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Methods in Behavioral Research,9780078035159
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Methods in Behavioral Research

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McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Methods in Behavioral Researchhas achieved its market-leading position with its concise and strategic approach to methodological decision making. Combining helpful pedagogy and rich examples, Cozby's tenth edition again incorporates learning objectives, illustrative graphics, and activities to increase student involvement. Highlights of the new edition include a broader introduction of different research techniques in Chapter 4, extensive revision of the "validity of measurements" section, and updated structural equations models.

Table of Contents

1. Scientific Understanding of Behavior

Uses of Research Methods

The Scientific Approach

Goals of Science

Basic and Applied Research

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions


2. Where to Start

Hypotheses and Predictions?

Who We Study: A Note on Terminology

Source of Ideas

Library Research

anatomy of a Research Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions

3. Ethical Research

milgram's Obedience Experiment

The Belmont Report>/h4>

Assessment of Risks and Benefits

Informed Consent

The Importance of Debriefing

Alternatives to Deception

Justice and the Selection of Participants

Researcher Commitments

Federal Regulations and the Institutional Review Board

APA Ethics Code

Research with Human Participants

Ethics and Animal Research

Risks and Benefits Revisited

Misrepresentation: Fraud and Plagiarism

Ethical Issues: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions


4. Studying Behavior

Validity: An Introduction


Operational Definitions of Variables

Relationships Between Variables

Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods

Independent and Dependent Variables

Internal Validity: Inferring Causality

External Validity

Choosing a Method

Evaluating Research: Summary of the Three Validities

Studying Behavior: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions

Answers 5. Measurement Concepts

Reliability of Measures

Construct Validity of Measures

Research on Personality and Individual Differences

Reactivity of Measures

Variables and Measurement Scales

Measurement Concepts: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions

6. Observational Methods

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

Naturalistic Observation

Systematic Observation

Case Studies

Archival Research

Observational Methods: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions


7. Asking People About Themselves: Survey Research

Why Conduct Surveys?

Constructing Questions to Ask

Responses to Questions

Finalizing the Questionnaire

Administering Surveys

Survey Designs to Study Changes Over Time

Sampling From a Population

Sampling Techniques

Evaluating Samples

Reasons for Using Convenience Samples

Survey Research: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions


8. Experimental Design

Confounding and Internal Validity

Basic Experiments

Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions

Independent Groups Design

Repeated Measures Design

Matched Pairs Design

Experimental Design: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions

9. Conducting Experiments

Selecting Research Participants

Manipulating the Independent Variable

Measuring the Dependent Variable

Additional Controls

Additional Considerations

Analyzing and Interpreting Results

Communicating Research to Others

Conducting Experiments: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions


10. Complex Experimental Designs

Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable

Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs

Illustrative Article: Complex Experimental Designs

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions


11. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Participant Designs

Single Case Experimental Designs

Program Evaluation

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Developmental Research Designs

Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions

12. Understanding Research Results: Description and Correlation

Scales of Measurement: A Review

Analyzing the Results of Research Investigations

Frequency Distributions

Descriptive Statistics

Graphing Relationships

Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of


Effect Size

Regression Equations

Multiple Correlation / Regression

Partial Correlation and the Third-Variable Problem

Structural Equation Modeling

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions


13. Understanding Research Results: Statistical Inference

Samples and Populations

Inferential Statistics

Null and Research Hypotheses

Probability and Sampling Distributions

Example: The T and F Tests

Type I and Type Ii Errors

Choosing a Significance Level

Interpreting Nonsignificant Results

Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis

The Importance of Replications

Significance of a Pearson R Correlation Coefficient

Computer Analysis of Data

Selecting the Appropriate Statistical Test

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions

14. Generalizing Results

Generalizing to Other Populations of Research


Cultural Considerations

Generalizing to Other Experimenters

Pretests and Generalization

Generalizing from Laboratory Settings

The Importance of Replications

Evaluating Generalizations Via Literature Reviews and


Using Research to Improve Lives

Generalizing Results: Illustrative Article

Study Terms

Review Questions

Activity Questions

Appendix A: Writing Research Reports

Writing Style
Organization of the Report
The Use of Headings
Citing and Referencing Sources
Some Grammatical Considerations
Reporting Numbers and Statistics
Paper and Poster Presentations
Sample Paper

Appendix B: Statistical Tests

Descriptive Statistics
Statistical Significance and Effect Size

Appendix C: Statistical Tables

Table C.1 Critical Values of Chi-Square
Table C.2 Critical Values of T
Table C.3 Critical Values of F
Table C.4 Critical Values of R (Pearson Product–Moment
Correlation Coefficient)





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