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Mineralogy

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130620996

ISBN10:
0130620998
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $138.00
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  • Mineralogy
    Mineralogy




Summary

This learner-oriented text is written in a casual, jargon-free style to present a modern introduction to mineralogy. It emphasizes real-world applications and an "outside-in approach" as well as the history and human side of mineralogy.Chapter topics include elements and minerals; crystallization and classification of minerals; mineral properties: hand specimen mineralogy; optical mineralogy; igneous rocks and silicate minerals; sedimentary minerals and sedimentary rocks; metamorphic minerals and metamorphic rocks; ore deposits and economic minerals; crystal morphology and symmetry; crystallography; units cells, points, lines, and planes; x-ray diffraction; atomic structure; and descriptions of minerals.For individuals interested in the science of mineralogy, and how minerals impact everyday life.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
PART I: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND OCCURRENCES 1(172)
Elements and Minerals
3(23)
Minerals
3(1)
The Importance of Minerals
4(1)
Box 1.1 The Amoco Building, Chicago
4(1)
Elements: The Basic Building Blocks
5(3)
Historical Views of Elements and Matter
5(1)
Modern Views of Elements and Matter: A Review of Basic Chemistry
6(1)
Grouping of Elements and the Periodic Chart
6(2)
Atoms and Elements
8(2)
The Bohr Model
8(1)
Modifications to the Bohr Model
9(1)
Ions
10(1)
The Modern Periodic Table
11(3)
Periods
11(2)
Groups
13(1)
Atomic Number and Mass
13(1)
Box 1.2 What Is a Mole of Quartz?
14(1)
Bonding in Minerals
14(3)
Box 1.3 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Crystals
15(2)
Origin of the Elements and the Earth
17(1)
Hubble's Contributions
17(1)
In the Beginning
17(1)
The Formation of Our Solar System
18(1)
Abundant Elements and Minerals
18(3)
Goldschmidt's Classification
18(1)
Abundance of Elements
19(1)
Anionic Complexes
19(2)
Box 1.4 Chemical Formulas o f Minerals
21(1)
Major Elements, Minor Elements, and Trace Elements
21(3)
Box 1.5 How To Normalize a Mineral Analysis
22(2)
Questions for Thought
24(1)
Resources
24(1)
General References
25(1)
Crystallization and Classification of Minerals
26(19)
Crystals and Crystallization
26(3)
Box 2.1 Pegmatites Contain the Largest Crystals
28(1)
Crystal Imperfections: Defects
29(1)
Crystal Imperfections: Compositional Zoning
30(1)
Crystal Imperfections: Twinning
30(1)
Igneous Minerals
31(2)
Box 2.2 Making Glass from Minerals
32(1)
Minerals That Precipitate from Aqueous Solutions
33(1)
Metamorphic and Diagenetic Minerals
34(1)
Common Rocks and Minerals
35(1)
Life Spans of Minerals
36(1)
The Laws of Thermodynamics
37(1)
Box 2.3 Scientific Laws, Theories, and Hypotheses
37(1)
Classification of Minerals
38(2)
A Classified List of Minerals
40(3)
Box 2.4 Plotting Mineral Compositions
41(2)
Questions for Thought
43(1)
Resources
43(2)
Mineral Properties: Hand Specimen Mineralogy
45(18)
Identification of Minerals
45(1)
Mineral Appearance
46(2)
Luster
46(1)
Diaphaneity
46(1)
Color
47(1)
Streak
48(1)
Luminescence
48(1)
Play of Colors
48(1)
Crystal Shape
48(2)
Box 3.1 What's Wrong With This Picture?
49(1)
Strength and Breaking of Minerals
50(7)
Tenacity
50(2)
Box 3.2 Asbestiform Minerals and Health Risks
52(1)
Fracture, Cleavage, and Parting
53(2)
Hardness
55(1)
Box 3.3 Hard and Soft Minerals
56(1)
Density and Specific Gravity
57(2)
Magnetism of Minerals
59(1)
Electrical Properties
60(1)
Box 3.4 What Is a Pycnometer?
60(1)
Reaction to Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
61(1)
Other Properties
61(1)
Questions for Thought
61(1)
Resources
61(2)
Optical Mineralogy
63(25)
What Is Light?
64(3)
The Properties of Light
64(1)
Box 4.1 Optical Classification of Minerals
64(1)
Interference
65(2)
Polarization of Light and the Polarizing Microscope
67(3)
Polarized Light
67(1)
Polarizing Microscopes
67(2)
Box 4.2 Identifying Minerals with a Polarizing Microscope
69(1)
Colors in Plane Polarized (PP) Light and Crossed Polarized (XP) Light
70(1)
The Velocity of Light in Crystals and the Refractive Index
70(3)
Snell's Law and Light Refraction
71(1)
Relief and Becke Lines
72(1)
Interaction of Light and Crystals
73(10)
Double Refraction
73(2)
Crystals Between Crossed Polars
75(1)
Interference Colors
75(1)
Uniaxial and Biaxial Minerals
75(3)
Box 4.3 Determining the Extinction Angle and the Sign of Elongation
78(2)
Accessory Plates and the Sign of Elongation
80(1)
Uniaxial Interference Figures
80(1)
Biaxial Interference Figures
80(1)
Box 4.4 Obtaining an Interference Figure
81(1)
Box 4.5 Determining the Optic Sign of a Uniaxial Mineral
82(1)
Other Mineral Characteristics in Thin Sections
83(4)
Cleavage
83(1)
Twinning
83(1)
Box 4.6 The Four Kinds of Oriented Biaxial Interference Figures
84(2)
Box 4.7 Determining Sign and 2V from a Bxa Figure
86(1)
Box 4.8 Determining Sign and 2V from an Optic Axis Figure
87(1)
Questions for Thought
87(1)
Resources
87(1)
Igneous Rocks and Silicate Minerals
88(29)
Magmas and Igneous Rocks
88(1)
Compositions of Igneous Rocks
89(1)
Mafic and Silicic Magmas
89(1)
Volatiles
89(1)
Box 5.1 Compositions of Magmas Producing Igneous Rocks (oxide wt. %)
90(1)
Crystallization of Magmas
90(3)
Equilibrium Between Crystals and Melt
90(1)
Bowen's Reaction Series
91(2)
Disequilibrium
93(1)
Silicate Minerals
93(17)
SiO2 Polymorphs
93(2)
Box 5.2 Experimental Petrology and Phase Diagrams
95(1)
Feldspar Group
96(1)
Box 5.3 How to Use Triangular Diagrams
97(2)
Box 5.4 Miscibility Gaps
99(1)
Box 5.5 The Plagioclase Phase Diagram and Fractional Crystallization
100(2)
Feldspathoid Group
102(1)
Mica Group
102(1)
Chain Silicates
102(1)
Pyroxene Group
103(3)
Amphibole Group
106(1)
Box 5.6 Diopside-Enstatite Solvus and Geothermometry
107(2)
Olivine Group
109(1)
Other Minerals in Igneous Rocks
109(1)
The Naming of Igneous Rocks
110(1)
Simple Classification Scheme
110(1)
Mineral Modes
110(1)
Common Types of Igneous Rock
110(5)
Silicic Igneous Rocks (>20% Quartz)
110(2)
Intermediate and Mafic Igneous Rocks (0-20% Quartz)
112(2)
Ultramafic Igneous Rocks
114(1)
Box 5.7 Minerals from the Moon
115(1)
Questions for Thought
115(1)
Resources
116(1)
Sedimentary Minerals and Sedimentary Rocks
117(16)
Weathering
118(2)
Transportation, Deposition, and Lithification
120(1)
Sedimentary Minerals
120(7)
Silicates
120(1)
Clay Minerals
120(1)
Box 6.1 Zeolites
121(2)
Carbonate Minerals
123(1)
Box 6.2 Clays Used in Industry, Arts, and Ceramics
123(1)
Box 6.3 Lime Kilns, Mortar, and Cement
123(1)
Sulfate Minerals
124(2)
Halides
126(1)
Chert
126(1)
Common Sedimentary Rocks
127(4)
Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
127(1)
Box 6.4 Gypsum: Ingredient of Plaster and Sheetrock
128(1)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
128(1)
Box 6.5 Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Salt Domes
129(1)
Box 6.6 Did the Mediterranean Sea Repeatedly Dry up in the Past?
130(1)
Other Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
130(1)
Box 6.7 Iron Formation
131(1)
Diagenesis
131(1)
Box 6.8 Laterites and Bauxites
131(1)
Questions for Thought
132(1)
Resources
132(1)
Metamorphic Minerals and Metamorphic Rocks
133(22)
The Causes of Metamorphism
133(3)
Box 7.1 Extremes of Metamorphism
135(1)
Metamorphic Textures
136(1)
Metamorphic Minerals
137(1)
Metamorphic Facies
138(2)
Some Common Types of Metamorphic Rock
140(5)
Metamorphosed Pelitic Rocks (Metapelites)
140(2)
Metamorphosed Psammitic Rocks (Metapsammites)
142(1)
Metamorphosed Mafic Rocks (Metabasites)
142(1)
Metamorphosed Limestones and Dolostones (Marbles)
142(2)
Metamorphosed Ultramafic Rocks and Iron Formations
144(1)
Metamorphosed Granitic Rocks
144(1)
High-Pressure Rocks
145(1)
Metamorphic Reactions
145(1)
Equilibrium
146(2)
Box 7.2 Examples of Metamorphic Reactions
146(1)
Box 7.3 Thermodynamic Laws and Definitions
147(1)
Metamorphic Phase Diagrams and the Phase Rule
148(1)
The Thermodynamics of Reactions
149(4)
The Gibbs Free Energy
149(2)
Changes in Gibbs Energy With Pressure and Temperature
151(1)
Box 7.4 Using Phase Diagrams To Interpret Rocks
152(1)
Questions for Thought
153(1)
Resources
154(1)
Ore Deposits and Economic Minerals
155(18)
Mineral Use and Profitability
155(2)
Types of Ore Deposits
157(3)
Magmatic Ore Deposits
158(1)
Hydrothermal Ore Deposits
158(1)
Box 8.1 Strategic Minerals and Metals
159(1)
Sedimentary Ore Deposits
160(1)
Ore Minerals
160(7)
Native Elements: Metals, Semimetals, and Nonmetals
162(2)
Box 8.2 The Witwatersrand Gold Deposits
164(1)
Sulfides and Sulfosalts
164(1)
Oxides and Hydroxides
165(1)
Box 8.3 Another Look at the Phase Rule and Cu-Fe Sulfide Minerals
166(1)
Gems and Gem Minerals
167(4)
Synthetic Gems and Color Alteration
167(1)
Box 8.4 The World's Major Diamond Producers
168(2)
Cutting and Polishing Gems
170(1)
Box 8.5 Mining, the Environment, and Politics
171(1)
Questions for Thought
171(1)
Resources
172(1)
PART II: SYMMETRY, CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE 173(122)
Crystal Morphology and Symmetry
175(31)
Symmetry
175(5)
Mirror Planes
175(2)
Rotational Symmetry
177(1)
Inversion Centers
178(2)
Symmetry Is a Property
180(1)
Stereo Diagrams
180(7)
Symmetry on Stereo Diagrams
180(1)
Special Points and General Points
181(1)
Rotoinversion
182(2)
Combinations of Symmetry Elements: Point Groups
184(1)
Special Angles and General Angles
185(2)
Forms and Crystal Morphology
187(8)
Forms
187(1)
Box 9.1 Proper Rotation Axes and Stereo Diagrams
188(2)
Box 9.2 Rotation Axes With Perpendicular Mirror Planes
190(1)
Box 9.3 Rotoinversion and Stereo Diagrams
191(1)
Combinations of Forms
192(2)
Box 9.4 Names of the Most Important Forms
194(1)
Plotting Crystal Faces on a Stereo Diagram
195(3)
Box 9.5 Plotting Crystal Faces on a Stereo Diagram
196(2)
Point Groups and Crystal Systems
198(7)
Box 9.6 Hermann-Mauguin Symbols
203(2)
Questions for Thought
205(2100)
Resources
205(1)
Crystallography
206(31)
Observations in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
206(2)
Unit Cells and Lattices in Two Dimensions
208(7)
Shapes of Unit Cells in Two Dimensions
208(2)
Motifs and Lattices
210(2)
Box 10.1 Choices of a Unit Cell
212(3)
Symmetry of the Motif and the Lattice
215(1)
Unit Cells and Lattices in Three Dimensions
215(6)
What Shapes Are Possible?
215(1)
Box 10.2 Lattices and Vectors in Two Dimensions
216(2)
Cells With Extra Lattice Points
218(2)
Box 10.3 vectors and Space Lattices
220(1)
Bravais Lattices
221(1)
Unit Cell Symmetry and Crystal Symmetry
222(3)
Point Groups and Crystal Systems
225(4)
Symmetry of Three-Dimensional Crystal Structures
229(3)
Space Group Operators
229(1)
Screw Axes
229(1)
Glide Planes
230(1)
Space Groups
230(2)
Crystal Habit and Crystal Faces
232(4)
Box 10.4 Why Are There Only 230 Space Groups?
233(3)
Questions for Thought
236(1)
Resources
236(1)
Unit Cells, Points, Lines, and Planes
237(14)
Unit Cell Parameters and Crystallographic Axes
237(3)
The Composition of Unit Cells
240(1)
Points in Unit Cells
240(2)
Lines and Directions in Crystals
242(1)
Planes in Crystals
242(3)
Miller Indices
244(1)
Crystal Forms and the Miller Index
245(5)
General Forms and Special Forms
246(1)
Box 11.1 The Miller Indices of Planes Within a Crystal Structure
246(1)
Zones and Zone Axes
247(2)
Box 11.2 Comparison of a Hexoctahedron With Other Forms in the Cubic System
249(1)
Questions for Thought
250(1)
Resources
250(1)
X-ray Diffraction
251(20)
What Are X-Rays?
252(1)
Box 12.1 X-ray Tube
253(1)
Interactions of X-Rays and Atoms
253(1)
Interference of X-ray Waves
254(1)
Diffraction by a Row of Atoms
254(2)
Planes of Atoms
256(3)
The Distance Between Planes in Crystals
256(1)
Diffraction by Planes of Atoms
256(2)
Box 12.2 Cell Parameters and d-values
258(1)
Intensity of Diffraction
259(1)
Diffraction at Different Angles
259(1)
Extinctions
260(1)
Single Crystal Diffraction
260(3)
Routine X-ray Analyses
263(6)
Powder Diffraction
263(2)
Identifying Minerals from Powder Patterns
265(2)
Box 12.3 Example of Data from Powder Diffraction File Data Set
267(1)
Box 12.4 Identification of Minerals from X-ray Patterns the Old Way
268(1)
Indexing Patterns and Determining Cell Parameters
268(1)
Box 12.5 Indexing a Garnet Pattern and Determining a
269(1)
Questions for Thought
269(1)
Resources
270(1)
Atomic Structure
271(24)
The Impact of X-ray Crystallography
271(1)
Ionic Crystals
271(1)
Ionic Radii
272(2)
Coordination Number
274(1)
Closest Packing
274(3)
Packing in Two Dimensions
274(1)
Packing in Three Dimensions
275(1)
Exceptions to Closest Packing
275(2)
Pauling's Rules
277(5)
Pauling's Rule 1
277(1)
Box 13.1 Why Are They Called Hexagonal Closest Packed (HCP) and Cubic Closest Packed (CCP)?
278(1)
Box 13.2 Pauling's Rules
279(1)
Box 13.3 Who Was Linus Pauling?
280(1)
Pauling's Rule 2
281(1)
Pauling's Rule 3
282(1)
Pauling's Rule 4
282(1)
Pauling's Rule 5
282(1)
Oxygen and Other Common Elements
282(2)
Silicate Structures in General
284(2)
Elemental Substitutions in Silicates
286(1)
Structures of the Basic Silicate Subclasses
287(4)
Framework Silicates
287(1)
Sheet Silicates
288(1)
Chain Silicates
288(1)
Ring Silicates
289(1)
Paired Tetrahedral Silicates
289(1)
Isolated Tetrahedral Silicates
290(1)
Structures and Chemistry of Nonsilicates
291(2)
Questions for Thought
293(1)
Resources
293(2)
PART III: MINERAL DESCRIPTIONS 295(106)
Descriptions of Minerals
297(104)
Framework Silicates
298(14)
Sheet Silicates
312(9)
Chain Silicates
321(10)
Ring Silicates
331(1)
Isolated Tetrahedral Silicates
332(12)
Paired Tetrahedral Silicates
344(2)
Native Elements
346(4)
Sulfides
350(11)
Halides
361(3)
Oxides
364(8)
Hydroxides
372(4)
Carbonates and Nitrates
376(8)
Borates
384(3)
Sulfates
387(4)
Tungstates, Molybdates, and Chromates
391(2)
Phosphates, Vanadates, and Arsenates
393(8)
Appendix A: Classified List of Minerals 401(5)
Appendix B: Mineral Identification Tables 406(25)
Appendix C: Minerals Separated by Optic System and Sign, and Ordered by Index of Refraction 431(5)
Appendix D: Minerals Ordered by Birefringence and Interference Colors in Thin Section 436(4)
Appendix E: Minerals Ordered by Hardness 440(4)
Appendix F: Minerals Ordered by Specific Gravity 444(4)
Glossary 448(16)
Mineral Index and List of Mineral Properties 464(9)
Subject Index 473

Excerpts

Several excellent mineralogy texts are available today. They are well written, contain good figures and tables, and are complete. In short, they make excellent reference books, and I am glad I have them on my shelf. However, in my experience they are not appropriate for undergraduate mineralogy courses because they do not stimulate students or present information in ways that help students learn. Of course, the most enthusiastic and self-motivated students always do well and enjoy learning, and they may enjoy any well-written book, but many of my students are not of this ilk. They are good students, but many of them have, over the years, expressed frustration and dissatisfaction with mineralogy texts and, consequently, the way that mineralogy is taught.As I see it, the major problem is one of thinking. In particular, it is a problem stemming from scientific minds that picture the world as a bunch of facts that, when combined, add up to big pictures. I find that most mineralogy students are bored by facts and often have not developed the imagination or perseverance needed to see their implications. As a scientist, I don't have a problem starting with atoms and atomic theory and building to molecules, crystals, rocks, regions, continents, and the Earth. I have no problem spending time discussing symmetry before I discuss minerals. It doesn't bother me if a class or an article never gets beyond interesting details and abstractions, or if a particular topic is never fully related to any other. However, as a teacher, I find that the scientific way of thinking is not the students' way of learning. Most students, in fact, seem to learn best by starting with the big things they know and understand--a rock or a pretty crystal, for instance--and then focusing on details and, finally, abstractions. They are interested and stimulated only when they understand the context and implications of the material they are learning. This means that the order and presentation of subjects in available mineralogy books are in many ways opposite from what can best promote learning.Most of today's students won't be mineralogists and few will be petrologists. They don't need to know all the details of crystallography, crystal chemistry, and many other things we have taught in the past. Instead, they need to know how to think, they need to appreciate science and how it works, and, if they are to go on to careers in the Earth sciences, they need to know how minerals fit into a bigger picture.This is the second edition ofMineralogybut, like the first, it approaches the subject of mineralogy from a student's perspective. My goal is to provide a book that students will enjoy reading and that will help them learn and become excited about the science I have made my career. I have tried to emphasize ideas and thinking and to relate mineralogy to other sciences. Consequently, I have deemphasized facts and sacrificed some completeness. Most, but not all, of the same material found in other mineralogy books is included, but the order, presentation, and depth of coverage are different. Mineralogical purists may say that I have strayed into different disciplines or that I have omitted some important details. Of these crimes I am guilty; but I have not done this without thought, and I hope that my thinking has been consistent with my goals.When I wrote the first edition of this book, I was asked what would make it different and successful. I am not sure what makes a book successful, but the most important things that make this book different from others are With the exception of the first chapter, topics are covered beginning with the big, easy-to-see picture and ending with the details and theory. Topics are not completely divided into separate chapters as in many books; there is overlap and some redundancy. In an attempt to put mineralogy in context, I have placed more emphasis on petrol


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