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Meteorology Today : An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment,9780495011620
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Meteorology Today : An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780495011620

ISBN10:
0495011622
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/16/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $266.95

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Summary

METEOROLOGY TODAY has for many years been one of the most widely used and authoritative texts for the introductory meteorology course. This eighth edition sees improvements in flexibility for instructors and strengthened learning solutions for students. Author C. Donald Ahrens has been widely praised for his ability to explain relatively complicated ideas so that even under-prepared students can understand them. The text's clear and inviting narrative is supplemented by numerous pedagogical features that help augment students' understanding. Introductory stories found at the beginning of each chapter draw students naturally into the discussion. In-chapter reviews help students master concepts while they study, and four types of end-of-chapter exercises provide opportunities for everything from further review to in-class discussion questions. In addition to these in-text learning aids, the eighth edition sees a complete integration with MeteorologyNow?, the first assessment-driven and student-centered online learning solution created specifically for this course. MeteorologyNow? uses a series of chapter-specific diagnostic tests to build a personalized learning plan for each student, allowing students to focus their study time on specific areas of weaknesses. Each personalized learning plan directs students to specific chapter sections and concept-driven multimedia tutorials designed to augment their understanding. The new edition is available in its original nineteen chapter "classic" version, or as a "core" version, which features only the most popular sixteen chapters. The "core" version sacrifices none of the detail that the course needs, but eliminates chapters that may not be directly covered in class. Looking for more flexibility? With the Thomson TextChoice custom solution program, instructors can select and reorganize chapters to perfectly match their syllabus, thereby creating the ideal text solution for the course.

Table of Contents

The Earth and Its Atmosphere
1(25)
Overview of the Earth's Atmosphere
2(6)
Composition of the Atmosphere
2(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Breath of Fresh Air
4(4)
The Early Atmosphere
8(1)
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
8(8)
A Brief Look at Air Pressure and Air Density
8(2)
Layers of the Atmosphere
10(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Atmospheres of Other Planets
12(2)
Focus on an Observation: The Radiosonde
14(1)
The Ionosphere
15(1)
Weather and Climate
16(8)
Meteorology---A Brief History
17(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: What is a Meteorologist?
18(1)
A Satellite's View of the Weather
18(1)
Storms of All Sizes
18(1)
A Look at a Weather Map
19(1)
Weather and Climate in Our Lives
20(4)
Summary
24(1)
Key Terms
24(1)
Questions for Review
24(1)
Questions for Thought
25(1)
Problems and Exercises
25(1)
Questions for Exploration
25(1)
Energy: Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere
26(28)
Energy, Temperature, and Heat
28(4)
Temperature Scales
29(1)
Specific Heat
29(1)
Latent Heat---The Hidden Warmth
30(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Fate of a Sunbeam
32(1)
Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere
32(3)
Conduction
33(1)
Convection
33(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Rising Air Cools and Sinking Air Warms
34(1)
Radiation
35(3)
Radiation and Temperature
36(1)
Radiation of the Sun and Earth
36(2)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: Wave Energy, Sun Burning, and UV Rays
38(1)
Balancing Act---Absorption, Emission, and Equilibrium
38(5)
Selective Absorbers and the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect
40(1)
Enhancement of the Greenhouse Effect
41(2)
Warming the Air from Below
43(1)
Incoming Solar Energy
43(8)
Scattered and Reflected Light
43(2)
The Earth's Annual Energy Balance
45(1)
Focus on an Observation: Blue Skies, Red Suns, and White Clouds
46(2)
Solar Particles and the Aurora
48(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Characteristics of the Sun
48(3)
Summary
51(1)
Key Terms
51(1)
Questions for Review
51(1)
Questions for Thought
52(1)
Problems and Exercises
52(1)
Questions for Exploration
52(2)
Seasonal and Daily Temperatures
54(30)
Why the Earth Has Seasons
56(6)
Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere
57(3)
Seasons in the Southern Hemisphere
60(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Is December 21 Really the First Day of Winter?
62(1)
Local Seasonal Variations
62(1)
Daily Temperature Variations
63(8)
Daytime Warming
63(1)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: Solar Heating and the Noonday Sun
64(1)
Nighttime Cooling
65(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Record High Temperatures
66(1)
Radiation Inversions
67(1)
Protecting Crops from the Cold
68(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Record Low Temperatures
69(2)
The Controls of Temperature
71(1)
Air Temperature Data
72(5)
Daily, Monthly, and Yearly Temperatures
72(2)
The Use of Temperature Data
74(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: When It Comes to Temperature, What's Normal?
75(2)
Air Temperature and Human Comfort
77(1)
Measuring Air Temperature
78(4)
Focus on an Observation: A Thousand Degrees and Freezing to Death
79(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Thermometers Should Be Read in the Shade
81(1)
Summary
82(1)
Key Terms
82(1)
Questions for Review
82(1)
Questions for Thought
83(1)
Problems and Exercises
83(1)
Questions for Exploration
83(1)
Atmospheric Moisture
84(22)
Water in the Atmosphere
86(3)
The Many Phases of Water
86(2)
Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere
88(1)
Absolute Humidity
89(1)
Specific Humidity and Mixing Ratio
89(1)
Vapor Pressure
90(1)
Relative Humidity
91(11)
Focus on a Special Topic: Vapor Pressure and Boiling---The Higher You Go, the Longer Cooking Takes
92(1)
Relative Humidity and Dew Point
93(3)
Comparing Humidities
96(1)
Relative Humidity in the Home
96(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Computing Relative Humidity and Dew Point
98(1)
Relative Humidity and Human Discomfort
99(1)
Measuring Humidity
99(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Is Humid Air ``Heavier'' Than Dry Air?
101(1)
Summary
102(1)
Key Terms
103(1)
Questions for Review
103(1)
Questions for Thought
103(1)
Problems and Exercises
104(1)
Questions for Exploration
105(1)
Condensation: Dew, Fog, and Clouds
106(32)
The Formation of Dew and Frost
108(1)
Condensation Nuclei
109(1)
Haze
109(1)
Fog
110(6)
Radiation Fog
111(1)
Advection Fog
112(1)
Upslope Fog
112(1)
Evaporation (Mixing) Fog
113(1)
Focus on an Observation: Why Are Headlands Usually Foggier Than Beaches?
114(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Fog That Forms by Mixing
115(1)
Foggy Weather
116(1)
Clouds
117(18)
Classification of Clouds
117(1)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: Fog Dispersal
118(1)
Cloud Identification
119(1)
High Clouds
119(1)
Middle Clouds
120(2)
Low Clouds
122(1)
Clouds with Vertical Development
123(3)
Some Unusual Clouds
126(2)
Cloud Observations
128(1)
Determining Sky Conditions
128(2)
Satellite Observations
130(1)
Focus on an Observation: Measuring Cloud Ceilings
131(3)
Focus on a Special Topic: Satellites Do More Than Observe Clouds
134(1)
Summary
135(1)
Key Terms
135(1)
Questions for Review
136(1)
Questions for Thought
136(1)
Problems and Exercises
137(1)
Questions for Exploration
137(1)
Stability and Cloud Development
138(24)
Atmospheric Stability
140(1)
Determining Stability
141(8)
Stable Air
141(1)
A Stable Atmosphere
142(2)
An Unstable Atmosphere
144(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Subsidence Inversions Put A Lid on It
144(1)
Causes of Instability
145(4)
Cloud Development
149(10)
Convection and Clouds
149(3)
Topography and Clouds
152(1)
Focus on an Observation: Determining Convective Cloud Bases
153(3)
Focus on an Advanced Topic: Adiabatic Charts
156(1)
Changing Cloud Forms
156(3)
Summary
159(1)
Key Terms
159(1)
Questions for Review
160(1)
Questions for Thought
160(1)
Problems and Exercises
160(1)
Questions for Exploration
161(1)
Precipitation
162(28)
Precipitation Processes
164(10)
How Do Cloud Droplets Grow Larger?
164(2)
Collision and Coalescence Process
166(1)
Ice-Crystal Process
167(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Freezing of Tiny Cloud Droplets
169(2)
Cloud Seeding and Precipitation
171(1)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: Does Cloud Seeding Enhance Precipitation?
172(1)
Precipitation in Clouds
172(2)
Precipitation Types
174(10)
Rain
174(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Are Raindrops Tear-Shaped?
175(1)
Snow
175(1)
Snowflakes and Snowfall
175(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Snowing When the Air Temperature is Well above Freezing
177(1)
A Blanket of Snow
178(1)
Sleet and Freezing Rain
178(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Sounds and Snowfalls
179(1)
Snow Grains and Snow Pellets
180(1)
Focus on an Observation: Aircraft Icing
181(1)
Hail
182(2)
Measuring Precipitation
184(3)
Instruments
184(2)
Doppler Radar and Precipitation
186(1)
Summary
187(1)
Key Terms
188(1)
Questions for Review
188(1)
Questions for Thought
188(1)
Problems and Exercises
189(1)
Questions for Exploration
189(1)
Air Pressure and Winds
190(30)
Atmospheric Pressure
192(6)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Atmosphere Obeys the Gas Law
194(1)
Pressure Measurements
194(2)
Pressure Readings
196(2)
Surface and Upper-Level Charts
198(4)
Focus on an Observation: Flying on a Constant Pressure Surface---High to Low, Look Out Below
201(1)
Newton's Laws of Motion
202(1)
Forces That Influence the Winds
203(12)
Pressure Gradient Force
203(1)
Coriolis Force
204(2)
Straight-Line Flow Aloft---Geostrophic Winds
206(2)
Focus on an Advanced Topic: A Mathematical Look at the Geostrophic Wind
208(1)
Curved Winds Around Lows and Highs Aloft---Gradient Winds
208(1)
Focus on an Observation: Estimating Wind Direction and Pressure Patterns Aloft by Watching Clouds
209(1)
Winds on Upper-Level Charts
210(2)
Focus on an Observation: Winds Aloft in the Southern Hemisphere
212(1)
Surface Winds
213(2)
Winds and Vertical Air Motions
215(1)
Focus on an Advanced Topic: The Hydrostatic Equation
215(1)
Summary
216(1)
Key Terms
216(1)
Questions for Review
216(1)
Questions for Thought
217(1)
Problems and Exercises
218(1)
Questions for Exploration
219(1)
Wind: Small-Scale and Local Systems
220(34)
Small-Scale Winds Interacting with the Environment
222(8)
Scales of Motion
222(1)
Friction and Turbulence in the Boundary Layer
223(2)
Eddies---Big and Small
225(1)
The Force of the Wind
226(1)
Microscale Winds Blowing over the Earth's Surface
226(1)
Focus on an Observation: Eddies and ``Air Pockets''
227(3)
Determining Wind Direction and Speed
230(6)
Focus on a Special Topic: Pedaling into the Wind
231(1)
The Influence of Prevailing Winds
231(2)
Wind Instruments
233(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Wind Power
235(1)
Local Wind Systems
236(15)
Thermal Circulations
236(1)
Sea and Land Breezes
236(3)
Local Winds and Water
239(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Florida's Fires and the Sea Breeze
240(1)
Seasonally Changing Winds---The Monsoon
240(2)
Mountain and Valley Breezes
242(2)
Katabatic Winds
244(1)
Chinook (Foehn) Winds
244(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Snow Eaters and Rapid Temperature Changes
245(1)
Santa Ana Winds
245(2)
Desert Winds
247(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Dust Storms on Mars
249(1)
Other Local Winds of Interest
249(2)
Summary
251(1)
Key Terms
251(1)
Questions for Review
251(1)
Questions for Thought
252(1)
Problems and Exercises
253(1)
Questions for Exploration
253(1)
Wind: Global Systems
254(30)
General Circulation of the Atmosphere
256(15)
Single-Cell Model
256(1)
Three-Cell Model
257(1)
Average Surface Winds and Pressure: The Real World
258(1)
Focus on an Observation: Observing Global Winds from Space
259(2)
The General Circulation and Precipitation Patterns
261(1)
Average Wind Flow and Pressure Patterns Aloft
262(1)
Jet Streams
263(3)
Focus on an Observation: The ``Dishpan'' Experiment
266(1)
The Formation of the Polar Front Jet and the Subtropical Jet
267(1)
Other Jet Streams
268(2)
Focus on an Advanced Topic: Momentum---A Case of Give and Take
270(1)
Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions
271(10)
Global Wind Patterns and Surface Ocean Currents
271(1)
Upwelling
272(2)
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
274(4)
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
278(1)
North Atlantic Oscillation
279(1)
Arctic Oscillation
280(1)
Summary
281(1)
Key Terms
281(1)
Questions for Review
282(1)
Questions for Thought
282(1)
Problems and Exercises
282(1)
Questions for Exploration
283(1)
Air Masses and Fronts
284(24)
Air Masses
286(10)
Source Regions
286(1)
Classification
286(1)
Air Masses of North America
287(1)
cP (Continental Polar) and cA (Continental Arctic) Air Masses
287(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Lake-Effect (Enhanced) Snows
289(2)
mP (Maritime Polar) Air Masses
291(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Return of the Siberian Express
292(1)
mT (Maritime Tropical) Air Masses
293(2)
cT (Continental Tropical) Air Masses
295(1)
Fronts
296(10)
Stationary Fronts
296(1)
Cold Fronts
296(4)
Warm Fronts
300(2)
Occluded Fronts
302(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Drylines
303(2)
Upper-Air Fronts
305(1)
Summary
306(1)
Key Terms
306(1)
Questions for Review
306(1)
Questions for Thought
307(1)
Problems and Exercises
307(1)
Questions for Exploration
307(1)
Middle-Latitude Cyclones
308(26)
Polar Front Theory
310(3)
Where do Mid-Latitude Cyclones Tend to Form?
313(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Northeasters
314(1)
Vertical Structure of Deep Dynamic Lows
315(1)
Upper-Level Waves and Mid-Latitude Cyclones
316(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Closer Look at Convergence and Divergence
317(1)
The Necessary Ingredients for a Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclone
318(8)
Upper-Air Support
319(1)
The Role of the Jet Stream
320(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Jet Streaks and Storms
321(1)
Conveyor Belt Model of Mid-Latitude Cyclones
322(1)
A Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclone---The March Storm of 1993
323(3)
Vorticity, Divergence, and Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclones
326(5)
Earth Vorticity, Relative Vorticity, and Absolute Vorticity
327(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Vorticity and Longwaves
328(1)
Putting It All Together---A Monstrous Snowstorm
329(2)
Polar Lows
331(1)
Summary
332(1)
Key Terms
332(1)
Questions for Review
332(1)
Questions for Thought
333(1)
Problems and Exercises
333(1)
Questions for Exploration
333(1)
Weather Forecasting
334(32)
Acquisition of Weather Information
336(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Watches, Warnings, and Advisories
337(1)
Weather Forecasting Methods
338(11)
The Computer and Weather Forecasting: Numerical Weather Prediction
338(1)
Forecasting Tools
338(4)
Why Forecasts Go Awry and Steps to Improve Them
342(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Thickness Chart---A Forecasting Tool
343(2)
Other Forecasting Methods
345(2)
Types of Forecasts
347(1)
Accuracy and Skill in Forecasting
348(1)
Predicting the Weather from Local Signs
349(1)
Weather Forecasting Using Surface Charts
350(7)
Focus on an Observation: Forecasting Temperature Advection by Watching the Clouds
351(1)
Determining the Movement of Weather Systems
352(1)
A Forecast for Six Cities
353(1)
Weather Forecast for Augusta, Georgia
353(1)
Rain or Snow for Washington, D.C.?
354(1)
Big Snowstorm for Chicago
355(1)
Mixed Bag of Weather for Memphis
356(1)
Cold Wave for Dallas
356(1)
Clear but Cold for Denver
356(1)
A Meteorologist Makes a Prediction
357(5)
Help from the 500-mb Chart
357(1)
The Computer Provides Assistance
358(2)
A Valid Forecast
360(1)
Assistance from the Satellite
361(1)
A Day of Rain and Wind
361(1)
Summary
362(1)
Key Terms
363(1)
Questions for Review
363(1)
Questions for Thought
363(1)
Problems and Exercises
364(1)
Questions for Exploration
365(1)
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
366(38)
Thunderstorms
368(21)
Ordinary Cell Thunderstorms
368(3)
Severe Thunderstorms and the Supercell
371(2)
Squall Lines and Mesoscale Convective Complexes
373(2)
Dryline Thunderstorms
375(1)
Gust Fronts, Microbursts, and Derechoes
376(3)
Floods and Flash Floods
379(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Terrifying Flash Flood in the Big Thompson Canyon
380(1)
Distribution of Thunderstorms
381(2)
Lightning and Thunder
383(1)
Focus on an Observation: Elves in the Atmosphere
384(1)
Electrification of Clouds
384(1)
The Lightning Stroke
385(2)
Lightning Detection and Suppression
387(2)
Focus on an Observation: Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree
389(1)
Tornadoes
389(5)
Tornado Life Cycle
390(1)
Tornado Outbreaks
390(1)
Tornado Occurrence
390(2)
Tornado Winds
392(1)
Seeking Shelter
392(1)
The Fujita Scale
393(1)
Tornadic Thunderstorms
394(5)
Supercell Tornadoes
394(4)
Nonsupercell Tornadoes
398(1)
Severe Weather and Doppler Radar
399(1)
Waterspouts
400(1)
Summary
401(1)
Key Terms
402(1)
Questions for Review
402(1)
Questions for Thought
402(1)
Problems and Exercises
403(1)
Questions for Exploration
403(1)
Hurricanes
404(26)
Tropical Weather
406(1)
Anatomy of a Hurricane
406(4)
Hurricane Formation and Dissipation
410(16)
Hurricane Stages of Development
412(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: How Do Hurricanes Compare with Middle-Latitude Storms?
413(1)
Hurricane Movement
413(2)
Eastern Pacific Hurricanes
415(1)
North Atlantic Hurricanes
415(1)
Destruction and Warning
416(3)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Tropical Storm Named Allison
419(1)
Devastating Hurricanes
420(5)
Modifying Hurricanes
425(1)
Naming Hurricanes
426(1)
Summary
427(1)
Key Terms
427(1)
Questions for Review
427(1)
Questions for Thought
428(1)
Problems and Exercises
428(1)
Questions for Exploration
428(2)
Climate Change
430(28)
The Earth's Changing Climate
432(6)
Determining Past Climates
432(3)
Climate Through the Ages
435(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Ocean Conveyor Belt and Climate Change
436(1)
Climate During the Past 1000 Years
437(1)
Temperature Trend during the Past 100-Plus Years
437(1)
Possible Causes of Climatic Change
438(9)
Climate Change and Feedback Mechanisms
439(1)
Climate Change, Plate Tectonics, and Mountain Building
439(2)
Climate Change and Variations in the Earth's Orbit
441(2)
Climate Change and Atmospheric Particles
443(1)
Aerosols in the Troposphere
443(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Nuclear Winter---Climate Change Induced by Nuclear War
444(1)
Volcanic Eruptions and Aerosols in the Stratosphere
444(2)
Climate Change and Variations in Solar Output
446(1)
Global Warming
447(9)
Focus on a Special Topic: Climate Models
448(1)
The Recent Warming
448(1)
Radiative Forcing Agents
448(1)
Climate Models and Recent Temperature Trends
449(1)
Focus on an Advanced Topic: Radiative Forcing---The Ins and Outs
450(1)
Future Warming---Projections, Questions, and Uncertainties
451(1)
Questions and Uncertainties About Greenhouse Gases
451(1)
Clouds Get in the Way
452(1)
Possible Consequences of Global Warming
452(2)
In Perspective
454(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Sahel---An Example of Climatic Variability and Human Existence
455(1)
Summary
456(1)
Key Terms
456(1)
Questions for Review
456(1)
Questions for Thought
457(1)
Problems and Exercises
457(1)
Questions for Exploration
457(1)
Global Climate
458(30)
A World with Many Climates
460(4)
Global Temperatures
460(1)
Global Precipitation
461(3)
Focus on a Special Topic: Precipitation Extremes
464(1)
Climatic Classification
464(2)
The Ancient Greeks
464(1)
The Koppen System
465(1)
Thornthwaite's System
466(1)
The Global Pattern of Climate
466(19)
Tropical Moist Climates (Group A)
466(6)
Dry Climates (Group B)
472(2)
Moist Subtropical Mid-Latitude Climates (Group C)
474(2)
Focus on an Observation: A Desert with Clouds and Drizzle
476(3)
Moist Continental Climates (Group D)
479(3)
Polar Climates (Group E)
482(1)
Highland Climates (Group H)
483(2)
Summary
485(1)
Key Terms
485(1)
Questions for Review
485(1)
Questions for Thought
486(1)
Problems and Exercises
486(1)
Questions for Exploration
486(2)
Air Pollution
488(28)
A Brief History of Air Pollution
490(1)
Types and Sources of Air Pollutants
491(12)
Principal Air Pollutants
492(3)
Ozone in the Troposphere
495(1)
Ozone in the Stratosphere
496(1)
Stratospheric Ozone: Production-Destruction
497(1)
Stratospheric Ozone---Upsetting the Balance
498(1)
Air Pollution: Trends and Patterns
499(1)
Focus on an Environmental: Issue The Ozone Hole
500(3)
Factors that Affect Air Pollution
503(6)
The Role of the Wind
503(1)
The Role of Stability and Inversions
503(1)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: Indoor Air Pollution
504(2)
Focus on Special Topic: Smokestack Plumes
506(2)
The Role of Topography
508(1)
Severe Air Pollution Potential
508(1)
Air Pollution and the Urban Environment
509(2)
Focus on an Observation: Five Days in Donora---An Air Pollution Episode
510(1)
Acid Deposition
511(2)
Summary
513(1)
Key Terms
514(1)
Questions for Review
514(1)
Questions for Thought
515(1)
Problems and Exercises
515(1)
Questions for Exploration
515(1)
Light, Color, and Atmospheric Optics
516
White and Colors
518(1)
White Clouds and Scattered Light
518(1)
Blue Skies and Hazy Days
519(2)
Red Suns and Blue Moons
521(2)
Twinkling, Twilight, and the Green Flash
523(2)
The Mirage: Seeing Is Not Believing
525(2)
Focus on an Observation: The Fata Morgana
527(1)
Halos, Sundogs, and Sun Pillars
527(3)
Rainbows
530(3)
Focus on an Observation: Can It Be a Rainbow If It Is Not Raining?
533(1)
Coronas, Glories, and Heiligenschein
533(2)
Summary
535(1)
Key Terms
536(1)
Questions for Review
536(1)
Questions for Thought
536(1)
Problems and Exercises
537(1)
Questions for Exploration
537
Appendix A Units, Conversions, Abbreviations, and Equations 1(4)
Appendix B Weather Symbols and the Station Model 5(2)
Appendix C Beaufort Wind Scale (Over Land) 7(1)
Appendix D Humidity and Dew-Point Tables 8(4)
Appendix E Instant Weather Forecast Chart 12(1)
Appendix F Changing GMT and UTC to Local Time 13(1)
Appendix G Global Average Annual Precipitation 14(2)
Appendix H Standard Atmosphere 16(1)
Appendix I Hurricane Tracking Chart 17(1)
Appendix J Adiabatic Chart 18
Glossary 1(1)
Additional Reading Material 1(1)
Index 1


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