9781259676987

METHODS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781259676987

  • ISBN10:

    1259676986

  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-10-03
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface xii

About the Authors xix

1 SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF BEHAVIOR 1

Importance of Research Methods 2

Ways of Knowing 4

Goals of Behavioral Science 8

Basic and Applied Research 12

Study Terms 18

Review Questions 18

Activities 18

Answers 19

2 WHERE TO START 20

Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Predictions 21

Sources of Ideas 22

Types of Research Reports 28

Exploring Past Research 35

Study Terms 44

Review Questions 44

Answers 44

3 ETHICS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH 45

Milgramís Obedience Experiment 46

Historical Context of Current Ethical Standards 48

APA Ethics Code 49

Assessment of Risks and Benefits 51

Informed Consent 54

The Importance of Debriefing 59

Institutional Review Boards 60

Research with Nonhuman Animal Subjects 62

Being an Ethical Researcher: The Issue of

Misrepresentation 64

Conclusion: Risks and Benefits Revisited 68

Study Terms 71

Review Questions 71

Activities 71

Answers 73

4 FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ISSUES 74

Validity: An Introduction 75

Variables 75

Operational Definitions of Variables 76

Relationships Between Variables 78

Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods 83

Experimental Methods: Additional Considerations 92

Evaluating Research: Summary of the Three Validities 96

Study Terms 97

Review Questions 98

Activities 98

Answers 100

5 MEASUREMENT CONCEPTS 101

Reliability of Measures 102

Construct Validity of Measures 107

Reactivity of Measures 110

Variables and Measurement Scales 111

Study Terms 117

Review Questions 117

Activities 117

Answers 118

6 OBSERVATIONAL METHODS 119

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches 120

Naturalistic Observation 121

Systematic Observation 124

Case Studies 127

Archival Research 128

Study Terms 133

Review Questions 134

Activities 134

Answers 135

7 ASKING PEOPLE ABOUT THEMSELVES: SURVEY RESEARCH 136

Why Conduct Surveys? 137

Constructing Questions to Ask 139

Responses to Questions 143

Finalizing the Survey Instrument 146

Administering Surveys 147

Survey Designs to Study Changes Over Time 150

Sampling From a Population 151

Sampling Techniques 153

Evaluating Samples 156

Reasons for Using Convenience Samples 159

Study Terms 161

Review Questions 162

Activities 162

Answers 163

8 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 164

Confounding and Internal Validity 165

Basic Experiments 166

Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions 171

Study Terms 180

Review Questions 180

Activities 180

Answers 181

9 CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS 182

Selecting Research Participants 183

Manipulating the Independent Variable 184

Measuring the Dependent Variable 190

Additional Controls 194

Final Planning Considerations 197

Analyzing and Interpreting Results 200

Communicating Research to Others 200

Study Terms 202

Review Questions 202

Activities 203

Answers 204

10 COMPLEX EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 205

Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 206

Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs 208

Outcomes of a 2 ◊ 2 Factorial Design 213

Assignment Procedures and Factorial Designs 216

Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 218

Factorial Designs with Three or More Independent Variables 219

Study Terms 222

Review Questions 222

Activities 223

Answers 223

11 SINGLE-CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH 224

Single-Case Experimental Designs 225

Quasi-Experimental Designs 229

Developmental Research Designs 238

Study Terms 243

Review Questions 243

Activities 244

12 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: DESCRIPTION AND CORRELATION 246

Scales of Measurement: A Review 247

Describing Results 248

Frequency Distributions 250

Descriptive Statistics 252

Graphing Relationships 253

Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of Relationships 255

Effect Size 260

Regression Equations 261

Multiple Correlation/Regression 262

The Third-Variable Problem 264

Structural Equation Modeling 265

Study Terms 267

Review Questions 267

Activities 268

Answers 269

13 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: STATISTICAL INFERENCE 270

Samples and Populations 271

Inferential Statistics 272

Null and Research Hypotheses 272

Probability and Sampling Distributions 273

Group Differences: The t and F Tests 276

Type I and Type II Errors 282

Choosing a Significance Level 285

Interpreting Nonsignificant Results 286

Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis 288

The Importance of Replications 289

Significance of a Pearson r Correlation Coefficient 289

Computer Analysis of Data 289

Selecting the Appropriate Statistical Test 290

Study Terms 293

Review Questions 294

Activities 294

Answers 295

14 GENERALIZATION 296

Generalizing to Other Populations 297

Generalizing Across Methods 303

Supporting Good External Validity 305

The Importance of Replications 306

Evaluating Generalizations via Literature Reviews and Meta-analyses 310

Using Research to Improve Lives 312

Study Terms 313

Review Questions 314

Activities 314

APPENDIX A: REPORTING RESEARCH 315

Introduction 315

Writing Your Report 316

Formatting Your Report 322

Organization of the Report 324

The Use of Headings 335

Citing and Referencing Sources 336

Abbreviations 345

Reporting Numbers and Statistics 346

Conclusion: Written Reports 348

Paper and Poster Presentations 348

Sample Paper 352

APPENDIX B: ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS

AND CODE OF CONDUCT 371

Preamble 371

General Principles 372

Standard 8: Research and Publication 374

APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL TESTS 378

Descriptive Statistics 378

Statistical Significance and Effect Size 381

Glossary 399

References 407

Index 419

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