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Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition Composition, Production and Health

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Milk is nature’s most complete food, and dairy products are considered to be the most nutritious foods of all. The traditional view of the role of milk has been greatly expanded in recent years beyond the horizon of nutritional subsistence of infants: it is now recognized to be more than a source of nutrients for the healthy growth of children and nourishment of adult humans.

Alongside its major proteins (casein and whey), milk contains biologically active compounds, which have important physiological and biochemical functions and significant impacts upon human metabolism, nutrition and health. Many of these compounds have been proven to have beneficial effects on human nutrition and health.

This comprehensive reference is the first to address such a wide range of topics related to milk production and human health, including: mammary secretion, production, sanitation, quality standards and chemistry, as well as nutrition, milk allergies, lactose intolerance, and the bioactive and therapeutic compounds found in milk. In addition to cow’s milk, the book also covers the milk of non-bovine dairy species which is of economic importance around the world.

The Editors have assembled a team of internationally renowned experts to contribute to this exhaustive volume which will be essential reading for dairy scientists, nutritionists, food scientists, allergy specialists and health professionals.

Author Biography

Professor Young W. Park, Georgia Small Ruminant Research and Extension Center, Fort Valley State University, Georgia and Adjunct Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia

Professor George F.W. Haenlein, Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware

Table of Contents



1 Production Systems around the World

Christian F. Gall

1.1 Ecological conditions

1.2 Systems

1.2.1 Small-scale milk production

1.2.2 Specialised milk production in large commercial dairies

1.2.3 Dairy ranching

1.2.4 Urban dairies

1.2.5 Pastoralists

1.3 Feed resources

1.4 Animal species used for milk production

1.4.1 Cattle Milk yield Milk composition Milk production in the tropics

1.4.2 Sheep and goats

1.4.3 Buffalo

1.4.4 Camel

1.4.5 Mare

1.4.6 Yak

1.4.7 Reindeer

1.5 Breed improvement

1.5.1 Pure breeding

1.5.2 Artificial insemination

1.5.3 Embryo transfer

1.5.4 Genomic selection

1.5.5 Crossbreeding

1.6 Nutrition

1.7 Animal health

1.8 Reproduction

1.9 Rearing of youngstock

1.10 Housing

1.11 Milking

1.12 Milk marketing

1.12.1 Marketing by smallholders

1.12.2 Milk collection

1.12.3 Producer organisations

1.13 Economics of milk production

1.13.1 Productivity

1.13.2 Longevity and lifetime production

1.14 Criticism of milk production

1.14.1 Resource use

1.14.2 Impact on the environment

1.15 Dairy development


2 Mammary Secretion and Lactation

Young W. Park, Pierre-Guy Marnet, Lucile Yart, and George F.W. Haenlein

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Origin and anatomy of mammary glands

2.2.1 Types of mammalian species and mammary glands

2.2.2 Anatomy of mammary glands of domestic animals

2.3 Mammogenesis and mammary gland growth

2.4 Milk ejection (lactogenesis) and secretion

2.5 Maintenance of lactation (galactopoiesis)

2.6 Secretion of milk and its constituents

2.6.1 Types of milk secretion

2.6.2 Milk secretion process

2.6.3 Comparative composition of blood and milk nutrients

2.7 Involution of the mammary gland

2.8 Challenges and opportunities in mammary secretion today and tomorrow


3 Milking Procedures and Facilities

Pierre-Guy Marnet

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Machine milked animals throughout the world

3.3 Milking principles

3.4 Milking machine components and effects on milk harvesting and quality

3.4.1 Vacuum system

3.4.2 Pulsation system

3.4.3 Mechanical effect of machine milking on milk quality Specific action of cluster and liners Specific action at the milk pump level

3.4.4 Optional components

3.4.5 Milking parlors and milking stalls

3.4.6 Storing and cooling devices

3.4.7 Cleaning systems

3.4.8 New kinds of materials and sensing devices for better milk quality

3.5 Milking practices

3.6 Milking management of animals

3.6.1 Lowering milking frequency

3.6.2 Increasing milking frequency (three milkings and more per day)

3.7 Conclusions


4 Milk Lipids

Michael H. Gordon

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Fatty acids

4.3 Triacylglycerols

4.4 Polar lipids: phospholipids and cholesterol

4.5 Conjugated linoleic acids

4.6 Genetic influences on milk fat concentrations and fatty acid profiles

4.7 Influence of feeds, feeding regimes, pasture and stage of lactation on milk lipids and their levels

4.8 Digestion of milk fat

4.9 Nutritional effects of milk fatty acids

4.10 Evidence for effects of milk fat on CVD from prospective cohort studies

4.11 Evidence about the effects of dairy products on non-lipid risk factors

4.12 Conclusion


5 Milk Major and Minor Proteins, Polymorphisms and Non-protein Nitrogen

Sándor Kukovics and Tímea Németh

5.1 Milk proteins

5.1.1 Factors affecting the protein content of the milk

5.2 The major milk proteins

5.2.1 Caseins ás1-Casein ás2-Casein â-Casein ê-Casein The question of casein structure The importance of casein structure

5.2.2 Whey (serum) proteins á-Lactalbumin â-Lactoglobulin

5.3 The polymorphisms of milk proteins

5.3.1 The presence of polymorphisms in cattle populations

5.3.2 Effects on milk production

5.3.3 Effects on milk composition

5.3.4 Interactions

5.3.5 Effects on cheesemaking properties â-Lactoglobulin ê-Casein â-Casein

5.4 Milk protein variants and human nutrition: the human benefit

5.4.1 Hypoallergenic milk

5.4.2 Biopeptides

5.5 The minor proteins

5.5.1 Lactoferrin

5.5.2 Serum albumin (bovine serum albumin)

5.5.3 Immunoglobulins

5.5.4 Hormones

5.5.5 Growth factors

5.5.6 Milk enzymes Lysozyme Lactoperoxidase

5.5.7 Metal-binding proteins

5.5.8 Vitamin-binding proteins

5.5.9 Glycoproteins

5.5.10 Lactollin

5.5.11 â2-Microglobulin

5.5.12 Osteopontin

5.5.13 Proteose peptone 

5.5.14 Milk fat globule membrane proteins

5.6 Non-protein nitrogen

5.6.1 Urea


6 Milk Protein Allergy

Melanie L. Downs, Jamie L. Kabourek, Joseph L. Baumert, and Steve L. Taylor

6.1 Introduction

6.2 IgE-mediated food allergy

6.2.1 Mechanism

6.2.2 Commonly allergenic foods

6.2.3 Sensitization and its prevention

6.2.4 Diagnosis of food allergies

6.2.5 Prevention and treatment of food allergy

6.2.6 Cows’ milk and avoidance diets

6.3 Delayed food allergies

6.4 Cows’ milk allergy

6.4.1 Whey proteins â-Lactoglobulin á-Lactalbumin Minor whey proteins

6.4.2 Caseins

6.5 Cross-reactivity with milk from other species

6.6 Effects of processing on allergenicity

6.7 Other mechanisms


7 Milk Carbohydrates and Oligosaccharides

Alessandra Crisà

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Lactose and minor sugar

7.2.1 Composition and concentration of carbohydrate in milk and dairy products of different species

7.3 Oligosaccharides

7.3.1 Purification and characterization of oligosaccharides from milk

7.3.2 Methods for structural analysis

7.3.3 Composition and concentration of oligosaccharides in milk of different species

7.4 Carbohydrates as prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract

7.5 Other oligosaccharide functions

7.6 Genetics of carbohydrate metabolism during lactation


8 Milk Bioactive Proteins and Peptides

Hannu J. Korhonen and Pertti Marnila

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Caseins

8.3 Whey proteins

8.3.1 á-Lactalbumin

8.3.2 â-Lactoglobulin

8.3.3 Glycomacropeptide

8.3.4 Lactoferrin Antimicrobial effects Immunological effects and cancer prevention Applications and safety aspects

8.3.5 Lactoperoxidase and lysozyme Lactoperoxidase Lysozyme

8.3.6 Growth factors and cytokines

8.3.7 Immunoglobulins Functions of immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins and immune milk preparations

8.4 Bioactive peptides

8.4.1 Production systems

8.4.2 Functionality Antihypertensive Antimicrobial Immunomodulatory Mineral binding

8.4.3 Occurrence in dairy products

8.4.4 Applications

8.5 Other minor proteins

8.6 Conclusions


9 Milk Minerals, Trace Elements, and Macroelements

Frédéric Gaucheron

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Macroelements in milk and dairy products from the cow

9.2.1 Calcium (Ca) Calcium in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of Ca in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total Ca intake and Ca absorption Physiological roles of Ca from milk and dairy products Calcium supplementation of dairy products

9.2.2 Phosphorus (P) Phosphorus in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of P in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total P intake and P absorption

9.2.3 Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of Mg in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total Mg intake and Mg absorption

9.2.4 Sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) Sodium, chloride, and potassium in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of Na, Cl, and K in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total Na, Cl, and K intakes and Na, Cl, and K absorptions

9.3 Trace elements in milk and dairy products from the cow

9.3.1 Iron (Fe) Iron in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of Fe in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total Fe intake and Fe absorption Iron supplementation of dairy products

9.3.2 Copper (Cu) Copper in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of Cu in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total Cu intake and Cu absorption

9.3.3 Zinc (Zn) Zinc in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of Zn in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total Zn intake and Zn absorption

9.3.4 Selenium (Se) Selenium in the human organism and biological roles Contents and chemical forms of Se in milk and dairy products Dairy contribution to the total Se intake Selenium supplementation of dairy products

9.3.5 The other trace elements in milk and dairy products from the cow Manganese (Mn) Iodine (I) Fluoride (F) Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) Cobalt (Co) Molybdenum (Mo) Arsenic (As) Nickel (Ni) Silicon (Si) Boron (B)

9.4 Minerals in milk and dairy products of other species

9.4.1 Sheep

9.4.2 Goat

9.4.3 Buffalo

9.4.4 Yak

9.4.5 Camel

9.4.6 Mare

9.5 Conclusion


10 Vitamins in Milks

Benoît Graulet, Bruno Martin, Claire Agabriel and Christiane L. Girard

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Availability of vitamins in milk in relation to human health

10.2.1 Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K

10.2.2 Water-soluble vitamins B-complex vitamins Vitamin C

10.2.3 Differences in milk vitamin content between bovine and other dairy species

10.3 Animal and nutritional factors modulating vitamin content in bovine milk

10.3.1 Effects of feeding practices on vitamin concentrations in milk

10.3.2 Non-dietary factors affecting milk concentrations of vitamins

10.4 Vitamin content in cheeses

10.5 Conclusions


11 Milk Minor Constituents, Enzymes, Hormones, Growth Factors, and Organic Acids

Lígia R. Rodrigues

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Milk minor constituents

11.2.1 Salts and minerals

11.2.2 Vitamins

11.2.3 Immune components

11.2.4 Bioactive peptides

11.2.5 Polyamines

11.2.6 Nucleotides

11.2.7 Proteose peptones

11.2.8 Branched-chain amino acids and other amino acids

11.2.9 Taurine

11.2.10 Glutathione

11.3 Milk enzymes

11.3.1 Lactoperoxidase

11.3.2 Catalase

11.3.3 Xanthine oxidoreductase

11.3.4 Proteinases Plasmin Cathepsin D

11.3.5 Lipases and esterases

11.3.6 Amylase

11.3.7 Alkaline phosphatase

11.3.8 Acid phosphatase

11.3.9 Ribonuclease

11.3.10 N-Acetyl-â-d-glucosaminidase

11.3.11 Lysozyme

11.3.12 ã-Glutamyl transferase

11.3.13 Superoxide dismutase

11.3.14 Sulfhydryl oxidase

11.3.15 Aldolase

11.3.16 Glutathione peroxidase

11.4 Milk hormones and growth factors

11.4.1 Hormones Gonadal hormones Adrenal gland hormones Pituitary hormones Hypothalamic hormones Other hormones

11.4.2 Growth factors

11.5 Milk organic acids

11.6 Future perspectives and concerns


12 Lactose Intolerance

Salam A. Ibrahim and Rabin Gyawali

12.1 Introduction

12.1.1 Lactose and lactase

12.1.2 Types of lactose intolerance

12.1.3 Symptoms of lactose intolerance

12.1.4 Methods to quantify lactose maldigestion Direct measurements Indirect measurements

12.1.5 Prevalence, age, gender, and genetics

12.1.6 Non-probiotic dietary approach to alleviate lactose intolerance

12.1.7 Intestinal microflora, fermentation, and fermented foods

12.1.8 Use of probiotics to alleviate lactose intolerance

12.2 Conclusions


13 Milk Quality Standards and Controls

Young W. Park, Marzia Albenzio, Agostino Sevi, and George F.W. Haenlein

13.1 Introduction

13.2 General principles for production of quality milk

13.3 Regulatory standards of quality milk and dairy products for different species

13.4 Quality control principles for milk production on dairy farms

13.5 HACCP plans and hazard components in the production of quality dairy products

13.6 Recommended control systems for production of quality milk products

13.7 Etiology of mastitis and milk hygiene

13.8 Cell types and composition of milk in response to mammary gland inflammation

13.9 Flow cytometric method for leukocyte differential count

13.10 Factors affecting milk composition and yield in relation to milk quality

13.10.1 Diet

13.10.2 Breed

13.10.3 Stage of lactation

13.10.4 Season

13.10.5 Environmental temperature

13.10.6 Ventilation

13.10.7 Milking machine

13.10.8 Stocking density

13.10.9 Diseases

13.10.10 Colostrum

13.10.11 Others

13.11 Factors affecting quality of raw milk before and after milking

13.11.1 Factors affecting quality of raw milk before and during milking

13.11.2 Factors affecting quality of raw milk after milking

13.12 Pasteurization and post-pasteurization treatments for production of quality milk

13.12.1 Pasteurization

13.12.2 Vat pasteurization

13.12.3 Post-pasteurization contamination


14 Sanitary Procedures, Heat Treatments and Packaging

Golfo Moatsou

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Sanitary aspects related to raw milk

14.2.1 Important microbiological aspects

14.2.2 Pathogenic microorganisms

14.2.3 Psychrotrophic microorganisms

14.2.4 Non-microbial contaminants in milk

14.2.5 Handling of raw milk: measures for controlling its keeping quality prior to processing Biofilm control Cooling and thermisation Lactoperoxidase system Carbon dioxide addition Centrifugation, clarification and bactofugation Microfiltration

14.3 Strategies for producing heat-treated milk for human consumption

14.3.1 Pasteurisation

14.3.2 UHT treatment

14.3.3 Extended shelf-life technology

14.3.4 Types of heat treatment

14.3.5 Packaging

14.4 Effects of heat treatments on milk

14.4.1 Effect on milk constituents Proteins Enzymes Vitamins

14.4.2 Formation of new substances Isomerisation of lactose to lactulose Maillard reaction products

14.4.3 Others

14.5 Conclusions


15 Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Milk

Irma V. Wolf, Carina V. Bergamini, Maria C. Perotti, and Erica R. Hynes

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Significance of flavor and off-flavor on milk quality: sensory and instrumental methods

15.3 Milk from ruminant species

15.3.1 Volatile profile and sensory characteristics of fresh milk

15.3.2 Variations in flavor of fresh milk from ruminant species Variations in milk flavor associated with farm management Variations in milk flavor associated with factory management

15.3.3 Volatile profile and sensory characteristics of heat-treated milk Ultrapasteurized milk and ultra-high-temperature treated milk Milk powder, sterilized, and concentrated milk Infant formula

15.3.4 Variations in flavor of heat-treated milk Ultrapasteurized milk and ultra-high-temperature treated milk Milk powder, sterilized, and concentrated milk Infant formula

15.3.5 Volatile profile and sensory characteristics of non-thermally treated milk Microfiltration Ultrasound Pulsed electric field Microwave High hydrostatic pressure Ultra-high-pressure homogenization

15.4 Milk from monogastric species


16 Fermented Milk and Yogurt

Sae-Hun Kim and Sejong Oh

16.1 General aspects of fermented milk

16.1.1 Yogurts Types of yogurt Production and consumption Recent new product trends

16.1.2 Other fermented bovine milk products Cultured buttermilk Cultured cream Acidophilus milk Kefir Other fermented milk products

16.1.3 Fermented milk and yogurt products from other dairy species Fermented goat milk products Fermented sheep milk products Fermented buffalo milk products Fermented mare milk products

16.2 Standards and regulations

16.2.1 International Codex Standard Description Composition

16.2.2 USA, Australia and New Zealand, and Europe Description Composition

16.2.3 China Description Composition

16.2.4 Japan Description Composition

16.2.5 Korea Description Composition

16.3 Health benefits of fermented milk products

16.3.1 Nutritional benefits

16.3.2 Diarrheal disease

16.3.3 Immune regulation

16.3.4 Prevention of osteoporosis

16.3.5 Cholesterol reduction

16.3.6 Cancer prevention

16.4 Future aspects


17 Cheese Science and Technology

Patrick F. Fox and Timothy P. Guinee

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Selection and treatment of milk

17.2.1 Milk of different species

17.2.2 Standardisation of milk composition

17.2.3 Heat treatment of milk

17.2.4 Cheese colour

17.3 Conversion of milk to cheese curd

17.3.1 Acidification and starter cultures

17.3.2 Secondary cultures

17.3.3 Coagulation

17.3.4 Rennet-coagulated cheeses

17.4 Post-coagulation operations

17.4.1 Cutting the gel

17.4.2 Cooking the curds

17.4.3 Syneresis

17.4.4 Draining the curd

17.4.5 Cheddaring of the curd

17.4.6 Curd washing

17.4.7 Moulding and pressing

17.4.8 Salting Nutritional significance of salt in cheese

17.4.9 Packaging

17.5 Membrane processing in cheese technology

17.6 Ripening

17.6.1 Ripening agents

17.6.2 Ripening reactions Glycolysis and related events Lipolysis Proteolysis

17.6.3 Accelerated ripening of cheese

17.7 Factors that affect the quality of cheese

17.8 Cheese flavour

17.9 Cheese texture

17.9.1 Measurement of cheese texture

17.9.2 Textural characteristics of different cheeses

17.9.3 Texture at the macrostructural level

17.10 Processed cheese products

17.10.1 Principles of manufacture

17.10.2 Uses and characteristics of PCPs

17.10.3 Cheese analogues

17.11 Cheese as a food ingredient

17.12 Cheese production and consumption

17.13 Classification of cheese

17.14 Cheese as a source of nutrients

17.14.1 Fat in cheese

17.14.2 Protein in cheese

17.14.3 Lactose

17.14.4 Inorganic elements

17.14.5 Vitamins

17.15 Conclusions


18 Butter, Ghee, and Cream Products

Hae-Soo Kwak, Palanivel Ganesan, and Mohammad Al Mijan

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Manufacture of butter, ghee, and cream products

18.2.1 Butter

18.2.2 Ghee

18.2.3 Cream Coffee cream Cultured cream Whipping cream

18.3 Nutritive values of butter, ghee, and cream

18.3.1 Butter

18.3.2 Ghee

18.3.3 Cream

18.4 Human health benefit components in butter, ghee, and cream

18.4.1 Milk fat globule membrane

18.4.2 Health benefits of MFGM polar lipids

18.4.3 Sphingolipids: anticholesterol effect and heart disease

18.4.4 Sphingolipids and cancer

18.4.5 Sphingolipids: bactericidal effect

18.4.6 Sphingolipids: effects on diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease

18.4.7 Sphingolipids and multiple sclerosis

18.4.8 Phospholipids

18.4.9 Protein fractions of MFGM Anticancer effects MFGM proteins, autism, and multiple sclerosis Antibacterial and antiadhesive effects of MFGM proteins

18.5 Conjugated linoleic acid

18.5.1 Carcinogenesis

18.5.2 Colonic and colorectal cancer

18.5.3 Breast cancer

18.5.4 Gastrointestinal cancer

18.5.5 Diabetes

18.5.6 Obesity

18.5.7 Atherosclerosis

18.5.8 Immunity

18.5.9 Bone health

18.6 Short- and medium-chain fatty acids

18.7 New approach on cholesterol removal in butter, ghee, and cream

18.8 Conclusion


19 Condensed and Powdered Milk

Pierre Schuck

19.1 Introduction

19.2 World dairy powder situation

19.3 Overview of operations

19.3.1 Concentration by evaporation Principle of vacuum evaporation Energy Production of concentrated whole and skimmed milk Production of dulce de leche

19.3.2 Whey and lactose crystallisation

19.3.3 Drying Spray drying

19.4 Properties of dehydrated products

19.4.1 Biochemical and physicochemical properties Water content Water availability Protein modifications

19.4.2 Nutritional properties

19.4.3 Process properties of dairy powder Particle size and powder structure Flowability–floodability Density Rehydration properties Hygroscopicity Instant powders


20 Frozen Dairy Foods

Arun Kilara and Ramesh C. Chandan

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Technology essentials

20.2.1 Classification of and trends in the frozen desserts market

20.2.2 Formulation Concentrated sources of milk fat Concentrated sources of serum solids Balancing ingredients Sweeteners Stabilizers Emulsifiers

20.2.3 Processing Blending Pasteurization Homogenization Aging Flavors Freezing Overrun Types of ice cream freezers Hardening

20.2.4 Frozen yogurt

20.2.5 Packaging

20.3 Nutritional profile of ice cream

20.3.1 Contribution of milk Milk proteins Milk fat Lactose Minerals Vitamins and some other minor constituents

20.3.2 Nutrient profile of ice cream and frozen desserts

20.3.3 Frozen dairy products from milk of species other than cow


21 Nutritional Formulae for Infants and Young Children

Séamus McSweeney, Jonathan O’Regan and Dan O’Callaghan

21.1 Introduction

21.2 History of infant formula

21.3 Classification and regulation of formulae for infants and young children

21.4 Safety and quality

21.5 Product range and formulation

21.5.1 General formulation principles

21.5.2 Milk protein-based first-age infant formulae Energy Protein Lipids Carbohydrate Minerals Vitamins Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics Other nutrients Processing aids and food additives

21.5.3 Specialised first-age infant formulae

21.5.4 Formulae for low-birthweight and premature infants

21.5.5 Follow-on formulae

21.5.6 Growing-up milks

21.5.7 Formulae for pregnant and lactating women

21.6 Processing and manufacture of formulae for infants and young children

21.7 Packaging of formulae for infants and young children

21.8 Future developments


22 Whey and Whey Products

Sanjeev Anand, Som Nath Khanal, and Chenchaiah Marella

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Sources and types of whey

22.2.1 Acid and sweet whey

22.2.2 Whey from other species

22.3 Whey production and utilization

22.4 Major commercialized whey products

22.4.1 Whey powder

22.4.2 Whey protein concentrates

22.4.3 Whey protein isolate

22.4.4 Whey protein fractions á-Lactalbumin â-Lactoglobulin Glycomacropeptide Bovine serum albumin Lactoferrin Lactoperoxidase Immunoglobulins

22.4.5 Non-protein whey products Lactose Milk minerals

22.4.6 Products from non-bovine whey Whey cheeses Other whey products

22.5 Nutritional value of whey components

22.5.1 Protein and bioactive peptides Whey protein quality Whey protein digestion and absorption Biological functions of whey proteins Antimicrobial activity of whey proteins Therapeutic values of whey proteins Whey proteins in specialized nutrition

22.5.2 Lactose Whey products for lactose intolerance

22.5.3 Vitamins and minerals in whey

22.6 Future prospects for dietary applications of whey


23 Goat Milk

George Zervas and Eleni Tsiplakou

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Composition of goat milk

23.2.1 Fat

23.2.2 Fatty acids

23.2.3 Proteins

23.2.4 Whey proteins

23.2.5 Amino acids

23.2.6 Non-protein nitrogen

23.2.7 Minor proteins

23.2.8 Carbohydrates

23.2.9 Minerals and vitamins

23.3 Effects of feeding and management on goat milk composition

23.4 The contribution of goat milk to human nutrition and health

23.4.1 The effects of milk fat

23.4.2 The effects of milk proteins

23.4.3 The effects of milk bioactive peptides Angiotensin I-converting enzyme Nucleotides Polyamines Sialic acid Taurine Growth factors

23.4.4 The effects of milk oligosaccharides

23.4.5 The effects of milk minerals and vitamins

23.4.6 Goat milk products Fermented milk, yogurt Cheeses Powder and condensed milk Butter Other goat milk products

23.5 Conclusions



24 Buffalo Milk

Sarfraz Ahmad

24.1 Introduction

24.1.1 Buffalo populations and breeds

24.1.2 Buffalo milk production and consumption

24.1.3 Socioeconomic importance of buffaloes

24.1.4 Buffalo milk commercial products

24.2 Major milk constituents and their nutritional importance

24.2.1 Fat Fat globules Triglycerides Fatty acids Conjugated linoleic acid Minor fat constituents (cholesterol, phospholipids, gangliosides)

24.2.2 Proteins Caseins Whey proteins Minor proteins

24.2.3 Carbohydrates Oligosaccharides Minor sugar fractions

24.2.4 Minerals Major minerals Trace elements

24.2.5 Enzymes Lysozyme Lactoperoxidase Xanthine oxidase

24.2.6 Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins Water-soluble vitamins

24.3 Nutritional and health benefits of buffalo milk and its products

24.3.1 Buffalo health

24.3.2 Effect of buffalo milk on particular diseases Osteoporosis Allergy Dental caries Cancer

24.3.3 Role of constituents of buffalo milk and products in human nutrition and health Fatty acids and glycerides Conjugated linoleic acid Minerals Bioactive peptides from caseins and whey proteins

24.4 Conclusions



25 Sheep Milk

Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Mercedes Ramos, Isidra Recio and Manuela Juárez

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Lipids

25.2.1 Triacylglycerides

25.2.2 Fatty acid composition Saturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids Conjugated linoleic acid

25.2.3 Other minor lipid compounds

25.3 Proteins and their biological functions

25.3.1 Bioactive peptides derived from sheep milk proteins Antihypertensive peptides Antimicrobial peptides Other biological activities of peptides from ovine proteins

25.4 Carbohydrates

25.5 Minerals

25.6 Vitamins

25.7 Sheep milk products



26 Camel Milk

Kenji Fukuda

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Camel milk production and utilization worldwide

26.2.1 Camel milk production

26.2.2 Utilization of Bactrian camel milk

26.2.3 Utilization of dromedary camel milk

26.2.4 Utilization of camel milk in Australia

26.3 Camel milk components and their nutritional aspects

26.3.1 Mineral salts and vitamins

26.3.2 Lipids

26.3.3 Carbohydrates

26.3.4 Proteins Caseins Whey proteins

26.4 Milk allergy

26.5 Health-beneficial microorganisms in camel milk and its products

26.5.1 Lactic acid bacteria

26.5.2 Yeasts



27 Horse and Donkey Milk

Elisabetta Salimei and Francesco Fantuz

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Worldwide horse and donkey distribution and milk production

27.2.1 Horse and donkey milk production for human consumption

27.3 Gross composition and physical properties of horse and donkey milk

27.4 Nitrogen fraction of horse and donkey milk

27.4.1 Caseins

27.4.2 Whey proteins

27.4.3 Non-protein nitrogen

27.5 Fat and lipid fractions in horse and donkey milk

27.6 Lactose and other carbohydrates in horse and donkey milk

27.7 Minerals and vitamins in horse and donkey milk

27.8 Bioactive compounds

27.9 Horse and donkey milk in the human diet and well-being

27.9.1 Equid milk sanitation and quality standards and controls

27.9.2 Horse and donkey milk as hypoallergenic and functional food

27.9.3 Equid milk dairy products

27.10 Conclusions


28 Sow Milk

Sung Woo Kim

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Porcine mammary gland

28.2.1 Structure and anatomy

28.2.2 Mammary gland growth

28.2.3 Maternal nutrition and mammary gland growth

28.2.4 Litter size and mammary gland growth

28.3 Porcine colostrum and milk

28.4 Dietary manipulations that affect milk production and composition

28.5 Sow milk in human nutrition research

28.6 Summary



29 Yak Milk

Ying Ma, Shenghua He, and Haimei Li

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Basic composition

29.3 Physical characteristics

29.4 Proteins

29.4.1 Nitrogen distribution

29.4.2 Protein composition

29.4.3 Minor proteins

29.4.4 Milk fat globule membrane proteins

29.4.5 Amino acids

29.4.6 Bioactive peptides derived from yak milk proteins

29.5 Lipids

29.6 Minerals

29.7 Vitamins



30 Other Minor Species Milk (Reindeer, Caribou, Musk Ox, Llama, Alpaca, Moose, Elk, and Others)

Young W. Park and George F.W. Haenlein

30.1 Introduction

30.2 General aspects of milk of minor species

30.3 Production, composition, and utilization of milk from minor dairy species

30.3.1 Reindeer Production of reindeer milk Nutritional composition of reindeer milk Contribution of reindeer milk to human foods

30.3.2 Caribou

30.3.3 Musk ox

30.3.4 Llama milk Milk yield Milk composition

30.3.5 Alpaca

30.3.6 Moose

30.3.7 Elk

30.3.8 Mithun

30.3.9 Other minor species Pinniped Polar bear Elephant



31 Human Milk

Duarte P.M. Torres and Young W. Park

31.1 Introduction

31.2 Human milk feeding and its practice

31.3 Production of human milk

31.4 Composition of human milk

31.4.1 General composition

31.4.2 Milk protein

31.4.3 Milk carbohydrates Major carbohydrates Human milk oligosaccharides and infant microbiota

31.4.4 Milk fat Milk fat composition Fatty acids of human milk in the health and cognitive development of children

31.4.5 Milk micronutrients Iron and minerals Vitamins

31.5 Infant formulae and alternative feeding



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