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Methods in Behavioral Research with PowerWeb,9780073271316
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Methods in Behavioral Research with PowerWeb

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780073271316

ISBN10:
0073271314
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/12/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $124.65

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This is the 9th edition with a publication date of 1/12/2006.
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Summary

With its concise and strategic approach to decision making,Methods in Behavioral Researchby Paul C. Cozby continues to gain in popularity among instructors and students alike. Building on a strong foundation of pedagogy and well-chosen examples, the ninth edition incorporates learning objectives, new graphics and activities to increase student involvement, and an updated appendix on writing research reports as well as making poster presentations.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
About the Author xv
1 SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF BEHAVIOR
Uses of Research Methods
2(1)
The Scientific Approach
3(4)
Goals of Science
7(3)
Basic and Applied Research
10(4)
Study Terms
14(1)
Review Questions
14(1)
Activity Questions
14(1)
Answers
15(1)
2 WHERE TO START 16(21)
Hypotheses and Predictions
17(1)
Who We Study: A Note on Terminology
18(1)
Sources of Ideas
18(5)
Library Research
23(10)
Anatomy of a Research Article
33(2)
Study Terms
35(1)
Review Questions
35(1)
Activity Questions
35(2)
3 ETHICAL RESEARCH 37(29)
Milgram's Obedience Experiment
38(1)
The Belmont Report
39(1)
Assessment of Risks and Benefits
39(3)
Informed Consent
42(5)
The Importance of Debriefing
47(1)
Alternatives to Deception
48(2)
Justice and the Selection of Participants
50(1)
Researcher Commitments
51(1)
Federal Regulations and the Institutional Review Board
51(3)
APA Ethics Code
54(1)
Research With Human Participants
55(2)
Ethics and Animal Research
57(2)
Risks and Benefits Revisited
59(2)
Misrepresentation
61(2)
Study Terms
63(1)
Review Questions
63(1)
Activity Questions
64(1)
Answers
65(1)
4 STUDYING BEHAVIOR 66(25)
Variables
67(1)
Operational Definitions of Variables
68(1)
Relationships Between Variables
69(5)
Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods
74(5)
Independent and Dependent Variables
79(2)
Causality
81(2)
Choosing a Method: Advantages of Multiple Methods
83(3)
Evaluating Research: Three Validities
86(1)
Study Terms
87(1)
Review Questions
88(1)
Activity Questions
88(2)
Answers
90(1)
5 MEASUREMENT CONCEPTS 91(17)
Reliability of Measures
92(5)
Construct Validity of Measures
97(4)
Research on Personality and Individual Differences
101(1)
Reactivity of Measures
101(1)
Variables and Measurement Scales
102(3)
Study Terms
105(1)
Review Questions
106(1)
Activity Questions
106(2)
6 OBSERVING BEHAVIOR 108(15)
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
109(1)
Naturalistic Observation
110(4)
Systematic Observation
114(3)
Case Studies
117(1)
Archival Research
118(3)
Study Terms
121(1)
Review Questions
121(1)
Activity Questions
121(1)
Answers
122(1)
7 ASKING PEOPLE ABOUT THEMSELVES: SURVEY RESEARCH 123(26)
Why Conduct Surveys?
124(2)
Constructing Questions to Ask
126(3)
Responses to Questions
129(4)
Finalizing the Questionnaire
133(1)
Administering Surveys
134(3)
Survey Designs to Study Changes Over Time
137(1)
Sampling From a Population
138(2)
Sampling Techniques
140(4)
Evaluating Samples
144(2)
Study Terms
146(1)
Review Questions
147(1)
Activity Questions
147(1)
Answers
148(1)
8 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 149(16)
Confounding and Internal Validity
150(1)
Basic Experiments
151(3)
Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions
154(1)
Independent Groups Design
155(1)
Repeated Measures Design
156(5)
Matched Pairs Design
161(2)
Study Terms
163(1)
Review Questions
163(1)
Activity Questions
163(2)
9 CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS 165(21)
Selecting Research Participants
166(1)
Manipulating the Independent Variable
166(6)
Measuring the Dependent Variable
172(4)
Additional Controls
176(4)
Additional Considerations
180(2)
Analyzing and Interpreting Results
182(1)
Communicating Research to Others
183(1)
Study Terms
184(1)
Review Questions
184(1)
Activity Questions
185(1)
Answers
185(1)
10 COMPLEX EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 186(17)
Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable
187(1)
Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs
188(13)
Study Terms
201(1)
Review Questions
201(1)
Activity Questions
201(1)
Answers
202(1)
11 SINGLE CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH 203(22)
Single Case Experimental Designs
204(4)
Program Evaluation
208(2)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
210(8)
Developmental Research Designs
218(3)
Study Terms
221(1)
Review Questions
222(1)
Activity Questions
222(3)
12 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: DESCRIPTION AND CORRELATION 225(22)
Scales of Measurement: A Review
226(1)
Analyzing the Results of Research Investigations
227(2)
Frequency Distributions
229(2)
Descriptive Statistics
231(1)
Graphing Relationships
232(1)
Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of Relationships
233(5)
Effect Size
238(1)
Statistical Significance
239(1)
Regression Equations
239(1)
Multiple Correlation
240(2)
Partial Correlation and the Third-Variable Problem
242(1)
Structural Models
243(1)
Study Terms
244(1)
Review Questions
245(1)
Activity Questions
245(1)
Answers
246(1)
13 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: STATISTICAL INFERENCE 247(24)
Samples and Populations
248(1)
Inferential Statistics
248(1)
Null and Research Hypotheses
249(1)
Probability and Sampling Distributions
250(3)
Example: The t and F Tests
253(6)
Type I and Type II Errors
259(3)
Choosing a Significance Level
262(1)
Interpreting Nonsignificant Results
262(2)
Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis
264(1)
The Importance of Replications
265(1)
Significance of a Pearson r Correlation Coefficient
265(1)
Computer Analysis of Data
266(2)
Selecting the Appropriate Significance Test
268(1)
Study Terms
269(1)
Review Questions
269(1)
Activity Questions
270(1)
14 GENERALIZING RESULTS 271(16)
Generalizing to Other Populations of Research Participants
272(3)
Cultural Considerations
275(2)
Generalizing to Other Experimenters
277(1)
Pretests and Generalization
277(1)
Generalizing from Laboratory Settings
278(1)
The Importance of Replications
279(3)
Evaluating Generalizations via Literature Reviews and Meta-Analysis
282(2)
Using Research to Improve Lives
284(1)
Study Terms
285(1)
Review Questions
285(1)
Activity Questions
286(1)
APPENDIX A: WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS 287(55)
Introduction
287(1)
Writing Style
288(4)
Organization of the Report
292(11)
The Use of Headings
303(1)
Citing and Referencing Sources
304(7)
Abbreviations
311(2)
Some Grammatical Considerations
313(3)
Reporting Numbers and Statistics
316(1)
Conclusion
317(1)
Paper and Poster Presentations
318(1)
Sample Paper
319(23)
APPENDIX B: STATISTICAL TESTS 342(22)
Descriptive Statistics
342(3)
Statistical Significance Tests
345(15)
Correlation and Effect Size
360(4)
APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL TABLES 364(12)
Table C.1 Random Number Table
366(4)
Table C.2 Critical Values of Chi-Square
370(1)
Table C.3 Critical Values of t
371(1)
Table C.4 Critical Values of F
372(3)
Table C.S Critical Values of r (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient)
375(1)
APPENDIX D: CONSTRUCTING A LATIN SQUARE 376(2)
Glossary 378(8)
References 386(11)
Credits 397(2)
Index 399


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