Detailing the latest scientific findings regarding the relationship between the mind and body, this text discusses how attitudes and emotions directly affect physical health and well-being.Written by an interdisciplinary team of authors, including two professional health educators who have been deeply involved in Mind/Body research and an MD/Internist who specializes in Mind/Body practices, this text details current global findings on the relationship between the mind and body. The authors show that negative emotions such as anger, depression, and anxiety can adversely affect physical health while positive emotions such as humor and optimism can serve to improve health and increase longevity. Relationships between physical health and spirituality, attitude, medicine, and various social factors are explored. The authors stress the importance of health choices and lifestyle factors on overall health and well-being, while laying groundwork for continued research in Mind/Body medicine in the 21st century.
1. The Mind-Body Connection.
The Role Emotions Play in Disease.
The Emotion Connection to Various Conditions.
A Brief History.
The Immune System.
The Brain-Immune System Connection.
3. The Impact of Stress on Health.
Definitions of Stress.
Effects on the Body.
Types of Stress.
The Stress Response.
Outcomes of Stress.
Factors Leading to Stress.
The Physiological Reactions to Stress.
Stress and the Brain.
Stress and the Endocrine System.
Stress and the Gastrointestinal System.
Stress and the Cardiovascular System.
Stress and Nutrition.
Stress and the Immune System.
Stress and Cancer.
Self-Perceptions of Stress.
How to Protect Yourself from Stress.
4. Job Stress and Health.
The Cost of Job Stress.
Sources of Stress on the Job.
II. PERSONALITY STYLES AND HEALTH.
5. The Disease-Prone Personality.
Definitions and Foundation.
Disease and Personality: Exploring the Connection.
The Cancer-Prone Personality.
The Personality of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Personality and Ulcers.
An Asthma Personality?
6. The Coronary/Artery Disease-Prone Personality.
The Type A Personality.
The Story Behind the “Coronary Personality.”
Characteristics of the Coronary-Prone Personality.
Effects of Coronary-Prone Behavior on the Body.
The Emotional Effects of Type A Behavior.
Type A Behavior and Heart Disease Risk.
Psychosocial Coronary Risk in Women.
The Role of Type A Personality in Other Illnesses.
7. Anger and Health.
The Definition of Anger.
Manifestations of Anger.
The Significance of Anger.
The Need to Express Anger.
How the Body Reacts to Anger.
Anger: The Cancer Connection.
An Angry Heart, an Ill Heart.
8. Hostility and Health.
Definitions of Hostility.
The Characteristics of Hostility.
Causes of Hostility.
The Effects of Hostility.
Hostility and Heart Disease.
Hostility and Mortality.
9. Worry, Anxiety, Fear, and Health.
Definitions of Worry.
Effects on the Body.
The Health Consequences of Fear.
10. Depression, Despair, and Health.
Prevalence and Manifestations.
Depression and Premenstrual Syndrome.
Seasonal Affective Disorder.
The Physiological Changes of Depression.
Depression and Longevity.
Depression and the Immune System.
Depression and the Heart.
Depression and Cancer.
Feeling Sad, Feeling Bad.
11. Insomnia and Sleep Deprivation: Health Effects and Treatment.
Types and Causes of Insomnia.
12. The Disease-Resistant Personality.
The Role of Stress in Health.
The Mechanisms of Stress.
Personality Traits That Keep Us Well.
III. SOCIAL SUPPORT AND HEALTH.
13. Social Support, Relationships, and Health.
Social Support Defined.
Sources of Social Support.
How Does Social Support Protect Health?
The Ties That Bind.
Love Stronger, Live Longer.
Social Connections and the Heart.
The Best Health Bet — Good Social Ties.
Touch: A Crucial Aspect of Social Support.
14. Loneliness and Health.
What is Loneliness.
Loneliness versus Aloneness.
Trends in Being Alone.
Reasons for Loneliness.
Risk Factors for Loneliness.
Health Consequences of Loneliness.
Loneliness and Longevity.
Loneliness and Immune Function.
Loneliness and Heart Function.
Loneliness and Cancer.
The Importance of Good Friends.
The Importance of Pets.
15. Marriage and Health.
The Health Hazards of Divorce.
The Divorced versus the Unhappily Married.
The Health Benefits of a Happy Marriage.
Marriage and Life Expectancy.
16. Families and Health.
What Is a Family?
The Early Influence of Parents.
Traits of Weak or Stressed Families.
Health Problems in Weak or Stressed Families.
Traits of Strong Families.
The Health Benefits of Strong Families.
Family Reunions: More Than a Good Time.
17. Grief, Bereavement, and Health.
The Loss That Leads to Grief.
Grief: The Natural Effect of Loss.
The Health Consequences of Bereavement.
General Mortality Rates.
Cutting the Risk.
IV. SPIRITUALITY AND HEALTH.
18.The Healing Power of Spirituality.
What Is Spirituality and Spiritual Health?
Influences on Health.
Crisis as a Growth Experience.
The Power of Prayer on Health.
The Healing Power of Forgiveness.
Church Affiliation and Health.
The Essence of Spirituality.
19. Altruism and Health.
How Altruism Boosts Health.
The Altruistic Personality.
The Health Benefits of Volunteerism.
Love, The Emotion Behind It.
20. The Healing Power of Faith.
The Impact of Faith.
The Influence of Faith on Health.
The Healing Power of Faith.
21.The Healing Power of Hope.
What Is Hope?
The Influence of Hope.
The Impact of Hope on Health.
Hope as a Healing Factor.
Hope as a Survival Factor.
Denial: Making Room for Hope.
V. PERCEPTION AND HEALTH.
22. Explanatory Style and Health.
What Is Explanatory Style?
How Permanent Is Explanatory Style?
What Are the Effects of Explanatory Style?
The Influence of Explanatory Style on Health.
A Healthy Style, a Healthy Immune System.
23. Locus of Control and Health.
What Does Locus of Control Mean?
A Brief History.
Hardiness and Control.
The Influence of Control on Health.
The Stress-Buffering Power of Control.
The Influence of Control on Immunity and Healing.
24.Self-Esteem and Health.
What is Self-Esteem?
Where Does Self-Esteem Come From?
The Impact of Self-Esteem on the Body.
Self-Efficacy: Believing in Yourself.
25. Pessimism, Negativism, and Health.
Characteristics of Pessimists.
Two Styles of Pessimism.
Effects of Pessimism on the Body.
Why Does Pessimism Affect Health?
26.Optimism and Health
Who Are Optimists?
Characteristics of Optimists.
How Optimism Influences Health.
Optimism and Healing.
Optimism: A Boost to Immunity.
Optimism's Effect on Mental Health.
Optimists and Longevity.
27. Protecting Health with a Fighting Spirit.
What Is a Fighting Spirit?
The Role of a Fighting Spirit in Recovery from Disease.
How a Fighting Spirit Makes a Difference.
28. The Healing Power of Humor and Laughter.
Professional Trends Toward Humor.
The Health Impact of Humor.
Laughter: The Best Medicine.
The Health Benefits of Laughter.
29. Behavioral Medicine Treatment: Effects on Medical Outcomes and Costs.
High-Volume Users of Medical Care and Resources.
Outcomes for Specific Medical Illnesses.
Cost and Medical Care Utilization Issues.
30. Methods of Intervention and the Principles of Stress Resilience.
Lessons from Cancer Studies.
A Sense of Empowerment and Personal Control.
Cognitive Structuring and Therapy.
Basic Elements of Behavior Change.
Mind-Body Treatment: Can It Change the Course of Disease?
The Spiritual Connection.
Appendix A. The Elements of Human Fulfillment.
Appendix B. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.