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Modern Control Engineering,9780130609076
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Modern Control Engineering

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130609076

ISBN10:
0130609072
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

This comprehensive treatment of the analysis and design of continuous-time control systems provides agradualdevelopment of control theoryand shows how to solveallcomputational problems with MATLAB. It avoids highly mathematical arguments, and features an abundance of examples and worked problems throughout the book.Chapter topics include the Laplace transform; mathematical modeling of mechanical systems, electrical systems, fluid systems, and thermal systems; transient and steady-state-response analyses, root-locus analysis and control systems design by the root-locus method; frequency-response analysis and control systems design by the frequency-response; two-degrees-of-freedom control; state space analysis of control systems and design of control systems in state space.For control systems engineers.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Introduction to Control Systems
1(8)
Introduction
1(2)
Examples of Control Systems
3(3)
Closed-Loop Control versus Open-Loop Control
6(2)
Outline of the Book
8(1)
The Laplace Transform
9(44)
Introduction
9(1)
Review of Complex Variables and Complex Functions
10(3)
Laplace Transformation
13(10)
Laplace Transform Theorems
23(9)
Inverse Laplace Transformation
32(4)
Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB
36(4)
Solving Linear, Time-Invariant, Differential Equations
40(13)
Example Problems and Solutions
42(9)
Problems
51(2)
Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Systems
53(99)
Introduction
53(2)
Transfer Function and Impulse-Response Function
55(3)
Automatic Control Systems
58(12)
Modeling in State Space
70(6)
State-Space Representation of Dynamic Systems
76(7)
Transformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB
83(2)
Mechanical Systems
85(5)
Electrical and Electronic Systems
90(14)
Signal Flow Graphs
104(8)
Linearization of Nonlinear Mathematical Models
112(40)
Example Problems and Solutions
115(31)
Problems
146(6)
Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems
152(67)
Introduction
152(1)
Liquid-Level Systems
153(5)
Pneumatic Systems
158(17)
Hydraulic Systems
175(13)
Thermal Systems
188(31)
Example Problems and Solutions
192(19)
Problems
211(8)
Transient and Steady-State Response Analyses
219(118)
Introduction
219(2)
First-Order Systems
221(3)
Second-Order Systems
224(15)
Higher Order Systems
239(4)
Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB
243(28)
An Example Problem Solved with MATLAB
271(4)
Routh's Stability Criterion
275(6)
Effects of Integral and Derivative Control Actions on System Performance
281(7)
Steady-State Errors in Unity-Feedback Control Systems
288(49)
Example Problems and Solutions
294(36)
Problems
330(7)
Root-Locus Analysis
337(79)
Introduction
337(2)
Root-Locus Plots
339(12)
Summary of General Rules for Constructing Root Loci
351(7)
Root-Locus Plots with MATLAB
358(15)
Positive-Feedback Systems
373(5)
Conditionally Stable Systems
378(1)
Root Loci for Systems with Transport Lag
379(37)
Example Problems and Solutions
384(29)
Problems
413(3)
Control Systems Design by the Root-Locus Method
416(76)
Introduction
416(3)
Preliminary Design Considerations
419(2)
Lead Compensation
421(8)
Lag Compensation
429(10)
Lag-Lead Compensation
439(12)
Parallel Compensation
451(41)
Example Problems and Solutions
456(32)
Problems
488(4)
Frequency-Response Analysis
492(126)
Introduction
492(5)
Bode Diagrams
497(19)
Plotting Bode Diagrams with MATLAB
516(7)
Polar Plots
523(8)
Drawing Nyquist Plots with MATLAB
531(8)
Log-Magnitude-versus-Phase Plots
539(1)
Nyquist Stability Criterion
540(10)
Stability Analysis
550(10)
Relative Stability
560(15)
Closed-Loop Frequency Response of Unity-Feedback Systems
575(9)
Experimental Determination of Transfer Functions
584(34)
Example Problems and Solutions
589(23)
Problems
612(6)
Control Systems Design by Frequency Response
618(134)
Introduction
618(3)
Lead Compensation
621(9)
Lag Compensation
630(9)
Lag-Lead Compensation
639(6)
Concluding Comments
645(36)
Example Problems and Solutions
648(31)
Problems
679(2)
PID Controls and Two-Degrees-of-Freedom
Control Systems
681(1)
Introduction
681(1)
Tuning Rules for PID Controllers
682(10)
Computational Approach to Obtain Optimal Sets of Parameter Values
692(8)
Modifications of PID Control Schemes
700(3)
Two-Degrees-of-Freedom Control
703(2)
Zero-Placement Approach to Improve Response Characteristics
705(47)
Example Problems and Solutions
724(21)
Problems
745(7)
Analysis of Control Systems in State Space
752(74)
Introduction
752(1)
State-Space Representations of Transfer-Function Systems
753(7)
Transformation of System Models with MATLAB
760(4)
Solving the Time-Invariant State Equation
764(8)
Some Useful Results in Vector-Matrix Analysis
772(7)
Controllability
779(7)
Observability
786(40)
Example Problems and Solutions
792(32)
Problems
824(2)
Design of Control Systems in State Space
826(126)
Introduction
826(1)
Pole Placement
827(12)
Solving Pole-Placement Problems with MATLAB
839(4)
Design of Servo Systems
843(12)
State Observers
855(27)
Design of Regulator Systems with Observers
882(8)
Design of Control Systems with Observers
890(7)
Quadratic Optimal Regulator Systems
897(55)
Example Problems and Solutions
910(38)
Problems
948(4)
References 952(4)
Index 956

Excerpts

This book presents a comprehensive treatment of the analysis and design of control systems. It is written at the level of the senior engineering (mechanical, electrical, aerospace, and chemical) student and is intended to be used as a text for the first course in control systems. The prerequisite on the part of the reader is that he or she has had introductory courses on differential equations, vector-matrix analysis, circuit analysis, and mechanics. The main revision made in the fourth edition of the text is to present two-degrees-of-freedom control systems to design high performance control systems such that steady-state errors in following step, ramp, and acceleration inputs become zero. Also, newly presented is the computational (MATLAB) approach to determine the pole-zero locations of the controller to obtain the desired transient response characteristics such that the maximum overshoot and settling time in the step response be within the specified values. These subjects are discussed in Chapter 10. Also, Chapter 5 (primarily transient response analysis) and Chapter 12 (primarily pole placement and observer design) are expanded using MATLAB. Many new solved problems are added to these chapters so that the reader will have a good understanding of the MATLAB approach to the analysis and design of control systems. Throughout the book computational problems are solved with MATLAB. This text is organized into 12 chapters. The outline of the book is as follows. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to control systems. Chapter 2 deals with Laplace transforms of commonly encountered time functions and some of the useful theorems on Laplace transforms. (If the students have an adequate background on Laplace transforms, this chapter may be skipped.) Chapter 3 treats mathematical modeling of dynamic systems (mostly mechanical, electrical, and electronic systems) and develops transfer function models and state-space models. This chapter also introduces signal flow graphs. Discussions of a linearization technique for nonlinear mathematical models are included in this chapter. Chapter 4 presents mathematical modeling of fluid systems (such as liquid-level systems, pneumatic systems, and hydraulic systems) and thermal systems. Chapter 5 treats transient response analyses of dynamic systems to step, ramp, and impulse inputs. MATLAB is extensively used for transient response analysis. Routh's stability criterion is presented in this chapter for the stability analysis of higher order systems. Steady-state error analysis of unity-feedback control systems is also presented in this chapter. Chapter 6 treats the root-locus analysis of control systems. Plotting root loci with MATLAB is discussed in detail. In this chapter root-locus analyses of positive-feedback systems, conditionally stable systems, and systems with transport lag are included. Chapter 7 presents the design of lead, lag, and lag-lead compensators with the root-locus method. Both series and parallel compensation techniques are discussed. Chapter 8 presents basic materials on frequency-response analysis. Bode diagrams, polar plots, the Nyquist stability criterion, and closed-loop frequency response are discussed including the MATLAB approach to obtain frequency response plots. Chapter 9 treats the design and compensation techniques using frequency-response methods. Specifically, the Bode diagram approach to the design of lead, lag, and lag-lead compensators is discussed in detail. Chapter 10 first deals with the basic and modified PID controls and then presents computational (MATLAB) approach to obtain optimal choices of parameter values of controllers to satisfy requirements on step response characteristics. Next, it presents two-degrees-of-freedom control systems. The chapter concludes with the design of high performance control systems that will follow a step, ramp, or acceleration input without steady-state error. The zero-placement method


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