1)
Climate During the Last 1000 Years
509(1)
Possible Causes of Climatic Change
510(10)
Climate Change and Feedback Mechanisms
511(0)
Climate Change, Plate Tectonics, and Mountain Building
511(2)
Climate Change and Variations in the Earth's Orbit
513(2)
Climate Change and Atmospheric Particles
515(0)
Aerosols in the Troposphere
515(1)
Volcanic Eruptions and Aerosols in the Stratosphere
516(1)
Focus On A Special Topic Nuclear Winter---Climate Change Induced by Nuclear War
517(1)
Climate Change and Variations in Solar Output
518(2)
Carbon Dioxide, the Greenhouse Effect, and Recent Global Warming
520(7)
Oceans, Clouds, and Global Warming
520(2)
Focus On A Special Topic The Ocean Conveyor Belt and Climate Change
522(0)
Possible Consequences of Global Warming
522(2)
Is the Warming Real?
524(2)
Focus On A Special Topic The Sahel---An Example of Climatic Variability and Human Existence
526(1)
In Perspective
527(0)
Summary
527(0)
Key Terms
527(0)
Questions for Review
527(1)
Questions for Thought
528(0)
Problems and Exercises
528(0)
Questions for Exploration
528
APPENDIX A
Units, Conversions, Abbreviations, and Equations
A-1
APPENDIX B
Weather Symbols and the Station Model
A-4
APPENDIX C
Beaufort Wind Scale
A-6
APPENDIX D
Humidity and Dew-Point Tables
A-7
APPENDIX E
Instant Weather Forecast Chart
A-11
APPENDIX F
Changing GMT and UTC to Local Time
A-12
APPENDIX G
Heat Index (HI) Table
A-13
APPENDIX H
Standard Atmosphere
A-14
APPENDIX I
Hurricane Tracking Chart
A-15
APPENDIX J
Adiabatic Chart
A-16
APPENDIX K
Climatic Data for Cities Throughout the World
A-17
Additional Reading Material R-1
Glossary G-1
Index I-1


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