The field of microfluidics has in the last decade permeated many disciplines, from physics to biology and chemistry, and from bioengineering to medical research. One of the most important applications of lab-on-a-chip devices in medicine and related disciplines is disease diagnostics, which involves steps from biological sample / analyte loading to storage, detection and analysis. the chapters collected in this book detail recent advances in these processes using microfluidic devices. the reviews of portable devices for diagnostic purposes are likely to evoke interest in and raise new research questions in interdisciplinary fields (e.g. efficient MEMS/microfluidic engineering, driven by biological and medical applications).The variety of the selected topics (general relevance of microfluidics in medical and bioengineering research, fabrication, advances in on-chip sample detection and analysis, and specific disease models) ensures that each of them can be viewed in the larger context of microfluidic mediated diagnostics.