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Modern Operating Systems,9780130313584
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Modern Operating Systems

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130313584

ISBN10:
0130313580
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

The widely anticipated revision of this worldwide best seller incorporates the latest developments in operating systems technologies. Hundreds of pages of new material on a wealth of subjects have been added. This authoritative, example-based reference offers practical, hands-on information in constructing and understanding modern operating systems. Continued in this second edition are the "big picture" concepts, presented in the clear and entertaining style that only Andrew S. Tanenbaum can provide. Tanenbaum's long experience as the designer or co-designer of three operating systems brings a knowledge of the subject and wealth of practical detail that few other books can match. FEATURES \ bull; bull;NEW-New chapters on computer security, multimedia operating systems, and multiple processor systems. bull;NEW-Extensive coverage of Linux, UNIXreg;, and Windows 2000trade; as examples. bull;NEW-Now includes coverage of graphical user interfaces, multiprocessor operating systems, trusted systems, viruses, network terminals, CD-ROM file systems, power management on laptops, RAID, soft timers, stable storage, fair-share scheduling, three-level scheduling, and new paging algorithms. bull;NEW-Most chapters have a new section on current research on the chapter's topic. bull;NEW-Focus on single-processor computer systems; a new book for a follow-up course on distributed systems is also available from Prentice Hall. bull;NEW-Over 200 references to books and papers published since the first edition. bull;NEW-The Web site for this book contains PowerPoint slides, simulators, figures in various formats, and other teaching aids.

Table of Contents

Preface xvi
Introduction
1(70)
What is an Operating System?
3(3)
The Operating System as an Extended Machine
3(2)
The Operating System as a Resource Manager
5(1)
History of Operating Systems
6(12)
The First Generation (1945-55)
6(1)
The Second Generation (1955-65)
7(2)
The Third Generation (1965-1980)
9(4)
The Fourth Generation (1980-Present)
13(3)
Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
16(2)
The Operating System Zoo
18(2)
Mainframe Operating Systems
18(1)
Server Operating Systems
19(1)
Multiprocessor Operating Systems
19(1)
Personal Computer Operating Systems
19(1)
Real-Time Operating Systems
19(1)
Embedded Operating Systems
20(1)
Smart Card Operating Systems
20(1)
Computer Hardware Review
20(14)
Processors
21(2)
Memory
23(5)
I/O Devices
28(3)
Buses
31(3)
Operating System Concepts
34(10)
Processes
34(2)
Deadlocks
36(1)
Memory Management
37(1)
Input/Output
38(1)
Files
38(3)
Security
41(1)
The Shell
41(2)
Recycling of Concepts
43(1)
System Calls
44(12)
System Calls for Process Management
48(2)
System Calls for File Management
50(1)
System Calls for Directory Management
51(2)
Miscellaneous System Calls
53(1)
The Windows Win32 API
53(3)
Operating System Structure
56(7)
Monolithic Systems
56(1)
Layered Systems
57(2)
Virtual Machines
59(2)
Exokernels
61(1)
Client-Server Model
61(2)
Research on Operating Systems
63(2)
Outline of the Rest of This Book
65(1)
Metric Units
66(1)
Summary
67(4)
Processes and Threads
71(88)
Processes
71(10)
The Process Model
72(1)
Process Creation
73(2)
Process Termination
75(1)
Process Hierachies
76(1)
Process States
77(2)
Implementation of Processes
79(2)
Threads
81(19)
The Thread Model
81(4)
Thread Usage
85(5)
Implementing Threads in User Space
90(3)
Implementing Threads in the Kernel
93(1)
Hybrid Implementations
94(1)
Scheduler Activations
94(2)
Pop-Up Threads
96(1)
Making Single-Threaded Code Multithreaded
97(3)
Interprocess Communication
100(24)
Race Conditions
100(2)
Critical Regions
102(1)
Mutual Exclusion with Busy Waiting
103(5)
Sleep and Wakeup
108(2)
Semaphores
110(3)
Mutexes
113(2)
Monitors
115(4)
Message Passing
119(4)
Barriers
123(1)
Classical IPC Problems
124(8)
The Dining Philosophers Problem
125(3)
The Readers and Writers Problem
128(1)
The Sleeping Barber Problem
129(3)
Scheduling
132(19)
Introduction to Scheduling
132(6)
Scheduling in Batch Systems
138(4)
Scheduling in Interactive Systems
142(6)
Scheduling in Real-Time Systems
148(1)
Policy Versus Mechanism
149(1)
Thread Scheduling
150(1)
Research on Processes and Threads
151(1)
Summary
152(7)
Deadlocks
159(30)
Resources
160(3)
Preemptable and Nonpreemptable Resources
160(1)
Resource Acquisition
161(2)
Introduction to Deadlocks
163(4)
Conditions for Deadlock
164(1)
Deadlock Modeling
164(3)
The Ostrich Algorithm
167(1)
Deadlock Detection and Recovery
168(7)
Deadlock Detection with One Resource of Each Type
168(3)
Deadlock Detection with Multiple Resource of Each Type
171(2)
Recovery from Deadlock
173(2)
Deadlock Avoidance
175(5)
Resource Trajectories
175(1)
Safe and Unsafe States
176(2)
The Banker's Algorithm for a Single Resource
178(1)
The Banker's Algorithm for Multiple Resources
179(1)
Deadlock Prevention
180(3)
Attacking the Mutual Exclusion Condition
180(1)
Attacking the Hold and Wait Condition
181(1)
Attacking the No Preemption Condition
182(1)
Attacking the Circular Wait Condition
182(1)
Other Issues
183(2)
Two-Phase Locking
183(1)
Nonresource Deadlocks
184(1)
Starvation
184(1)
Research on Deadlocks
185(1)
Summary
185(4)
Memory Management
189(80)
Basic Memory Management
190(6)
Monoprogramming Without Swapping or Paging
190(1)
Multiprogramming with Fixed Partitions
191(1)
Modeling Multiprogramming
192(2)
Analysis of Multiprogramming System Performance
194(1)
Relocation and Protection
194(2)
Swapping
196(6)
Memory Management with Bitmaps
199(1)
Memory Management with Linked Lists
200(2)
Virtual Memory
202(12)
Paging
202(3)
Page Tables
205(6)
TLBs---Translation Lookaside Buffers
211(2)
Inverted Page Tables
213(1)
Page Replacement Algorithms
214(14)
The Optimal Page Replacement Algorithm
215(1)
The Not Recently Used Page Replacement Algorithm
216(1)
The First-In, First-Out
217(1)
The Second Chance Page Replacement Algorithm
217(1)
The Clock Page Replacement Algorithm
218(1)
The Least Recently Used
218(2)
Simulating LRU in Software
220(2)
The Working Set Page Replacement Algorithm
222(3)
The WSClock Page Replacement Algorithm
225(2)
Summary of Page Replacement Algorithms
227(1)
Modeling Page Replacement Algorithms
228(6)
Belady's Anomaly
229(1)
Stack Algorithms
229(3)
The Distance String
232(1)
Predicting Page Fault Rates
233(1)
Design Issues for Paging Systems
234(8)
Local Versus Global Allocation Policies
234(2)
Load Control
236(1)
Page Size
237(2)
Separate Instruction and Data Spaces
239(1)
Shared Pages
239(2)
Cleaning Policy
241(1)
Virtual Memory Interface
241(1)
Implementation Issues
242(7)
Operating System Involvement with Paging
242(1)
Page Fault Handling
243(1)
Instruction Backup
244(2)
Locking Pages in Memory
246(1)
Backing Store
246(1)
Separation of Policy and Mechanism
247(2)
Segmentation
249(13)
Implementation of Pure Segmentation
253(1)
Segmentation with Paging: MULTICS
254(3)
Segmentation with Paging: The Intel Pentium
257(5)
Research on Memory Management
262(1)
Summary
262(7)
Input/Output
269(110)
Principles of I/O Hardware
269(13)
I/O Devices
270(1)
Device Controllers
271(1)
Memory-Mapped I/O
272(4)
Direct Memory Access
276(3)
Interrupts Revisited
279(3)
Principles of I/O Software
282(5)
Goals of the I/O Software
283(1)
Programmed I/O
284(2)
Interrupt-Driven I/O
286(1)
I/O Using DMA
287(1)
I/O Software Layers
287(13)
Interrupt Handlers
287(2)
Device Drivers
289(3)
Device-Independent I/O Software
292(6)
User-Space I/O Software
298(2)
Disks
300(27)
Disk Formatting
315(3)
Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms
318(4)
Error Handling
322(2)
Stable Storage
324(3)
Clocks
327(6)
Clock Hardware
328(1)
Clock Software
329(3)
Soft Timers
332(1)
Character-Oriented Terminals
333(9)
RS-232 Terminal Hardware
334(2)
Input Software
336(5)
Output Software
341(1)
Graphical User Interfaces
342(13)
Personal Computer Keyboard, Mouse, and Display Hardware
343(4)
Input Software
347(1)
Output Software for Windows
347(8)
Network Terminals
355(8)
The X Window System
356(4)
The SLIM Network Terminal
360(3)
Power Management
363(8)
Hardware Issues
364(1)
Operating System Issues
365(5)
Degraded Operation
370(1)
Research on Input/Output
371(1)
Summary
372(7)
File Systems
379(74)
Files
380(13)
File Naming
380(2)
File Structure
382(1)
File Types
383(2)
File Access
385(1)
File Attributes
386(1)
File Operations
387(2)
An Example Program Using File System Calls
389(2)
Memory-Mapped Files
391(2)
Directories
393(6)
Single- Level Directory Systems
393(1)
Two-level Directory Systems
394(1)
Hierarchical Directory Systems
395(1)
Path Names
395(3)
Directory Operations
398(1)
File System Implementation
399(31)
File System Layout
399(1)
Implementing Files
400(5)
Implementing Directories
405(3)
Shared Files
408(2)
Disks Space Management
410(6)
File System Reliability
416(8)
File System Performance
424(4)
Log-Structured File Systems
428(2)
Example File Systems
430(18)
CD-ROM File Systems
430(5)
The CP/M File System
435(3)
The MS-DOS File System
438(4)
The Windows 98 File System
442(3)
The UNIX V7 File System
445(3)
Research on File Systems
448(1)
Summary
448(5)
Multimedia Operating Systems
453(50)
Introduction to Multimedia
454(4)
Multimedia Files
458(5)
Audio Encoding
459(2)
Video Encoding
461(2)
Video Compression
463(6)
The JPEG Standard
464(3)
The MPEG Standard
467(2)
Multimedia Process Scheduling
469(6)
Scheduling Homogeneous Processes
469(1)
General Real-Time Scheduling
470(2)
Rate Monotonic Scheduling
472(1)
Earliest Deadline First Scheduling
473(2)
Multimedia File System Paradigms
475(6)
VCR Control Functions
476(2)
Near Video on Demand
478(1)
Near Video on Demand with VCR Functions
479(2)
File Placement
481(11)
Placing a File on a Single Disk
481(1)
Two Alternative File Organization Strategies
482(4)
Placing Files for Near Video on Demand
486(1)
Placing Multiple Files on a Single Disk
487(3)
Placing Files on Multiple Disks
490(2)
Caching
492(2)
Block Caching
492(2)
File Caching
494(1)
Disk Scheduling For Multimedia
494(4)
Static Disk Scheduling
495(1)
Dynamic Disk Scheduling
496(2)
Research on Multimedia
498(1)
Summary
499(4)
Multiple Processor Systems
503(80)
Multiprocessors
506(20)
Multiprocessor Hardware
506(7)
Multiprocessor Operating System Types
513(3)
Multiprocessor Synchronization
516(5)
Multiprocessor Scheduling
521(5)
Multicomputers
526(23)
Multicomputer Hardware
527(4)
Low-Level Communication Software
531(3)
User-Level Communication Software
534(3)
Remote Procedure Call
537(3)
Distributed Shared Memory
540(4)
Multicomputer Scheduling
544(1)
Load Balancing
545(4)
Distributed Systems
549(28)
Network Hardware
551(2)
Network Service and Protocols
553(5)
Document-Based Middleware
558(1)
File System-Based Middleware
559(6)
Shared Object-Based Middleware
565(7)
Coordination-Based Middleware
572(5)
Research on Multiple Processor Systems
577(1)
Summary
577(6)
Security
583(1)
The Security Environment
584(1)
Threats
584(1)
Intruders
585(1)
Accidental Data Loss
586(1)
Basics of Cryptography
587(1)
Secret-Key Cryptography
588(1)
Public-Key Cryptography
588(1)
One-Way Functions
589(1)
Digital Signatures
590(1)
User Authentication
591(1)
Authentication Using Passwords
592(1)
Authentication Using a Physical Object
601(2)
Authentication Using Biometric
603(3)
Countermeasures
606(1)
Attacks From Inside the System
606(1)
Trojan Horses
607(1)
Login Spoofing
608(1)
Logic Bombs
609(1)
Trap Doors
610(1)
Buffer Overflow
610(3)
Generic Security Attacks
613(1)
Famous Security Flaws
614(2)
Design Principles for Security
616(1)
Attacks From Outside the System
617(1)
Virus Damage Scenarios
618(1)
How Viruses Work
619(7)
How Viruses Spread
626(2)
Antivirus and Anti-Antivirus Techniques
628(7)
The Internet Worm
635(2)
Mobile Code
637(5)
Java Security
642(3)
Protection Mechanisms
645(1)
Protection Domains
645(2)
Access Control Lists
647(3)
Capabilities
650(3)
Trusted Systems
653(1)
Trusted Computing Base
654(1)
Formal Models of Secure Systems
655(2)
Multilevel Security
657(2)
Orange Book Security
659(2)
Covert Channels
661(4)
Research on Security
665(1)
Summary
666

Excerpts

PREFACE The world has changed a great deal since the first edition of this book appeared in 1992. Computer networks and distributed systems of all kinds have become very common. Small children now roam the Internet, where previously only computer professionals went. As a consequence, this book has changed a great deal, too. The most obvious change is that the first edition was about half on single-processor operating systems and half on distributed systems. I chose that format in 1991 because few universities then had courses on distributed systems and whatever students learned about distributed systems had to be put into the operating systems course, for which this book was intended. Now most universities have a separate course on distributed systems, so it is not necessary to try to combine the two subjects into one course and one book. This book is intended for a first course on operating systems, and as such focuses mostly on traditional single-processor systems. I have coauthored two other books on operating systems. This leads to two possible course sequences. Practically-oriented sequence: Operating Systems Design and Implementation by Tanenbaum and Woodhull Distributed Systems by Tanenbaum and Van Steen Traditional sequence: Modern Operating Systems by Tanenbaum Distributed Systems by Tanenbaum and Van Steen The former sequence uses MINIX and the students are expected to experiment with MINIX in an accompanying laboratory supplementing the first course. The latter sequence does not use MINIX. Instead, some small simulators are available that can be used for student exercises during a first course using this book. These simulators can be found starting on the author's Web page:www.cs.vu.nl/~ast/by clicking on Software and supplementary material for my books. In addition to the major change of switching the emphasis to single-processor operating systems in this book, other major changes include the addition of entire chapters on computer security, multimedia operating systems, and Windows 2000, all important and timely topics. In addition, a new and unique chapter on operating system design has been added. Another new feature is that many chapters now have a section on research about the topic of the chapter. This is intended to introduce the reader to modern work in processes, memory management, and so on. These sections have numerous references to the current research literature for the interested reader. In addition, Chapter 13 has many introductory and tutorial references. Finally, numerous topics have been added to this book or heavily revised. These topics include: graphical user interfaces, multiprocessor operating systems, power management for laptops, trusted systems, viruses, network terminals, CDROM file systems, mutexes, RAID, soft timers, stable storage, fair-share scheduling, and new paging algorithms. Many new problems have been added and old ones updated. The total number of problems now exceeds 450. A solutions manual is available to professors using this book in a course. They can obtain a copy from their local Prentice Hall representative. In addition, over 250 new references to the current literature have been added to bring the book up to date. Despite the removal of more than 400 pages of old material, the book has increased in size due to the large amount of new material added. While the book is still suitable for a one-semester or two-quarter course, it is probably too long for a one-quarter or one-trimester course at most universities. For this reason, the book has been designed in a modular way. Any course on operating systems should cover chapters 1 through 6. This is basic material that every student show know. If additional time is available, additional chapters can be covered. Each of them assumes the reader has finished chapters 1 through 6, but Chaps.


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