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An up-to-date collection of the most insightful and influential research on gangs today, The Modern Gang Reader, Fourth Edition, brings together articles that discuss the prevalence, structures, and behaviors of gangs today and analyze society's responses to them. With a strong focus on international and comparative research, this authoritative volume exposes students to the array of dissenting points of view that represent the ongoing controversies behind the nature of gangs. NEW TO THIS EDITION Thirty-two new articles covering a variety of issues--gang desistance, reentry from incarceration, victimization, international gangs, and more New sections throughout, including three devoted to better understanding the relationships between gang membership and racial inequality, gender, and community contexts New introductions at the beginning of each section that provide conceptual links with other pieces in the anthology Updated and expanded coverage of methodological strategies for studying gangs, the demographic characteristics of gang members, group processes within gangs, and other key topics
Cheryl L. Maxson is Associate Professor of Criminology, Law, and Society at the University of California, Irvine.
Arlen Egley, Jr., is a Senior Research Associate at the National Gang Center.
Jody Miller is Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University-Newark.
Malcolm W. Klein is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Southern California.
Table of Contents
* = New to this edition
Each Section opens with an Introduction.
About the Editors
New to the Fourth Edition
SECTION I: DEFINING AND STUDYING GANGS
1. A Brief Review of the Definitional Problem, Malcolm W. Klein and Cheryl L. Maxson
2. Street Gang Theory and Research: Where Are We Now and Where Do We Go from Here? Jane Wood and Emma Alleyne*
3. Studying Youth Gangs: Alternative Methods and Conclusions, Lorine A. Hughes*
4. The Value of Comparisons in Street Gang Research, Malcolm W. Klein*
SECTION II: THE SCOPE AND DYNAMICS OF GANG INVOLVEMENT
5. Gang Problem Prevalence Trends in the U.S., James C. Howell, Arlen Egley, Jr., George E. Tita, and Elizabeth Griffiths*
6. Gang Members on the Move, Cheryl L. Maxson
7. Who Are the Gangsters? An Examination of the Age, Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Immigration Status of Self-Reported Gang Members in a Seven-City Study of American Youth, Finn-Aage Esbensen and Dena C. Carson*
8. Getting into Gangs, Jody Miller
9. Longitudinal Perspectives on Adolescent Street Gangs, Marvin D. Krohn and Terrance P. Thornberry*
10. Motives and Methods for Leaving the Gang: Understanding the Process of Gang Desistance, David C. Pyrooz and Scott H. Decker*
SECTION III: GANG STRUCTURES AND GROUP PROCESSES
11. Gang Structures, Malcolm W. Klein and Cheryl L. Maxson*
12. Hate Groups or Street Gangs? The Emergence of Racist Skinheads, Pete Simi*
13. Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization, Scott H. Decker, Charles M. Katz, and Vincent J. Webb*
14. Gang Dynamics through the Lens of Social Identity Theory, Karen Hennigan and Marija Spanovic*
15. Gang Transformation, Changes, or Demise: Evidence from an English City, Juanjo Medina, Judith Aldridge, and Robert Ralphs*
SECTION IV: RACE AND ETHNICITY
16. The Impact of Multiple Marginality on Gang Membership and Delinquent Behavior for Hispanic, African American, and White Male Adolescents, Marvin D. Krohn, Nicole M. Schmidt, Alan J. Lizotte, and Julie M. Baldwin*
17. Racialized Identities and the Formation of Black Gangs in Los Angeles, Alejandro A. Alonso*
18. Typically Moroccan? A Group Dynamic Explanation of Nuisance and Criminal Behavior, Jan Dirk de Jong*
19. Legitimated Oppression: Inner-City Mexican American Experiences with Police Gang Enforcement, Robert J. Durán*
SECTION V: GENDER
20. Girlfriends, Gunholders, and Ghetto Rats? Moving Beyond Narrow Views of Girls in Gangs, Dana Peterson*
21. Gender and Victimization Risk among Young Women in Gangs, Jody Miller
22. The Path and Promise of Fatherhood for Gang Members, Molly Moloney, Kathleen MacKenzie, Geoffrey Hunt, and Karen Joe-Laidler*
23. Girl Members of Deviant Youth Groups, Offending Behaviour, and Victimisation: Results from the ISRD2 in Italy and Switzerland, Sandrine Haymoz and Uberto Gatti*
SECTION VI: COMMUNITY CONTEXTS
24. Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood, Mary E. Patillo*
25. Gangs, Neighborhoods, and Public Policy, John M. Hagedorn
26. Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations, Charles M. Katz and Stephen M. Schnebly*
27. Who Needs Enemies with Friends Like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas, Robert Ralphs, Juanjo Medina, and Judith Aldridge*
SECTION VII: CRIME AND VICTIMIZATION
28. Gang Homicides in Five U.S. Cities, Dawn McDaniel, Arlen Egley, Jr., and J. Logan*
29. Homicidal Events among Mexican American Street Gangs: A Situational Analysis, Alverado Valdez, Alice Cepeda, and Charles Kaplan*
30. Gang Membership and Offending Patterns, Marvin D. Krohn and Terrance P. Thornberry*
31. Deviant Youth Groups in 30 Countries: Results from the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study, Uberto Gatti, Sandrine Haymoz, and Hans M. A. Schadee*
32. The Boulevard Ain't Safe for Your Kids . . . : Youth Gang Membership and Violent Victimization, Terrance J. Taylor*
SECTION VIII: RESPONSES TO STREET GANGS, PROGRAMS, AND POLICIES
33. Is G.R.E.A.T Effective? Results from the National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program, Finn-Aage Esbensen, Dana Peterson, Terrance J. Taylor, and D. Wayne Osgood*
34. The Comprehensive, Community-Wide Gang Program Model: Success and Failure, Irving A. Spergel, Kwai Ming Wa, and Rolando Villarreal Sosa*
35. A Study of Police Gang Units in Six Cities, Vincent J. Webb and Charles M. Katz
36. Focused Deterrence Strategies and the Reduction Gang and Group-Involved Violence, Anthony A. Braga*
37. "It's Getting Crazy Out There": Can a Civil Gang Injunction Change a Community? Cheryl L. Maxson, Karen M. Hennigan, and David C. Sloane*