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Microbiology : With Diseases by Taxonomy



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Benjamin Cummings
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Filled with lively vignettes and cutting-edge research that highlight the intrinsic appeal of microbiology, Baumanrs"s Second Edition retains the bookrs"s groundbreaking art program, includes a handy new "Microbe-at-a-Glance" feature, offers new options for the Microbiology Place website/CD-Rom, and provides instructors with a new Media Manager presentation package with 30 multi-step animations. KEY TOPICS: A Brief History of Microbiology, The Chemistry of Microbiology, Cell Structure and Function, Microscopy, Staining and Classification, Microbial Metabolism, Microbial Nutrition and Growth, Microbial Genetics, Recombinant DNA Technology, Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environment, Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body: Antimicrobial Drugs, Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes, Characterizing and Classifying Eukaryotes, Characterizing and Classifying Viruses, Viroids, and Prions, Infection, Infectious Diseases, and Epidemiology, Innate Immunity, Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity, Immunization and Immune Testing, Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies, Pathogenic Gram-Positive Cocci and Bacilli, Pathogenic Gram-Negative Cocci and Bacilli, Mycoplasmas, Rickettsias, Chlamydias, Spirochetes, and Vibrios, Pathogenic Fungi, Parasitic Protozoa, Helminths, and Arthropod Vectors, Pathogenic DNA Viruses, Pathogenic RNA Viruses, Applied and Environmental Microbiology. KEY MARKET: For all readers interested in the study of microbiology.

Table of Contents

A Brief History of Microbiologyp. 1
The Early Years of Microbiologyp. 2
What Does Life Really Look Like?p. 2
How Can Microbes Be Classified?p. 3
The Golden Age of Microbiologyp. 7
Is Spontaneous Generation of Microbial Life Possible?p. 7
What Causes Fermentation?p. 10
What Causes Disease?p. 10
How Can We Prevent Infection and Disease?p. 16
The Modern Age of Microbiologyp. 18
What Are the Basic Chemical Reactions of Life?p. 19
How Do Genes Work?p. 19
What Roles Do Microorganisms Play in the Environment?p. 21
How Do We Defend Against Disease?p. 21
What Will the Future Hold?p. 21
Chapter Summaryp. 22
Questions for Reviewp. 23
The Chemistry of Microbiologyp. 25
Atomsp. 26
Atomic Structurep. 26
Isotopesp. 26
Electron Configurationsp. 27
Chemical Bondsp. 28
Nonpolar Covalent Bondsp. 29
Polar Covalent Bondsp. 31
Ionic Bondsp. 32
Hydrogen Bondsp. 33
Chemical Reactionsp. 34
Synthesis Reactionsp. 34
Decomposition Reactionsp. 34
Exchange Reactionsp. 35
Water, Acids, Bases, and Saltsp. 35
Waterp. 35
Acids and Basesp. 37
Saltsp. 38
Organic Macromoleculesp. 38
Functional Groups and Monomersp. 38
Lipidsp. 39
Carbohydratesp. 42
Proteinsp. 46
Nucleic Acidsp. 49
Chapter Summaryp. 52
Questions for Reviewp. 53
Cell Structure and Functionp. 55
Processes of Lifep. 56
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: An Overviewp. 57
External Structures of Prokaryotic Cellsp. 60
Glycocalycesp. 60
Flagellap. 61
Fimbriae and Pilip. 64
Prokaryotic Cell Wallsp. 65
Bacterial Cell Wallsp. 65
Archaeal Cell Wallsp. 67
Prokaryotic Cytoplasmic Membranesp. 69
Structurep. 69
Functionp. 70
Cytoplasm of Prokaryotesp. 74
Cytosolp. 74
Inclusionsp. 74
Endosporesp. 74
Nonmembranous Organellesp. 76
External Structure of Eukaryotic Cellsp. 77
Glycocalycesp. 77
Eukaryotic Cell Walls and Cytoplasmic Membranesp. 77
Cytoplasm of Eukaryotesp. 80
Flagellap. 80
Ciliap. 81
Other nonmembranous Organellesp. 81
Membranous Organellesp. 82
Endosymbiotic Theoryp. 85
Chapter Summaryp. 88
Questions for Reviewp. 90
Microscopy, Staining, and Classificationp. 93
Units of Measurementp. 94
Microscopyp. 94
General Principles of Microscopyp. 94
Light Microscopyp. 96
Electron Microscopyp. 102
Probe Microscopyp. 104
Stainingp. 105
Preparing Specimens for Stainingp. 105
Principles of Stainingp. 107
Simple Stainsp. 107
Differential Stainsp. 107
Special Stainsp. 110
Staining for Electron Microscopyp. 112
Classification and Identification of Microorganismsp. 112
Linnaeus, Whitaker, and Taxonomic Categoriesp. 112
Domainsp. 115
Taxonomic and Identifying Characteristicsp. 115
Taxonomic Keysp. 119
Chapter Summaryp. 120
Questions for Reviewp. 121
Microbial Metabolismp. 123
Basic Chemical Reactions Underlying Metabolismp. 124
Catabolism and Anabolismp. 124
Oxidation and Reduction Reactionsp. 125
ATP Production and Energy Storagep. 126
The Roles of Enzymes in Metabolismp. 126
Carbohydrate Catabolismp. 133
Glycolysisp. 134
Alternatives to Glycolysisp. 137
Continuation of Cellular Respirationp. 139
Fermentationp. 146
Other Catabolic Pathwaysp. 147
Lipid Catabolismp. 147
Protein Catabolismp. 149
Photosynthesisp. 149
Chemicals and Structuresp. 150
Light-Dependent Reactionsp. 151
Light-Independent Reactionsp. 154
Other Anabolic Pathwaysp. 154
Carbohydrate Biosynthesisp. 155
Lipid Biosynthesisp. 156
Amino Acid Biosynthesisp. 156
Nucleotide Biosynthesisp. 158
Integration and Regulation of Metabolic Functionsp. 158
Chapter Summaryp. 161
Questions for Reviewp. 162
Microbial Nutrition and Growthp. 165
Growth Requirementsp. 166
Nutrients: Chemical and Energy Requirementsp. 166
Physical Requirementsp. 170
Ecological Associationsp. 174
Culturing Microorganismsp. 174
Clinical Samplingp. 175
Obtaining Pure Culturesp. 176
Culture Mediap. 178
Special Culture Techniquesp. 182
Preserving Culturesp. 184
Growth of Microbial Populationsp. 184
Mathematical Considerations in Population Growthp. 185
Generation Timep. 185
Phases of Microbial Growthp. 186
Measuring Microbial Growthp. 187
Chapter Summaryp. 192
Questions for Reviewp. 194
Microbial Geneticsp. 196
The Structure and Replication of Genomesp. 197
The Structure of Nucleic Acidsp. 197
The Structure of Prokaryotic Genomesp. 197
The Structure of Eukaryotic Genomesp. 200
DNA Replicationp. 201
Gene Functionp. 205
The Relationship Between Genotype and Phenotypep. 205
The Transfer of Genetic Informationp. 206
The Events in Transcriptionp. 206
Translationp. 210
Regulation of Genetic Expressionp. 216
Mutations of Genesp. 220
Types of Mutationsp. 220
Effects of Mutationsp. 220
Mutagensp. 220
Frequency of Mutationp. 223
DNA Repairp. 223
Identifying Mutants, Mutagens, and Carcinogensp. 225
Genetic Recombination and Transferp. 227
Horizontal Gene Transfer Among Prokaryotesp. 227
Transposons and Transpositionp. 232
Chapter Summaryp. 234
Questions for Reviewp. 236
Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 239
The Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in Biotechnologyp. 240
The Tools of Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 240
Mutagensp. 240
The Use of Reverse Transcriptase to Synthesize cDNAp. 241
Synthetic Nucleic Acidsp. 241
Restriction Enzymesp. 242
Vectorsp. 243
Gene librariesp. 244
Techniques of Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 245
Multiplying DNA in vitro: The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)p. 245
Selecting a Clone of Recombinant Cellsp. 246
Separating DNA Molecules: Gel Electrophoresis and the Southern Blotp. 246
DNA Microarraysp. 249
Inserting DNA into Cellsp. 250
Applications of Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 250
Genome Mappingp. 250
Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Applicationsp. 253
Agricultural Applicationsp. 256
The Ethics and Safety of Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 257
Chapter Summaryp. 258
Questions for Reviewp. 259
Controlling Microbial Growth in the Environmentp. 261
Basic Principles of Microbial Controlp. 262
Terminology of Microbial Controlp. 262
Microbial Death Ratesp. 263
Action of Antimicrobial Agentsp. 264
The Selection of Microbial Control Methodsp. 264
Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Methodsp. 264
Methods for Evaluating Disinfectants and Antisepticsp. 265
Physical Methods of Microbial Controlp. 267
Heat-Related Methodsp. 267
Refrigeration and Freezingp. 270
Desiccation and Lyophilizationp. 271
Filtrationp. 271
Osmotic Pressurep. 273
Radiationp. 273
Chemical Methods of Microbial Controlp. 276
Phenol and Phenolicsp. 276
Alcoholsp. 277
Halogensp. 277
Oxidizing Agentsp. 278
Surfactantsp. 278
Heavy Metalsp. 278
Aldehydesp. 279
Gaseous Agentsp. 280
Antimicrobialsp. 281
Development of Resistant Microbesp. 281
Chapter Summaryp. 282
Questions for Reviewp. 283
Controlling Microbial Growth in the Body: Antimicrobial Drugsp. 286
The History of Antimicrobial Agentsp. 287
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Actionp. 288
Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesisp. 289
Inhibition of Protein Synthesisp. 291
Disruption of Cytoplasmic Membranesp. 292
Inhibition of Metabolic Pathwaysp. 293
Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesisp. 294
Prevention of Virus Attachmentp. 296
Clinical Considerations in Prescribing Antimicrobial Drugsp. 296
Spectrum of Actionp. 296
Efficacyp. 297
Routes of Administrationp. 299
Safety and Side Effectsp. 300
Resistance to Antimicrobial Drugsp. 301
The Development of Resistance in Populationsp. 301
Mechanisms of Resistancep. 302
Multiple Resistance and Cross Resistancep. 303
Retarding Resistancep. 303
Chapter Summaryp. 312
Questions for Reviewp. 313
Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotesp. 315
General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organismsp. 316
Morphology of Prokaryotic Cellsp. 316
Reproduction of Prokaryotic Cellsp. 316
Arrangements of Prokaryotic Cellsp. 317
Endosporesp. 318
Modern Prokaryotic Classificationp. 319
Survey of Archaeap. 320
Extremophilesp. 321
Methanogensp. 323
Survey of Bacteriap. 323
Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteriap. 323
Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteriap. 326
High G + C Gram-Positive Bacteriap. 330
Gram-Negative Proteobacteriap. 331
Other Gram-Negative Bacteriap. 338
Chapter Summaryp. 339
Questions for Reviewp. 341
Characterizing and Classifying Eukaryotesp. 343
General Characteristics of Eukaryotic Organismsp. 344
Reproduction in Eukaryotesp. 344
The Classification of Eukaryotic Organismsp. 348
Protozoap. 349
Distribution of Protozoap. 349
Morphology of Protozoap. 349
Nutrition of Protozoap. 350
Reproduction in Protozoap. 350
Classification of Protozoap. 352
Fungip. 357
The Significance of Fungip. 358
Morphology of Fungip. 359
Nutrition of Fungip. 360
Reproduction in Fungip. 360
Classification of Fungip. 362
Lichensp. 367
Algaep. 368
Distribution of Algaep. 368
Morphology of Algaep. 368
Reproduction in Algaep. 368
Classification of Algaep. 369
Water Moldsp. 373
Other Eukaryotes of Microbiological Interest: Parasitic Helminths and Vectorsp. 373
Chapter Summaryp. 373
Questions for Reviewp. 375
Characterizing and Classifying Viruses, Viroids, and Prionsp. 377
Characteristics of Virusesp. 378
Genetic Material of Virusesp. 379
Hosts of Virusesp. 379
Sizes of Virusesp. 380
Capsid Morphologyp. 380
Viral Shapesp. 381
The Viral Envelopep. 381
Classification of Virusesp. 382
Viral Replicationp. 385
Lytic Replication of Bacteriohagesp. 385
Lysogenyp. 388
Replication of Animal Virusesp. 390
The Role of Viruses in Cancerp. 394
Culturing Viruses in the Laboratoryp. 396
Culturing Viruses in Whole Organismsp. 396
Culturing Viruses in Embryonated Chicken Eggsp. 396
Culturing Viruses in Cell (Tissue) Culturep. 397
Other Parasitic Particles: Viroids and Prionsp. 398
Characteristics of Viroidsp. 398
Characteristics of Prionsp. 398
Are Viruses Alive?p. 401
Chapter Summaryp. 401
Questions for Reviewp. 402
Infection, Infectious Diseases, and Epidemiologyp. 404
Symbiotic Relationships Between Microbes and Their Hostsp. 405
Types of Symbiosisp. 405
Normal Microbiota in Hostsp. 406
How Normal Microbiota Become Opportunistic Pathogensp. 407
The Movement of Microbes into Hosts: Infectionp. 409
Exposure to Microbes: Contamination and Infectionp. 409
Portals of Entryp. 409
The Role of Adhesion in Infectionp. 410
The Nature of Infectious Diseasep. 411
Manifestations of Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Syndromesp. 412
Causation of Disease: Etiologyp. 412
Virulence Factors of Infectious Agentsp. 415
The Stages of Infectious Diseasesp. 418
The Movement of Pathogens Out of Hosts: Portals of Exitp. 419
Sources of Infectious Diseases in Humansp. 419
Animal Reservoirsp. 420
Human Carriersp. 420
Nonliving Reservoirsp. 420
Modes of Infectious Disease Transmissionp. 420
Contact Transmissionp. 422
Vehicle Transmissionp. 423
Vector Transmissionp. 423
Classification of Infectious Diseasesp. 423
Epidemiology of Infectious Diseasesp. 424
Frequency of Diseasep. 425
Epidemiological Studiesp. 426
Hospital Epidemiology: Nosocomial Infectionsp. 430
Epidemiology and Public Healthp. 432
Chapter Summaryp. 433
Questions for Reviewp. 435
Innate Immunityp. 437
An Overview of the Body's Defensesp. 438
The Body's First Line of Defensep. 438
The Role of Skin in Nonspecific Defensep. 438
The Role of Mucous Membranes in Nonspecific Defensep. 439
The Role of Normal Microbiota in Nonspecific Defensep. 440
Other First-Line Defensesp. 441
An Overview of the Body's Second Line of Defensep. 442
Defense Components of Bloodp. 443
The Body's Second Line of Defensep. 445
Phagocytosisp. 445
Extracellular Killing by Leukocytesp. 448
Nonspecific Chemical Defenses Against Pathogensp. 449
Inflammationp. 452
Feverp. 456
Chapter Summaryp. 458
Questions for Reviewp. 459
Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunityp. 461
Elements of Adaptive Immunity (Specific)p. 462
Antigensp. 462
The Cells, Tissues, and Organs of the Lymphatic Systemp. 464
B Lymphocytes (B Cells) and Antibodiesp. 466
T Lymphocytes (T Cells)p. 469
Immune System Cytokinesp. 471
The Body's Preparation for a Specific Adaptive Immune Responsep. 472
Lymphocyte Editing by Clonal Deletionp. 472
The Roles of the Major Histocompatibility Complexp. 473
Antigen Processingp. 474
The Humoral Immune Responsep. 476
B Cell Activation and Clonal Selectionp. 476
Memory B Cells and the Establishment of Immunological Memoryp. 476
The Cell-Mediated Immune Responsep. 478
The Perforin-Granzyme Cytotoxic Pathwayp. 479
The CD95 Cytotoxic Pathwayp. 480
Memory T Cellsp. 480
T Cell Regulationp. 480
Types of Acquired Immunityp. 481
Naturally Acquired Active Immunityp. 481
Naturally Acquired Passive Immunityp. 481
Artificially Acquired Active Immunityp. 481
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunityp. 481
Chapter Summaryp. 482
Questions for Reviewp. 483
Immunization and Immune Testingp. 485
Immunizationp. 486
Brief History of Immunizationp. 486
Active Immunizationp. 487
Passive Immunizationp. 492
Immune Testingp. 493
Precipitation Testsp. 494
Agglutination Testsp. 497
Neutralization Testsp. 498
The Complement Fixation Testp. 498
Labeled Antibody Testsp. 499
Recent Developments in Immune Testingp. 502
Chapter Summaryp. 504
Questions for Reviewp. 505
Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficienciesp. 507
Hypersensitivitiesp. 508
(Immediate) Hypersensitivityp. 508
(Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivityp. 512
(Immune-Complex Mediated) Hypersensitivityp. 515
(Delayed or Cell-Mediated) Hypersensitivityp. 516
Autoimmune Diseasesp. 521
Causes of Autoimmune Diseasesp. 521
Single Tissue Autoimmune Diseasesp. 522
Systemic Autoimmune Diseasesp. 522
Immunodeficiency Diseasesp. 524
Primary Immunodeficiency Diseasesp. 524
Acquired Immunodeficiency Diseasesp. 525
Chapter Summaryp. 526
Questions for Reviewp. 527
Pathogenic Gram-Positive Cocci and Bacillip. 529
Staphylococcusp. 530
Structure and Physiologyp. 530
Pathogenicityp. 531
Epidemiologyp. 531
Staphylococcal Diseasesp. 532
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventionp. 534
Streptococcusp. 535
Group A Streptococcus: Streptococcus pyogenesp. 535
Group B Streptococcus: Streptococcus agalactiaep. 538
Other Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcip. 538
Alpha-Hemolytic Streptococci: The Viridans Groupp. 539
Streptococcus pneumoniaep. 539
Enterococcusp. 540
Structure and Physiologyp. 541
Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Diseasesp. 541
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventionp. 541
Bacillusp. 542
Structure, Physiology, and Pathogenicityp. 542
Epidemiologyp. 543
Diseasep. 543
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventionp. 544
Clostridiump. 544
Clostridium perfringensp. 544
Clostridium difficilep. 545
Clostridium botulinump. 545
Clostridium tetanip. 548
Listeriap. 550
Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Diseasep. 550
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventionp. 550
Corynebacteriump. 551
Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Diseasep. 552
Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventionp. 552
Mycobacteriump. 553
Tuberculosisp. 553
Leprosyp. 557
Other Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS Patientsp. 558
Propionibacteriump. 558
Nocardia and Actinomycesp. 558
Nocardia asteroidesp. 559
Actinomycesp. 560
Chapter Summaryp. 560
Questions for Reviewp. 562
Pathogenic Gram-Negative Cocci and Bacillip. 564
Pathogenic Gram-Negative Cocci: Neisseriap. 565
Structure and Physiology of Neisseriap. 565
The Gonococcus: Neisseria gonorrhoeaep. 566
The Meningococcus: Neisseria meningitidisp. 567
Pathogenic, Gram-Negative, Facultatively Anaerobic Bacillip. 569
The Enterobacteriaceae: An Overviewp. 569
Coliform Opportunistic Enterobacteriaceaep. 572
Noncoliform Opportunistic Enterobacteriaceaep. 575
Truly Pathogenic Enterobacteriaceaep. 576
The Pasteurellaceaep. 580
Pathogenic, Gram-Negative, Aerobic Bacillip. 582
Bartonellap. 582
Brucellap. 582
Bordetellap. 583
Burkholderiap. 585
Pseudomonadsp. 586
Francisellap. 587
Legionellap. 588
Coxiellap. 589
Pathogenic, Gram-Negative, Anaerobic Bacillip. 590
Bacteroidesp. 590
Prevotellap. 591
Chapter Summaryp. 591
Questions for Reviewp. 592
Mycoplasmas, Rickettsias, Chlamydias, Spirochetes, and Vibriosp. 594
Mycoplasmasp. 595
Mycoplasma pneumoniaep. 596
Other Mycoplasmasp. 596
Rickettsiasp. 597
Rickettsiap. 597
Orientap. 599
Ehrlichiap. 600
Chlamydiasp. 601
Chlamydia trachomatisp. 602
Chlamydia pneumoniaep. 604
Chlamydia psittacip. 604
Spirochetesp. 606
Treponemap. 606
Borreliap. 609
Leptospirap. 612
Pathogenic Gram-Negative Vibriosp. 613
Vibriop. 613
Campylobacter jejunip. 615
Helicobacter pylorip. 616
Chapter Summaryp. 618
Questions for Reviewp. 619
Pathogenic Fungip. 622
An Overview of Medical Mycologyp. 623
The Epidemiology of Mycosesp. 623
Categories of Fungal Agents: True Fungal Pathogens and Opportunistic Fungip. 623
Clinical Manifestations of Fungal Diseasesp. 625
The Diagnosis of Fungal Infectionsp. 626
Antifungal Therapiesp. 626
Systemic Mycoses Caused by Pathogenic Fungip. 627
Blastomycosisp. 627
Coccidioidomycosisp. 628
Histoplasmosisp. 629
Paracoccidioidomycosisp. 629
Systemic Mycoses Caused by Opportunistic Fungip. 631
Aspergillosisp. 631
Candidiasisp. 632
Cryptococcosisp. 634
Pneumocystis Pneumoniap. 635
Zygomycosesp. 636
The Emergence of Fungal Opportunists in Immunosuppressed Individualsp. 636
Superficial, Cutaneous, and Subcutaneous Mycosesp. 637
Superficial Mycosesp. 637
Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Mycosesp. 640
Fungal Intoxications and Allergiesp. 642
Mycotoxicosesp. 642
Mycetismus: Mushroom Poisoningp. 643
Allergies to Fungip. 643
Chapter Summaryp. 644
Questions for Reviewp. 645
Parasitic Protozoa, Helminths, and Arthropod Vectorsp. 648
Protozoan Parasites of Humansp. 650
Ciliatesp. 650
Amoebaep. 650
Flagellatesp. 652
Apicomplexansp. 658
Helminthic Parasites of Humansp. 663
Cestodesp. 664
Trematodesp. 666
Nematodesp. 669
Arthropod Vectorsp. 672
Arachnidsp. 673
Insectsp. 673
Chapter Summaryp. 675
Questions for Reviewp. 676
Pathogenic DNA Virusesp. 679
Poxviridaep. 680
Smallpoxp. 680
Molluscum Contagiosump. 682
Other Poxvirus Infectionsp. 682
Herpesviridaep. 682
Infections of Human Herpesviruses 1 and 2p. 683
Varicella-Zoster Virus Infectionsp. 687
Epstein-Barr Virus Infectionsp. 689
Cytomegalovirus Infectionsp. 691
Other Herpesvirus Infectionsp. 692
Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridaep. 692
Papillomavirus Infectionsp. 693
Polyomavirus Infectionsp. 694
Adenoviridaep. 695
Hepadnaviridaep. 696
Hepatitis B Infectionsp. 697
The Role of Hepatitis B Virus in Hepatic Cancerp. 699
Parvoviridaep. 699
Chapter Summaryp. 700
Questions for Reviewp. 701
Pathogenic RNA Virusesp. 703
Naked, Positive ssRNA Viruses: Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, Astroviridae, and Hepeviridaep. 704
Common Colds Caused by Rhinovirusesp. 704
Diseases of Enterovirusesp. 705
Hepatitis Ap. 708
Acute Gastroenteritis and Hepatitis Ep. 709
Enveloped, Positive ssRNA Viruses: Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Coronaviridaep. 710
Diseases of +RNA Arbovirusesp. 710
Other Diseases of Enveloped +ssRNA Virusesp. 710
Rubellap. 713
Hepatitis Cp. 714
Diseases of Coronavirusesp. 715
Enveloped, Positive ssRNA Viruses with Reverse Transcriptase: Retroviridaep. 715
Oncogenic Retrovirusesp. 717
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromep. 717
Enveloped, Unsegmented, Negative ssRNA Viruses: Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Filoviridaep. 724
Measlesp. 724
Diseases of Parainfluenza Virusp. 726
Mumpsp. 726
Disease of Respiratory Syncytial Virusp. 727
Rabiesp. 728
Hemorrhagic Feversp. 730
Enveloped, Segmented, Negative ssRNA Viruses: Orthomyxoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Arenaviridaep. 731
Influenzap. 731
Diseases of Bunyavirusesp. 735
Diseases of Arenavirusesp. 735
Naked, Segmented dsRNA Viruses: Reoviridaep. 736
Rotavirusesp. 736
Coltivirusesp. 737
Chapter Summaryp. 738
Questions for Reviewp. 740
Applied and Environmental Microbiologyp. 742
Food Microbiologyp. 743
The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Productionp. 743
The Causes and Prevention of Food Spoilagep. 747
Food-Borne Illnessesp. 750
Industrial Microbiologyp. 751
The Roles of Microbes in Industrial Fermentationsp. 751
Industrial Products of Microorganismsp. 752
Water and Wastewater Treatmentp. 754
Bioremediationp. 760
The Problem of Acid Mine Drainagep. 761
Environmental Microbiologyp. 762
Microbial Ecologyp. 762
The Roles of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 764
Soil Microbiologyp. 767
Aquatic Microbiologyp. 768
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorismp. 771
Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terrorp. 771
Known Microbial Threatsp. 772
Defense Against Bioterrorismp. 772
The Roles of Recombinant Genetic Technology in Bioterrorismp. 774
Chapter Summaryp. 774
Questions for Reviewp. 776
Metabolic Pathwaysp. 1
Some Mathematical Considerations in Microbiologyp. 1
Classification of Bacteria According to Bergey's Manualp. 1
Major Microbial Agents of Disease by Body System Affectedp. 1
Answers to End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 1
Glossaryp. 1
Indexp. 1
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