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Microwave and Millimeter Wave Circuits and Systems Emerging Design, Technologies and Applications,9781118405864
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Microwave and Millimeter Wave Circuits and Systems Emerging Design, Technologies and Applications

by ; ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9781118405864

ISBN10:
1118405862
Media:
eBook
Pub. Date:
9/21/2012
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $154.66

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Summary

This book provides a wide spectrum of current trends in the design of microwave and millimeter circuits and systems. In addition, the book identifies the state-of-the art challenges in microwave and millimeter wave circuits systems design, such as behavioral modeling of circuit components, software radio and digitally enhanced front-ends, and much more. Each chapter treats a selected problem and challenge within the field of Microwave and Millimeter wave circuits, and contains case studies and examples. This book serves as an excellent reference for engineers, researchers, research project managers and engineers working in R&D.

Table of Contents

About the Editors xiii

About the Authors xvii

Preface xxxi

List of Abbreviations xli

List of Symbols xlv

Part I DESIGN AND MODELING TRENDS

1 Low Coefficient Accurate Nonlinear Microwave and Millimeter Wave Nonlinear Transmitter Power Amplifier Behavioural Models 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.1.1 Chapter Structure 4

1.1.2 LDMOS PA Measurements 4

1.1.3 BF Model 7

1.1.4 Modified BF Model (MBF) – Derivation 8

1.1.5 MBF Models of an LDMOS PA 13

1.1.6 MBF Model – Accuracy and Performance Comparisons 15

1.1.7 MBF Model – the Memoryless PA Behavioural Model of Choice 22

Acknowledgements 24

References 24

2 Artificial Neural Network in Microwave Cavity Filter Tuning 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Artificial Neural Networks Filter Tuning 28

2.2.1 The Inverse Model of the Filter 29

2.2.2 Sequential Method 30

2.2.3 Parallel Method 31

2.2.4 Discussion on the ANN’s Input Data 33

2.3 Practical Implementation – Tuning Experiments 36

2.3.1 Sequential Method 36

2.3.2 Parallel Method 41

2.4 Influence of the Filter Characteristic Domain on Algorithm Efficiency 43

2.5 Robots in the Microwave Filter Tuning 47

2.6 Conclusions 49

Acknowledgement 49

References 49

3 Wideband Directive Antennas with High Impedance Surfaces 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 High Impedance Surfaces (HIS) Used as an Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) for Antenna Applications 52

3.2.1 AMC Characterization 52

3.2.2 Antenna over AMC: Principle 55

3.2.3 AMC’s Wideband Issues 55

3.3 Wideband Directive Antenna Using AMC with a Lumped Element 57

3.3.1 Bow-Tie Antenna in Free Space 57

3.3.2 AMC Reflector Design 59

3.3.3 Performances of the Bow-Tie Antenna over AMC 60

3.3.4 AMC Optimization 61

3.4 Wideband Directive Antenna Using a Hybrid AMC 64

3.4.1 Performances of a Diamond Dipole Antenna over the AMC 65

3.4.2 Beam Splitting Identification and Cancellation Method 69

3.4.3 Performances with the Hybrid AMC 73

3.5 Conclusion 78

Acknowledgments 80

References 80

4 Characterization of Software-Defined and Cognitive Radio Front-Ends for Multimode Operation 83

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Multiband Multimode Receiver Architectures 84

4.3 Wideband Nonlinear Behavioral Modeling 87

4.3.1 Details of the BPSR Architecture 87

4.3.2 Proposed Wideband Behavioral Model 89

4.3.3 Parameter Extraction Procedure 92

4.4 Model Validation with a QPSK Signal 95

4.4.1 Frequency Domain Results 95

4.4.2 Symbol Evaluation Results 98

References 99

5 Impact and Digital Suppression of Oscillator Phase Noise in Radio Communications 103

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Phase Noise Modelling 104

5.2.1 Free-Running Oscillator 104

5.2.2 Phase-Locked Loop Oscillator 105

5.2.3 Generalized Oscillator 107

5.3 OFDM Radio Link Modelling and Performance under Phase Noise 109

5.3.1 Effect of Phase Noise in Direct-Conversion Receivers 110

5.3.2 Effect of Phase Noise and the Signal Model on OFDM 110

5.3.3 OFDM Link SINR Analysis under Phase Noise 113

5.3.4 OFDM Link Capacity Analysis under Phase Noise 114

5.4 Digital Phase Noise Suppression 118

5.4.1 State of the Art in Phase Noise Estimation and Mitigation 119

5.4.2 Recent Contributions to Phase Noise Estimation and Mitigation 122

5.4.3 Performance of the Algorithms 128

5.5 Conclusions 129

Acknowledgements 131

References 131

6 A Pragmatic Approach to Cooperative Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks 135

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks 136

6.2.1 Range-Free Methods 136

6.2.2 Range-Based Methods 139

6.2.3 Cooperative versus Noncooperative 142

6.3 Cooperative Positioning 142

6.3.1 Centralized Algorithms 143

6.3.2 Distributed Algorithms 144

6.4 RSS-Based Cooperative Positioning 147

6.4.1 Measurement Phase 147

6.4.2 Location Update Phase 148

6.5 Node Selection 150

6.5.1 Energy Consumption Model 152

6.5.2 Node Selection Mechanisms 153

6.5.3 Joint Node Selection and Path Loss Exponent Estimation 156

6.6 Numerical Results 160

6.6.1 OLPL-NS-LS Performance 164

6.6.2 Comparison with Existing Methods 164

6.7 Experimental Results 166

6.7.1 Scenario 1 166

6.7.2 Scenario 2 169

6.8 Conclusions 169

References 170

7 Modelling of Substrate Noise and Mitigation Schemes for UWB Systems 173

7.1 Introduction 173

7.1.1 Ultra Wideband Systems – Developments and Challenges 174

7.1.2 Switching Noise – Origin and Coupling Mechanisms 175

7.2 Impact Evaluation of Substrate Noise 176

7.2.1 Experimental Impact Evaluation on a UWB LNA 177

7.2.2 Results and Discussion 178

7.2.3 Conclusion 181

7.3 Analytical Modelling of Switching Noise in Lightly Doped Substrate 182

7.3.1 Introduction 182

7.3.2 The GAP Model 185

7.3.3 The Statistic Model 192

7.3.4 Conclusion 195

7.4 Substrate Noise Suppression and Isolation for UWB Systems 195

7.4.1 Introduction 195

7.4.2 Active Suppression of Switching Noise in Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits 196

7.5 Summary 204

References 205

Part II APPLICATIONS

8 Short-Range Tracking of Moving Targets by a Handheld UWB Radar System 209

8.1 Introduction 209

8.2 Handheld UWB Radar System 210

8.3 UWB Radar Signal Processing 210

8.3.1 Raw Radar Data Preprocessing 211

8.3.2 Background Subtraction 212

8.3.3 Weak Signal Enhancement 213

8.3.4 Target Detection 214

8.3.5 Time-of-Arrival Estimation 215

8.3.6 Target Localization 217

8.3.7 Target Tracking 217

8.4 Short-Range Tracking Illustration 218

8.5 Conclusions 223

Acknowledgement 224

References 224

9 Advances in the Theory and Implementation of GNSS Antenna Array Receivers 227

9.1 Introduction 227

9.2 GNSS: Satellite-Based Navigation Systems 228

9.3 Challenges in the Acquisition and Tracking of GNSS Signals 230

9.3.1 Interferences 232

9.3.2 Multipath Propagation 232

9.4 Design of Antenna Arrays for GNSS 233

9.4.1 Hardware Components Design 234

9.4.2 Array Signal Processing in the Digital Domain 239

9.5 Receiver Implementation Trade-Offs 244

9.5.1 Computational Resources Required 244

9.5.2 Clock Domain Crossing in FPGAs/Synchronization Issues 247

9.6 Practical Examples of Experimentation Systems 248

9.6.1 L1 Array Receiver of CTTC, Spain 248

9.6.2 GALANT, a Multifrequency GPS/Galileo Array Receiver of DLR, Germany 253

References 272

10 Multiband RF Front-Ends for Radar and Communications Applications 275

10.1 Introduction 275

10.1.1 Standard Approaches for RF Front-Ends 275

10.1.2 Acquisition of Multiband Signals 276

10.1.3 The Direct-Sampling Architecture 277

10.2 Minimum Sub-Nyquist Sampling 278

10.2.1 Mathematical Approach 278

10.2.2 Acquisition of Dual-Band Signals 279

10.2.3 Acquisition of Evenly Spaced Equal-Bandwidth Multiband Signals 282

10.3 Simulation Results 284

10.3.1 Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Cases 284

10.3.2 Verification of the Mathematical Framework 285

10.4 Design of Signal-Interference Multiband Bandpass Filters 287

10.4.1 Evenly Spaced Equal-Bandwidth Multiband Bandpass Filters 288

10.4.2 Stepped-Impedance Line Asymmetrical Multiband Bandpass Filters 289

10.5 Building and Testing of Direct-Sampling RF Front-Ends 290

10.5.1 Quad-Band Bandpass Filter 290

10.5.2 Asymmetrical Dual-Band Bandpass Filter 291

10.6 Conclusions 293

References 294

11 Mm-Wave Broadband Wireless Systems and Enabling MMIC Technologies 295

11.1 Introduction 295

11.2 V-Band Standards and Applications 297

11.2.1 IEEE 802.15.3c Standard 297

11.2.2 ECMA-387 Standard 299

11.2.3 WirelessHD 300

11.2.4 WiGig Standard 301

11.3 V-Band System Architectures 302

11.3.1 Super-Heterodyne Architecture 302

11.3.2 Direct Conversion Architecture 303

11.3.3 Bits to RF and RF to Bits Radio Architectures 305

11.4 SiGeV-Band MMIC 306

11.4.1 Voltage Controlled Oscillator 307

11.4.2 Active Receive Balun 310

11.4.3 On-Chip Butler Matrix 313

11.4.4 High GBPsSiGeV-Band SPST Switch Design Considerations 317

11.5 Outlook 320

References 322

12 Reconfigurable RF Circuits and RF-MEMS 325

12.1 Introduction 325

12.2 Reconfigurable RF Circuits – Transistor-Based Solutions 326

12.2.1 Programmable Microwave Function Arrays 326

12.2.2 PROMFA Concept 327

12.2.3 Design Example: Tunable Band Passfilter 331

12.2.4 Design Examples: Beamforming Network, LNA and VCO 333

12.3 Reconfigurable RF Circuits Using RF-MEMS 335

12.3.1 Integration of RF-MEMS and Active RF Devices 336

12.3.2 Monolithic Integration of RF-MEMS in GaAs/GaN MMIC Processes 337

12.3.3 Monolithic Integration of RF-MEMS in SiGeBiCMOS Process 342

12.3.4 Design Example: RF-MEMS Reconfigurable LNA 344

12.3.5 RF-MEMS-Based Phase Shifters for Electronic Beam Steering 348

12.4 Conclusions 353

References 353

13 MIOS: Millimeter Wave Radiometers for the Space-Based Observation of the Sun 357

13.1 Introduction 357

13.2 Scientific Background 358

13.3 Quiet-Sun Spectral Flux Density 359

13.4 Radiation Mechanism in Flares 361

13.5 Open Problems 361

13.6 Solar Flares Spectral Flux Density 363

13.7 Solar Flares Peak Flux Distribution 364

13.8 Atmospheric Variability 365

13.9 Ionospheric Variability 366

13.10 Antenna Design 369

13.11 Antenna Noise Temperature 371

13.12 Antenna Pointing and Radiometric Background 373

13.13 Instrument Resolution 373

13.14 System Overview 374

13.15 System Design 376

13.16 Calibration Circuitry 378

13.17 Retrieval Equations 381

13.18 Periodicity of the Calibrations 381

13.19 Conclusions 384

References 384

14 Active Antennas in Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Technology 387

14.1 Introduction 387

14.2 Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology 388

14.3 Passive SIW Cavity-Backed Antennas 388

14.3.1 Passive SIW Patch Cavity-Backed Antenna 389

14.3.2 Passive SIW Slot Cavity-Backed Antenna 391

14.4 SIW Cavity-Backed Antenna Oscillators 395

14.4.1 SIW Cavity-Backed Patch Antenna Oscillator 395

14.4.2 SIW Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Oscillator with Frequency Tuning 397

14.4.3 Compact SIW Patch Antenna Oscillator with Frequency Tuning 401

14.5 SIW-Based Coupled Oscillator Arrays 406

14.5.1 Design of Coupled Oscillator Systems for Power Combining 407

14.5.2 Coupled Oscillator Array with Beam-Scanning Capabilities 412

14.6 Conclusions 414

References 415

15 Active Wearable Antenna Modules 417

15.1 Introduction 417

15.2 Electromagnetic Characterization of Fabrics and Flexible Foam Materials 419

15.2.1 Electromagnetic Property Considerations for Wearable Antenna Materials 419

15.2.2 Characterization Techniques Applied to Wearable Antenna Materials 419

15.2.3 Matrix-Pencil Two-Line Method 420

15.2.4 Small-Band Inverse Planar Antenna Resonator Method 427

15.3 Active Antenna Modules for Wearable Textile Systems 436

15.3.1 Active Wearable Antenna with Optimized Noise Characteristics 436

15.3.2 Solar Cell Integration with Wearable Textile Antennas 445

15.4 Conclusions 451

References 452

16 Novel Wearable Sensors for Body Area Network Applications 455

16.1 Body Area Networks 455

16.1.1 Potential Sheet-Shaped Communication Surface Configurations 456

16.1.2 Wireless Body Area Network 460

16.1.3 Chapter Flow Summary 460

16.2 Design of a 2-D Array Free Access Mat 460

16.2.1 Coupling of External Antennas 462

16.2.2 2-D Array Performance Characterization by Measurement 464

16.2.3 Accessible Range of External Antennas on the 2-D Array 467

16.3 Textile-Based Free Access Mat: Flexible Interface for Body-Centric Wireless Communications 467

16.3.1 Wearable Waveguide 470

16.3.2 Summary on the Proposed Wearable Waveguide 475

16.4 Proposed WBAN Application 476

16.4.1 Concept 476

16.5 Summary 478

Acknowledgment 478

References 478

17 Wideband Antennas for Wireless Technologies: Trends and Applications 481

17.1 Introduction 481

17.1.1 Antenna Concept 482

17.2 Wideband Antennas 483

17.2.1 Travelling Wave Antennas 483

17.2.2 Frequency Independent Antennas 484

17.2.3 Self-Complementary Antennas 485

17.2.4 Applications 486

17.2.5 Ultra Wideband (UWB) Arrays: Vivaldi Antenna Arrays 489

17.2.6 Wideband Microstrip Antennas: Stacked Patch Antennas 495

17.3 Antenna Measurements 496

17.4 Antenna Trends and Applications 498

17.4.1 Phase Arrays and Smart Antennas 499

17.4.2 Wearable Antennas 502

17.4.3 Capsule Antennas for Medical Monitoring 503

17.4.4 RF Hyperthermia 503

17.4.5 Wireless Energy Transfer 503

17.4.6 Implantable Antennas 503

Acknowledgements 504

References 504

18 Concluding Remarks 509

Index 511



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