
Statistics Success Stories and Cautionary Tales 


1  (11) 


1  (1) 

Seven Statistical Stories with Morals 


2  (5) 

The Common Elements in the Seven Stories 


7  (5) 


8  (1) 


9  (3) 

Turning Data Into Information 


12  (58) 


13  (2) 


15  (4) 

Summarizing One or Two Categorical Variables 


19  (5) 

Exploring Features of Quantitative Data with Pictures 


24  (12) 

Numerical Summaries of Quantitative Variables 


36  (11) 


47  (2) 

Features of BellShaped Distributions 


49  (7) 

Skillbuilder Applet: The Empirical Rule in Action 


56  (14) 


57  (1) 


58  (12) 

Sampling: Surveys and How to Ask Questions 


70  (46) 

Collecting and Using Sample Data Wisely 


71  (4) 

Margin of Error, Confidence Intervals, and Sample Size 


75  (5) 

Choosing a Simple Random Sample 


80  (3) 


83  (6) 

Difficulties and Disasters in Sampling 


89  (6) 

How to Ask Survey Questions 


95  (8) 

Skillbuilder Applet: Random Sampling in Action 


103  (13) 


106  (1) 


106  (10) 

Gathering Useful Data for Examining Relationships 


116  (34) 

Speaking the Language of Research Studies 


117  (7) 

Designing a Good Experiment 


124  (9) 

Designing a Good Observational Study 


133  (3) 

Difficulties and Disasters in Experiments and Observational Studies 


136  (14) 


141  (1) 


142  (8) 

Relationships Between Quantitative Variables 


150  (42) 

Looking for Patterns with Scatterplots 


152  (5) 

Describing Linear Patterns with a Regression Line 


157  (8) 

Measuring Strength and Direction with Correlation 


165  (6) 

Regression and Correlation Difficulties and Disasters 


171  (5) 

Correlation Does Not Prove Causation 


176  (2) 

Skillbuilder Applet: Exploring Correlation 


178  (14) 


181  (1) 


181  (11) 

Relationships Between Categorical Variables 


192  (36) 

Displaying Relationships Between Categorical Variables 


193  (5) 

Risk, Relative Risk, and Misleading Statistics About Risk 


198  (6) 

The Effect of a Third Variable and Simpson's Paradox 


204  (2) 

Assessing the Statistical Significance of a 2 X 2 Table 


206  (22) 


216  (1) 


217  (11) 


228  (50) 


229  (2) 

Interpretations of Probability 


231  (7) 

Probability Definitions and Relationships 


238  (5) 

Basic Rules for Finding Probabilities 


243  (8) 

Strategies for Finding Complicated Probabilities 


251  (8) 

Using Simulation to Estimate Probabilities 


259  (2) 

Flawed Intuitive Judgments About Probability 


261  (17) 


269  (1) 


269  (9) 


278  (52) 

What Is a Random Variable? 


279  (4) 

Discrete Random Variables 


283  (5) 

Expectations for Random Variables 


288  (6) 

Binomial Random Variables 


294  (6) 

Continuous Random Variables 


300  (2) 


302  (9) 

Approximating Binomial Distribution Probabilities 


311  (3) 

Sums, Differences, and Combinations of Random Variables 


314  (16) 


320  (1) 


321  (9) 

Understanding Sampling Distributions: Statistics as Random Variables 


330  (70) 

Parameters, Statistics, and Statistical Inference 


331  (3) 

From Curiosity to Questions About Parameters 


334  (10) 

SD Module 0: An Overview of Sampling Distributions 


344  (4) 

SD Module 1: Sampling Distribution for One Sample Proportion 


348  (6) 

SD Module 2: Sampling Distribution for the Difference in Two Sample Proportions 


354  (3) 

SD Module 3: Sampling Distribution for One Sample Mean 


357  (5) 

SD Module 4: Sampling Distribution for the Sample Mean of Paired Differences 


362  (3) 

SD Module 5: Sampling Distribution for the Difference in Two Sample Means 


365  (3) 

Preparing for Statistical Inference: Standardized Statistics 


368  (5) 

Generalizations Beyond the Big Five 


373  (6) 

Skillbuilder Applet: Finding the Pattern in Sample Means 


379  (21) 


383  (1) 


384  (16) 

Estimating Proportions with Confidence 


400  (42) 


401  (2) 

CI Module 0: An Overview of Confidence Intervals 


403  (7) 

CI Module 1: Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


410  (13) 

CI Module 2: Confidence Intervals for the Difference in Two Population Proportions 


423  (5) 

Using Confidence Intervals to Guide Decisions 


428  (14) 


432  (1) 


433  (9) 

Estimating Means with Confidence 


442  (52) 

Introduction to Confidence Intervals for Means 


444  (8) 

CI Module 3: Confidence Interval for One Population Mean 


452  (9) 

CI Module 4: Confidence Interval for the Population Mean of Paired Differences 


461  (5) 

CI Module 5: Confidence Interval for the Difference in Two Population Means 


466  (12) 

Understanding Any Confidence Interval 


478  (2) 

Skillbuilder Applet: The Confidence Level in Action 


480  (14) 


483  (1) 


484  (10) 

Testing Hypotheses About Proportions 


494  (56) 


495  (1) 

HT Module 0: An Overview of Hypothesis Testing 


496  (15) 

HT Module 1: Testing Hypotheses About a Population Proportion 


511  (16) 

HT Module 2: Testing Hypotheses About the Difference in Two Population Proportions 


527  (6) 

Sample Size, Statistical Significance, and Practical Importance 


533  (17) 


538  (1) 


538  (12) 

Testing Hypotheses About Means 


550  (48) 

Introduction to Hypothesis Tests for Means 


551  (2) 

HT Module 3: Testing Hypotheses about One Population Mean 


553  (8) 

HT Module 4: Testing Hypotheses about the Population Mean of Paired Differences 


561  (4) 

HT Module 5: Testing Hypotheses about the Difference in Two Population Means 


565  (9) 

The Relationship Between Significance Tests and Confidence Intervals 


574  (2) 

Choosing an Appropriate Inference Procedure 


576  (4) 


580  (5) 

Evaluating Significance in Research Reports 


585  (13) 


587  (1) 


588  (10) 

Inference About Simple Regression 


598  (36) 

Sample and Population Regression Models 


600  (5) 

Estimating the Standard Deviation for Regression 


605  (4) 

Inference About the Slope of a Linear Regression 


609  (4) 

Predicting y and Estimating Mean y at a Specific x 


613  (6) 

Checking Conditions for Using Regression Models for Inference 


619  (15) 


625  (1) 


626  (8) 

More About Inference for Categorical Variables 


634  (34) 

The ChiSquare Test for TwoWay Tables 


635  (11) 


646  (6) 

Testing Hypotheses About One Categorical Variable: GoodnessofFit 


652  (16) 


658  (1) 


658  (10) 


668  

Comparing Means with an ANOVA FTest 


669  (10) 

Details of OneWay Analysis of Variance 


679  (6) 

Other Methods for Comparing Populations 


685  (4) 

TwoWay Analysis of Variance 


689  


693  (1) 


693  

Turning Information Into Wisdom 


70  (655) 


705  (4) 

Transforming Uncertainty Into Wisdom 


709  (1) 

Making Personal Decisions 


709  (4) 

Control of Societal Risks 


713  (2) 


715  (3) 


718  (1) 


719  (6) 


721  (4) 
Appendix of Tables 

725  (8) 
References 

733  (5) 
Answers to Selected Exercises 

738  (13) 
Credits 

751  (2) 
Index 

753  