Statistics Success Stories and Cautionary Tales | |

What is Statistics? Seven Statistical Stories with Morals | |

The Common Elements in the Seven Stories | |

Turning Data Into Information | |

Raw Data | |

Types of Data | |

Summarizing One or Two Categorical Variables | |

Finding Information in Quantitative Data | |

Pictures for Quantitative Data | |

Numerical Summaries of Quantitative Variables | |

Bell-Shaped Distributions of Numbers | |

Gathering Useful Information | |

Description or Decision? Using Data Wisely | |

Speaking the Language of Research Studies | |

Designing a Good Experiment | |

Designing a Good Observational Study | |

Difficulties and Disasters in Experiments and Observational Studies | |

Sampling: Surveys And How To Ask Questions | |

The Beauty of Sampling | |

Sampling Methods | |

Difficulties and Disasters in Sampling | |

How to Ask Survey Questions | |

Relationships Between Quantitative Variables | |

Looking for Patterns With Scatterplots | |

Describing Linear Patterns With a Regression Line | |

Measuring Strength and Direction With a Regression Line | |

Why Answers May Not Make Sense | |

Correlation Does Not Prove Causation | |

Relationships Between Categorical Variables | |

Displaying Relationships Between Categorical Variables | |

Risk, Relative Risk, Odds Ratio, and Increased Risk | |

Misleading Statistics About Risk | |

The Effect of a Third Variable and Simpson?s Paradox | |

Assessing the Statistical Significance of a 2 x 2 Table | |

Probability | |

Random Circumstances | |

Interpretations of Probability | |

Probability Definitions and Relationships | |

Basic Rules for Finding Probabilities | |

Strategies for Finding Complicated Probabilities | |

Using Simulation to Estimate Probabilities | |

Coincidences and Intuitive Judgments About Probability | |

Random Varaibles | |

What is a Random Variable? Discrete Random Variables | |

Expectations for Random Variables | |

Binomial Random Variables | |

Continuous Random Variables | |

Normal Random Variables | |

Approximating Binominal Distribution Probabilities | |

Sums, Differences, and Combinations of Random Variables | |

Means and Proportions as Random Variables | |

Understanding Dissimilarity Among Samples | |

Sampling Distributions for Sample Proportions | |

What to Expect of Sample Means | |

What to Expect in Other Situations: Central Limit Theorem | |

Sampling Distribution for Any Statistic | |

Standardized Statistics | |

Student?s t-Distribution: Replacing = with s | |

Statistical Inference | |

Estimating Proportions With Confidence | |

The Language and Notation of Estimation | |

Margin of Error | |

Confidence Intervals | |

Calculating a Margin of Error for 95% Confidence | |

General Theory of Confidence Intervals for a Proportion | |

Choosing a Sample Size For a Survey | |

Using Confidence Intervals to Guide Decisions | |

Testing Hypotheses About Proportions | |

Formulating Hypothesis Statements | |

The Logic of Hypothesis Testing: What if the Null is True? Reaching a Conclusion About the Two Hypotheses | |

Testing Hypotheses About a Proportion | |

The Role of Sample Size in Statistical Significance | |

Real Importance versus Statistical Significance | |

What Can Go Wrong: The Two Types of Errors | |

More About Confidence Intervals | |

Examples of Different Estimation Situations | |

Standard Errors | |

Approximate 95% Confidence Intervals | |

General Confidence Intervals for One Mean or Paired Data | |

General Confidence Intervals for the Difference Between Two Means (Independent Samples) | |

The Difference Between Two Proportions (Independent Samples) | |

Understanding Any Confidence Interval | |

More About Significance Tests | |

The General Ideas of Significance Testing | |

Testing Hypotheses About One Mean or Paired Data | |

Testing the Difference Between Two Means (Independent Samples) | |

Testing the Difference Between Two Population Proportions | |

The Relationship Between Significance Tests and Confidence Intervals | |

The Two Types of Errors and Their Probabilities | |

Evaluating Significance in Research Reports | |

More About Regression | |

Sample and Population Regression Models | |

Estimating the Standard Deviation for Regression | |

Inference About the L | |

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