9781577663331

Methods of Educational and Social Science Research : An Integrated Approach

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781577663331

  • ISBN10:

    1577663330

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-01-01
  • Publisher: Waveland Pr Inc

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Table of Contents

Preface for the Instructor xiii
Preface for the Student xix
SECTION ONE The Nature of Research 1(76)
CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Two Contrasting Research Styles
3(18)
Overview
3(1)
Social and Behavioral Science: Important but Historically Young
4(1)
Two Illustrative Studies
5(1)
A Quantitative Experimental Study
6 (6)
A Qualitative Research Study
12 (7)
Summary
19(2)
CHAPTER 2 The Variety of Research Methods
21(17)
Overview
21(1)
Contrasting the Two Approaches
22(3)
A Continuum of Research Approaches
25 (3)
Categories of Research Studies
28 (4)
The Roles and Outcomes of Research
32(2)
Comparison of Roles of Various Research Approaches
34(1)
Summary
35(3)
CHAPTER 3 From Findings to Knowledge
38(24)
Overview
38(1)
Introduction
39(1)
An Illustration of the Journey from Findings to Knowledge
39(5)
Important Characteristics of the Journey
44 (2)
Knowing Judgments in Everyday Life
46(2)
Different Sources of Knowledge
48 (4)
The Norms of Knowledge Production
52(4)
Ethics
56(1)
Summary
57(5)
CHAPTER 4 The Research Chain of Reasoning
62(15)
Overview
62(1)
Introduction
62(1)
The Research Chain of Reasoning
63 (8)
The Chain of Reasoning and Qualitative Studies
71 (1)
Summary
72(5)
SECTION TWO Foundational Research Skills 77(48)
CHAPTER 5 Finding Research Problems
79(21)
Overview
80(1)
The Problem of the Problem
80(1)
Problem Finding and Research Method
81 (2)
Criteria of a Good Problem
83 (3)
Success-Enhancing Problem-Finding Behaviors
86(9)
Summary
95(5)
CHAPTER 6 Finding Links to Past Research: The Literature Review
100(25)
Overview
101(1)
The Literature Search in Relation to Research Method
101(1)
Goals of the Literature Search
102(2)
The Variety of Information Sources Available
104(1)
The Breadth of References Available
105 (4)
Computer Searches
109 (2)
Indexes and the Indexing Process
111 (7)
The Relation of Starting Points to Problem Development
118 (2)
Organizing the Search
120 (1)
Meta-Analyses
121(1)
General Suggestions
121 (1)
Summary
122(3)
SECTION THREE Foundational Research Concepts 125(98)
CHAPTER 7 Causal Inference and Internal Validity
127(31)
Overview
128(1)
Association and Causation
129(1)
Complications in the Concept of Cause
130 (4)
Patterns of Cause and Effect Relationships
134(2)
Internal and External Validity as Evidence of Causation
136(2)
Internal Validity (LP)
138(10)
Relationship of Internal Validity (LP) to the Chain of Reasoning
148(1)
Internal Validity (LP) and External Validity (GP) as Reduction in Uncertainty
149(1)
Patterns of the "Basis for Sensing Attributes or Changes" Link That Facilitate Inferences of Causation
149(3)
Can Causation Ever Be Inferred?
152 (1)
Summary
153(5)
CHAPTER 8 Sampling, Representation, and External Validity
158(29)
Overview
159(1)
Introduction
159 (1)
Principles of Sampling
160(3)
Probability and Nonprobability Sampling
163(1)
Probability Sampling Procedures
163 (8)
Nonprobability Sampling
171(3)
Generality, External Validity (GP), and Population Definition
174 (8)
Summary
182(5)
CHAPTER 9 Research Criteria to Optimize and Constraints to Observe
187(17)
Overview
188(1)
Introduction
188(2)
Criteria to be Optimized
190 (7)
Limits and Constraints
197 (3)
Summary
200(4)
CHAPTER 10 Ethical Standards and Legal Constraints
204(21)
Overview
204 (1)
Introduction
205(1)
Legal and Institutional Protection of Human Subjects
206(2)
Informed Consent
208(3)
Codes of Ethics from Professional Associations
211(2)
Collaboration with Research Subjects
213 (1)
Common Ethical Concerns
214(4)
Researcher's Responsibility to the Institutional Review Board
218 (1)
Summary
219(4)
Introduction to Sections Four Through Seven 223(2)
SECTION FOUR The Continuum of Research Methods: Qualitative End 225(124)
CHAPTER 11 Qualitative Research Methods
227(20)
Overview
227(1)
Introduction
228(1)
Uses and Advantages of Qualitative Procedures
229(4)
The Variety of Approaches to Qualitative Methods
233(2)
Qualitative Orientation as a Point of View
235(3)
Finding a Problem
238(2)
Ways of Generating Qualitative Data
240 (1)
Overview of the Qualitative Process
241 (2)
Summary
243(4)
CHAPTER 12 Fieldwork and Observation
247(37)
Overview
248(1)
Ways of Observing
249 (3)
Initial Steps
252 (7)
Data Gathering
259 (15)
Data Validity
274 (3)
Leaving the Field
277 (1)
Ethics
277(2)
Tips on Observation
279 (1)
Summary
280(4)
CHAPTER 13 Interviewing
284(18)
Overview
285(1)
Introduction
285(2)
Structuring Interviewer and Respondent Roles
287(2)
The Focused Interview
289 (1)
Using Rapport Builders
290(2)
The Nondirective Approach
292 (2)
Choosing Interviewees: Sampling Patterns
294(1)
Multiple Interviewers and Respondents
294 (2)
Interviewer Characteristics Affecting Responses
296(2)
Tips on Interviewing and Hallmarks of an Interview
298 (1)
Summary
298(4)
CHAPTER 14 Qualitative Data Analysis
302(27)
Overview
303(1)
Introduction
304(1)
Early Steps in Analysis
305 (2)
The Nature of Coding
307(7)
Drawing and Verifying Conclusions
314 (3)
Threats to the Validity of Interpretation: Rival Explanations
317(3)
Use of Computers in Analysis
320(3)
Fitting the Analysis Process to the Study
323 (1)
Tips on Analysis
324(1)
Summary
325(4)
CHAPTER 15 Conclusions, Reporting, and Quality Considerations in Qualitative Research
329(20)
Overview
330 (1)
Introduction
330(1)
Report Format and Organization
331 (5)
Quality Considerations in Qualitative Research
336(8)
Hallmarks of Qualitative Research
344 (2)
Summary
346(3)
SECTION FIVE The Continuum of Research Methods: Qualitative Quantitative Middle 349(36)
CHAPTER 16 Survey Research and Questionnaires
351(34)
Overview
351(1)
Introduction
352(1)
Survey Purposes and Planning
352 (6)
Interviews
358(3)
Questionnaires
361(9)
E-mail Questionnaires
370(1)
Coding of Interview and Questionnaire Responses
370(1)
Analysis of Interview and Questionnaire Data
371(1)
Improving Questions, Questionnaires, and
Letters of Transmittal
372 (5)
Additional Hallmarks of Survey Research
377(1)
A Summary Comparison of Four Survey Data Collecting Modes
377 (4)
Summary
381(4)
SECTION SIX The Continuum of Research Methods: Quantitative End 385(184)
CHAPTER 17 The Numeric Description of Data: Descriptive Statistics
387(34)
Overview
388 (1)
Introduction
388(3)
Representations of Groups of Numbers (Data Sets)
391(5)
Descriptive Statistics
396(18)
Appropriate Interpretation of Statistics
414 (3)
Exploring with Statistics
417 (1)
Summary
417(4)
CHAPTER 18 Measurement, Testing, and Observation
421(34)
Overview
422(1)
Introduction
423(3)
Evidence of Construct Validity
426 (6)
The Specificity of Validity
432 (3)
Reliability of Measures
435(5)
Improvement of Validity and/or Reliability
Through Item Analysis
440 (2)
Objectivity of Measures
442 (2)
Measurement Trade-Offs
444 (1)
Advances in Measurement
444 (1)
Locating Existing Measures
445 (1)
Summary
446(4)
Chapter Appendix
450(5)
CHAPTER 19 The Nature and Logic of Inferential Statistics
455(43)
Overview
455(1)
Prologue
456 (2)
Introduction
458 (2)
Estimation
460(4)
The Logic of Confidence Intervals
464 (1)
The Logic of Hypothesis Testing
465(11)
The t Test of Differences Between Means
476 (2)
Sensitivity, Precision, and Statistical Power
478(6)
The Level of Significance to Report
484 (1)
Statistical and Practical Significance
485 (1)
Proof of a Proposition Versus Its Escaping Disconfirmation
485(1)
Violation of the Assumptions of Statistical Tests
486(2)
Two Additional Common Inferential Statistics
488(4)
Use of Computerized Statistical Programs
492(1)
Possible Future Directions of Inferential Statistics
492(1)
Summary
493(5)
CHAPTER 20 Experimental Methods and Experimental Design
498(55)
Overview
498(1)
Introduction
499(4)
The Art of Experimental Design
503 (3)
General Methods of Control
506(3)
How Simple Experimental Designs Control Rival Explanations
509(2)
Common Rival Explanations, and Threats to Validity
511(13)
A Summary of Protection Offered by Six Simple Designs
524(2)
A Summary of Common Control Problems and Their Elimination
526 (5)
Additional Designs
531 (4)
Factorial Designs
535(1)
Causal Comparison, Ex Post Facto Studies, and After-the-Fact Natural Experiments
536(4)
Treatment Definition and Fidelity
540 (5)
Hallmarks of Experimental Design and Tips on Constructing Them
545 (2)
Summary
547 (6)
CHAPTER 21 Meta-Analysis-Synthesis of Findings
553(16)
Overview
553(1)
Introduction
554(4)
Considerations in Meta-Analytic Methodology
558(2)
Meta-Analysis Methods
560(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Quantitative Literature Summaries
562 (2)
Hallmarks of Meta-Analytic Studies and Tips for Doing Them
564 (1)
Summary
565(4)
SECTION SEVEN Examples of Fields Applying Basic Methods 569(46)
CHAPTER 22 Historical Research
571(16)
Overview
571(1)
Introduction
572(1)
Methods of the Historian
573(1)
History as Selective Interpretation
573 (3)
Steps in a Historical Study
576 (7)
Hallmarks of Historical Studies
583(1)
Summary
584(3)
CHAPTER 23 Evaluation Studies and Action Research
587(28)
Overview
587(1)
Introduction
588(4)
Alternative Evaluation Approaches
592 (8)
Action Research
600(3)
Special Problems of Doing Evaluations
603 (5)
Evaluation Standards: Protection for Evaluators and Clients
608(1)
Hallmarks and Tips for Evaluation Studies
609(1)
Tips for Doing Action Research
610 (1)
Summary
611 (4)
SECTION EIGHT The Larger Context of Research 615(34)
CHAPTER 24 Optimizing Research Effectiveness Through Multiple Methods
617(15)
Overview
618(1)
Introduction
618(1)
Ways Multiple Methods Enhance Research
619(4)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Various Data Gathering Methods
623(1)
The Power of Replication
623 (4)
Summary
627(5)
CHAPTER 25 The Macrosystem of Educational and Social Science Research
632(17)
Overview
632(1)
Introduction
633(1)
Does Science Function as Intended at the Individual Level?
633(3)
Does Science Function as Intended at the Peer Level?
636(3)
The Potential of the Internet
639(1)
Does Science Function as Intended at the Societal Level?
640(5)
What Are We to Think, Then, of Social Science Research?
645(4)
APPENDIX Writing a Research Proposal 649(30)
Overview
649(1)
Definition of a Research Proposal
650 (2)
Statement of the Problem
652(7)
Design and Procedure: General Considerations
659(5)
Subsections Describing Design and Procedure
664 (7)
A Final Check and Review
671 (1)
Qualitative Method and Other Emergent Problem Proposals
672 (2)
Writing Formats
674(5)
Glossary 679 (16)
References 695 (26)
Name Index 721
Subject Index 72

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