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Appropriate for Introductory Drafting, Technical Drawing, and Engineering Graphics courses. This completely rewritten adaptation of Giesecke utilizes an abundance of hands-on activities and clear step-by-step descriptions to teach students freehand sketching and visualization skills for engineering graphics. New edition features completely revised material on manufacturing, student CD with animations keyed to the text, and more worksheets on sketching.
Table of Contents
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Graphics Spotlight.) 1. Design and Graphic Communication.
“Design” Defined. “Engineering Design” Defined. Design Concepts—Sources for New Ideas. The Design Process. Stage 1—Identificaiton of the Problem and the Customer. Stage 2—Concepts and Ideas. Stage 3—Compromise Solutions. Stage 4—Models and Prototypes. Stage 5—Production or Working Drawings. Design of a New Product. Communicating Using Graphics. Early Technical Drawing. Early Descriptive Geometry. Modern Technical Drawing. Drafting Standards. Definitions. Benefits of Graphic Skills. Projections.
2. Introduction to CAD.
Computer Systems and Components. Computer Types. Computer-Aided Drafting. CAD System Configurations. Central Processing Unit. Display Devices. Input Devices. Output Devices. Data Storage Devices. CAD Software. Common Core. CAD Capability Checklist. Drawing with CAD Software. Using a CAD System. Selecting a CAD System. Summary.
3. Freehand Sketching and Lettering Techniques.
Technical Sketching. Sketching Materials. Types of Sketches. Scale. Technique of Lines. Styles of Lines. Sketching Circles, Arcs, and Ellipses. Maintaining Proportions. Freehand Lettering. Lettering Standards. Computer Lettering. Lettering Technique. Vertical Letters and Numerals. Inclined Letters and Numerals. Guidelines. Guidelines for Whole Numbers and Fractions. Spacing of Letters and Words. Titles.
4. Geometric Constructions and Modeling Basics.
Points and Lines. Angles. Triangles. Quadrilaterals. Polygons. Circles and Arcs. Constructions and CAD. Creating a Triangle Given Lengths of Sides. Creating a Right Triangle with Hypotenuse and One Side Given. Constructing a Perpendicular Bisector. Constructing Circles. Tangency. Constructing on Ellipse. Finding the Axes of an Ellipse with Conjugate Diameters Given. Creating a Tangent to an Ellipse. Creating an Approximate Ellipse. Drawing a Spiral of Archimedes. Drawing a Helix. Drawing an Involute. Drawing a Cycloid. Epicycloids and Hypocycloids. Solids. Solid Modeling. Boolean Operators.
5. Multiview Projection.
Views of Objects. The Six Standard Views. Principal Dimensions. Projection Method. The Glass Box. Spacing between Views. Transferring Depth Dimensions. Necessary Views. Orientation of the Front View. Alternate Positions of Views. Visualization. Surfaces, Edges, and Corners. Views of Surfaces. Normal Surfaces. Inclined Surfaces. Oblique Surfaces. Edges. Normal Edges. Inclined Edges. Oblique Edges. Angles. Vertices. Meaning of Points. Meaning of Lines. Similar Shapes of Surfaces. Interpreting Views. Models. Projecting a Third View. Showing Other Features. Hidden Lines. CenterLines. Curved Surfaces. Cylindrical Surfaces. Cylinders and Ellipses. Intersections and Tangencies. Fillets and Rounds. Runouts. Conventional Edges. Necessary Views. Partial Views. Removed Views. Alignment of Views. First- and Third-Angle Projection. Right-Hand and Left-Hand Parts. Revolution Conventions. Fitting Views on Paper. Drawing Mediums. Standard Sheets. Scale. Decimal Scales. Metric Scales. Inch-Foot Scales. Architects' Scales. Mechanical Engineers' Scales. Specifying the Scale on a Drawing.
6. Pictorial Sketching.
Methods of Projection. Axonometric Projection. Isometric Sketching. Normal and Inclined Surfaces in Isometric View. Oblique Surfaces in Isometric View. Other Positions of the Isometric Axes. Offset Measurements. Isometric Ellipses. Arcs in Isometric View. Isometric Ellipses Templates. Sketching on Isometric Paper. Hidden Lines. Centerlines. Nonisometric Lines. Angles in Isometric View. Irregular Objects. Curves in Isometric View. Screw Threads in Isometric. The Sphere in Isometric. Isometric Dimensioning. Exploded Assemblies. Using CAD. Oblique Pictorials Choosing the Angle for Receding Lines. Length of Receding Lines. Perspective Sketching. General Principles. The Three Types of Perspectives. One-Point Perspective. Two-Point Perspective. Three-Point Perspective. Shading. Computer Graphics.
7. Sectional Views.
Sectioning. Full Sections. The Cutting Plane. Cutting Plane Line Patterns. Interpreting Cutting Planes and Sections. Cross-Hatching. Visualizing a Section. Half Sections. Broken-Out Sections. Revolved Sections. Removed Sections. Offset Sections. Ribs in Sections. Aligned Sections. Partial Views. Intersections in Sectioning. Conventional Breaks. Isometric Sectioning. Oblique Sections. Computer Graphics.
8. Auxiliary Views, Developments, and Intersections.
Definitions. The Auxiliary Plane. Reference Planes. Classification of Auxiliary Views. Depth Auxiliary Views. Height Auxiliary Views. Width Auxiliary Views. Plotted Curves and Ellipses. Reverse Construction. Partial Auxiliary Views. Half Auxiliary Views. Hidden Lines in Auxiliary Views. Auxiliary Sections. Successive Auxiliary Views. Uses of Auxiliary Views. True Length of Line. Point View of a Line. Edge View of a Plane. True Size of an Oblique Surface. Dihedral Angles. Developments and Intersections. Terminology. Solids. Principles of Intersections. Developments. Hems and Joints for Sheet Metal and Other Materials. Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Prism and Developing the Prism. Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Cylinder and Developing the Cylinder. More Examples of Developments and Intersections. Transition Pieces. Triangulation. The Development of a Transition Piece Connecting Rectangular Pipes on the Same Axis. Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Sphere and Finding the Approximate Development of the Sphere. Computer Graphics.
9. Dimensioning and Manufacturing Operations.
International System of Units. Size Description. Scale of Drawing. Learning to Dimension. Tolerance. Lines Used in Dimensioning. Arrowheads. Leaders. Direction of Dimension Figures. Fractional, Decimal, and Metric Dimensions. Decimal Systems. Dimension Values. Millimeters and Inches. Placement of Dimensions and Extension Lines. Dimensioning Angles. Dimensioning Arcs. Fillets and Rounds. Geometric Breakdown. Size Dimensions: Prisms. Size Dimensions: Cylinders. Size Dimensioning of Holes. Location Dimensions. Symbols and Size Dimensions: Miscellaneous Shapes. Mating Dimensions. Machine, Pattern, and Forging Dimensions. Dimensioning of Curves. Dimensioning of Rounded-End Shapes. Superfluous Dimensions. Finish Marks. Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay. Notes. Dimensioning of Threads. Dimensioning of Tapers. Dimensioning of Chamfers. Shaft Centers. Dimensioning Keyways. Dimensioning Of Knurls. Dimensioning Along Curved Surfaces. Sheet-Metal Bends. Tabular Dimensions. Standards. Coordinate Dimensioning. Do's and Don'ts of Dimensioning. Do's and Don'ts of Practical Design.
10. Design, Processes, and Drawing.
“Manufacturing” Defined. The Design Process and Concurrent Engineering. Computer-Aided Design and Product Development. Computer-Aided Engineering Allows for Future Modification. Computer-Aided Engineering Links All Phases of Manufacturing. The Role of Prototypes and Rapid Prototyping in Product Development. Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service. Material Selection. Properties of Materials. Cost and Availability of Materials. Appearance, Service Life, and Recycling. Manufacturing Processes. Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish. Measuring Devices Used in Manufacturing. Operational and Manufacturing Costs. Consequences of Improper Selection of Materials and Processes. Net-Shape Manufacturing. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. Shared Manufacturing. Manufacturing Methods and the Drawing.
Tolerance Dimensioning. Size Designations. Fits between Mating Parts. Selective Assembly. Basic Hole System. Basic Shaft System. Specification of Tolerances. American National Standard Limits and Fits. Accumulation of Tolerances. Tolerances and Machining Processes. Metric System of Tolerances and Fits. Preferred Sizes. Preferred Fits. Geometric Tolerancing. Symbols for Tolerances of Position and Form. Positional Tolerances. Maximum Material Condition. Tolerances of Angles. Form Tolerances for Single Features. Form Tolerances for Related Features. Using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing. Computer Graphics.
12. Threads, Fasteners, and Springs.
Standardized Screw Threads. Screw Thread Terms. Screw Thread Forms. Thread Series. Thread Notes. American National Thread Fits. Metric and Unified Thread Fits. Thread Pitch. Right-Hand and Left-Hand Threads. Single and Multiple Threads. Thread Symbols. External Thread Symbols. Internal Thread Symbols. Detailed Representation: Metric, Unified, and American National Threads. Detailed Representation of Acme Thread. Use of Phantom Lines. Threads in Assembly. American, National Standard Pipe Threads. Bolts, Studs, and Screws. Tapped Holes. Standard Bolts and Nuts. Drawing Standard Bolts. Specifications for Bolts and Nuts. Lockouts and Locking Devices. Standard Cap Screws. Standard Machine Screws. Standard Set Screws. American National Standard Wood Screws. Miscellaneous Fasteners. Keys. Machine Pins. Rivets. Springs. Drawing Helical Springs. Computer Graphics.
Working Drawings. Detail Drawings. Number of Details per Sheet. Assembly Drawings. General Assemblies. Part Lists. Assembly Sectioning. Working Drawing Assembly. Installation Assemblies. Check Assemblies. Title and Record Strips. Drawing Numbers. Zoning. Checking. Revisions. Simplified Representation. Patent Drawings.